The Rebellion of 1416: Recontextualizing an Ottoman Social Movement

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
View More View Less

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95

Abstract

This paper reconsiders the Rebellion of 1416, formerly known as Sheikh Bedreddin’s Rebellion. The rebellion, probably the largest in Ottoman history, began in 1416 and took place on two fronts—the western coast of Anatolia and the Zagora region of Bulgaria. This paper departs from the common approaches to the rebellion, which have focused on the persona of Sheikh Bedreddin and the impact of his heterodox formulation of Islam. It reexamines the rebellion in relation to the material conditions of the period, in the search for a clearer picture, albeit perhaps not a definitive one.

  • Aka İsmail Timur’un Ankara Savaşı (1402) Fetihnamesi (2 fotoğraf ile birlikte) Belgeler 1986 11 15 1 23 The Account of Timur’s Victory at the Battle of Ankara

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aşıkpaşazade Osmanoğulları’nın Tarihi: Hazırlayanlar Kemal Yavuz, Yekta Saraç The History of the House of Osman, edited and published by Kemal Yavuz, Yekta Saraç 2003 Istanbul K Kitaplığı

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bekkerus Immanuel Michaelis Ducae Nepotis: Historia Byzantina 1834 Bonn Impensis ed. Weberi

  • Beldiceanu-Steinherr Irene Recherches sur les actes de règnes des sultans Osman, Orkhan et Murad I 1967 Monaco Societas academica româna

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doukas Magoulias Harry J. Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks: An Annotated Translation of Historia Turco-Byzantina of Doukas 1975 Detroit Wayne State University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giese Friedrich Die Altosmanischen Anonymen Chroniken, part 1: Text und Variantenverzeichnis 1922 Breslau

  • Gökbilgin Tayyip XV.-XVI. Asırlarda Edirne ve Paşa Livası: Vakıflar, Mülkler, Mukataalar The Provinces of Edirne and Pasha in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 1952 Istanbul Üçler Basımevi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guillou André Les archives de Saint-Jean-Prodrome sur le Mont Ménécée. 1955 Paris Presses universitaires de France

  • Güzel Abdurrahman Abdal Musa Velayetnamesi The Hagiography of Abdal Musa 1999 Ankara Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi

  • Halil bin İsmail bin Şeyh Bedrüddin Mahmud Simavna Kadısıoğlu Şeyh Bedreddin Manakıbı, Yayınlayanlar: Abdülbaki Gölpinarli ve İsmet Sungurbey The Hagiography of Sheikh Bedreddin, the Son of the Kadı of Simavna, published by Abdülbaki Gölpinarli ve İsmet Sungurbey 1967 Istanbul Eti Yayınları

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iorga Nicolae Revue de l’Orient latin 1896 4 25-118 226 320 503 622 Notes et extraits pour servir à l’histoire des croisades au XVe siècle

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Le Strange Guy Clavijo: Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403-1406 1928 New York Harper & Brothers

  • Neşri Kitab-ı Cihan-nüma: Neşri Tarihi, Yayınlayanlar: Faik Reşit Unat ve Mehmed A. Köymen Kitab-ı Cihan-nüma: Neşri’s History of the Ottoman Empire, published by Faik Reşit Unat and Mehmed A. Köymen 1949-57 Ankara Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Öztürk Kemal XV. Yüzyıl Tarihçilerinden Kemal: Selâtin-nâme, 1299-1490 The Book of Sultans, 1299-1490 by Kemal, a Historian of the 15th Century 2001 Ankara Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sathas C. N. Documents inédits relatifs à l’histoire de la Grèce au Moyen Âge 1880-2 vols. 1-3 Athens

  • Sılay Kemal Ahmedi’s History of the Ottoman Dynasty Journal of Turkish Studies 1992 16 129 200

  • Text and Concordances of Biblioteca Nacional Manuscript 9218: Historia del gran Tamerlán by Ruy González de Clavijo 1986 Madison Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thiriet Freddy Regestes des deliberations du Sénat de Venise concernant la Romaine, vol. 2: 1400-1430 1959 Paris Mouton

  • Thiriet Freddy Délibérations des Assemblées vénitiennes concernant la Romaine, vol. 2, 1364-1463 1971 Paris Mouton

  • Thiriet Freddy Duca di Candia: Ducali e Lettere Ricevute (1358-1360; 1401-14015). 1978 Venezia Il Comitato Editore, Fonti per la Storia di Venezia, Sez. I-Archivi Pubblici

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timuroğlu Vecihi Vâridat 1977 Ankara Türkiye Yazıları

  • Toniolo Paola Piana Notai Genovesi in Oltremare: Atti Rogati a Chio da Gregorio Panissaro (1403-1405) 1995 Genova Accademia Ligure di Scienze e Lettere

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aka İsmail & Demir Mustafa Simavna Kadısıoğlu Şeyh Bedreddin, Hayatı, Felsefesi, Isyanı Sheikh Bedreddin, the Son of the Kadi of Simavna: His Life, His Philosophy, His Revolt 2001 Istanbul Temel Yayinlari

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akdağ Mustafa Türkiye’nin İktisadī ve İçtimaī Tarihi, vol. 1: (1243-1453) An Economic and Social History of Turkey, vol. 1: 1243-1453 1974 Istanbul Cem Yayınevi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexandrescu-Dersca M. M. La campagne de Timur en Anatolie (1402) 1942/1977 London Variorum Reprints

  • Avramea Anna Laiou Angeliki E. Land and Sea Communication, Fourth-Fifteenth Centuries The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century 2002 vol. 1 Washington, DC Dumbarton Oaks 57 91

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balivet Michel Islam mystique et révolution armée dans les Balkans ottomans: vie du cheikh Bedreddin, le “Hallâj des Turcs,” 1358/59-1416 1995 Istanbul Isis

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balta Evangelia Les vakifs de Serrès et de sa région (XVe et XVIe s.) 1995 Athens Centre de recherches néo-helléniques

  • Barker John W. Late Byzantine Thessalonike: A Second City’s Challenges and Responses Dumbarton Oaks Papers 2003 57 5 33 Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baum Richard Howard The Medieval Outlaw: A Study in Protest 1972 University of Utah PhD diss.

  • Cerrahoğlu A. Şeyh Bedreddin Meselesi The Sheikh Bedreddin Issue 1966 Istanbul Çığ Yayınları

  • Cohn Norman The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages 1970 New York Oxford University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Constantelos Demetrios J. Poverty, Society and Philanthropy in Late Medieval Greek World 1992 New Rochelle Aristide D. Caratzas

  • Constantin Gh. J. Sur la date de passage par la valachie du Cheikh Bedr ed-Din Der Islam 1977 54 118 125

  • Danişmend İsmail Hami Danişmend İzahlı Osmanlı Tarihi Kronolojisi, vol. 1: 1258/656-1512/918 A Detailed Chronology of Ottoman History 1971 Istanbul Türkiye Yayınevi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dennis George T. The Byzantine-Turkish Treaty of 1403 Orientalia Christiana Periodica 1967 33 72 88

  • Er Hamit Simavne Kadısıoğlu Şeyh Bedreddin Sheikh Bedreddin, the Son of the Kadı of Simavna 1994 Istanbul Kitabevi

  • Eyüboğlu İsmet Zeki Şeyh Bedreddin ve Varîdat Sheikh Bedreddin and Vâridât 1980 Istanbul Kültür Matbaası

  • Fine John V.A. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest 1987/1990 Ann Arbor The University of Michigan Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Georgescu Vlad The Romanians: A History 1984/1991 Columbus Ohio State University Press

  • Gökbilgin Tayyip Rumelide Yürükler, Tatarlar, ve Evlâd-i Fâtihân Nomads, Tatars, and the Descendants of the Conquerors in Europe 1957 Istanbul İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gölpınarlı Abdülbâki Simavna Kadısıoğlu Şeyh Bedreddin Sheikh Bedreddin, the Son of the Kadı of Simavna 1966 Istanbul Eti Yayınevi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guha Ranajit Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India 1999 Durham Duke University Press

  • Hilton Rodney Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Rising of 1381 1973/2003 London Routledge

  • Hobsbawm E.J. Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries 1965 New York W. W. Norton

  • Imber Colin Paul Wittek’s “De la défaite d’Ankara à la prise de Constantinople” The Journal of Ottoman Studies 1986 5 65 81

  • İnalcık Halil Ottoman Methods of Conquest Studia Islamica 1954 2 103 129

  • İnalcık Halil Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300-1600 1973 New York Praeger Publishers

  • Jacoby David Foreigners and the Urban Economy in Thessalonike, ca. 1150-ca.1450 Dumbarton Oaks Papers 2003 57 85 132 Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karamustafa Ahmet T. God’s Unruly Friends: Dervish Groups in the Islamic Later Middle Period, 1200-1550 1994 Salt Lake City University of Utah Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kastritsis Dimitris J. The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representations in the Ottoman Civil War of 1402-1413 2007 Boston Brill

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaygusuz Bezmi Nusret Şeyh Bedreddin Simavenî 1957 Izmir İhsan Gümüşkaya Matbaası

  • Köker Ahmet Hulusi Şeyh Bedreddin (1358?-1420) 1996 Kayseri Erciyes Üniversitesi Matbaası

  • Köprülüzade Ahmed Cemal Dergah Mecmuası 1921 11 183 article 10

  • Kurdakul Necdet Bütün Yönleriyle Bedreddin Bedreddin in all His Aspects 1977 Istanbul Döler Reklam Yayınları

  • Laiou Angeliki E. Peasant Society in the Late Byzantine Empire: A Social and Demographic Study 1977 Princeton Princeton University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laiou Angeliki E. Laiou Angeliki E. The Agrarian Economy, Thirteenth-Fifteenth Centuries The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century 2002 vol. 1 Washington, DC Dumbarton Oaks 311 377

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laiou Angeliki E. & Morrisson Cécile The Byzantine Economy 2007 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • Lefort Jacques Kravari Vassiliki et al. Population et peuplement en Macédoine orientale, IXe-XVe siècle Hommes et richesses dans l’Empire byzantin, vol. 2: VIIe-XVe siècle 1991 Paris Éditions P. Lethielleux 63 83

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maniatis George C. The Domain of Private Guilds in the Byzantine Economy, Tenth to Fifteenth Centuries Dumbarton Oaks Papers 2001 55 339 369

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maniatis George C. Pricing of the Factors of Production in the Byzantine Economy Byzantion 2003 73 1 60 95

  • Maxim Mihai Giurescu Dinu C. & Fischer-Galati Stephen Romanian Principalities and the Ottoman Empire Romania: A Historical Perspective 1998 Boulder East European Monographs 105 133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrisson Cécile & Cheynet Jean-Claude Laiou Angeliki E. Prices and Wages in the Byzantine World The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century 2002 vol. 2 Washington, DC Dumbarton Oaks 815 878

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mundy John Hine The Repression of Catharism at Toulouse: The Royal Diploma of 1279 1985 Toronto Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Necipoğlu Nevra The Aristocracy in Late Byzantine Thessalonike: A Case Study of the City’s Archontes (Late 14th and Early 15th Centuries) Dumbarton Oaks Papers 2003 57 133 151 Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ocak Ahmet Yaşar Osmanlı Toplumunda Marjinal Sufilik: Kalenderiler, XIV-XVII. Yüzyıllar Marginal Sufism in Ottoman Society: Kalenderis, 14th-17th Centuries 1992 Ankara Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ocak Ahmet Yaşar Osmanlı Toplumunda Zındıklar ve Mülhidler (15.-17. Yuzyillar) Heretics and Atheists in Ottoman Society, 15th-17th Centuries 1998 Istanbul Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oikonomidès N. Ottoman Influence on Late Byzantine Fiscal Practice Südost Forschungen 1989 45 1 24

  • Ostrogorskij Georges La prise de Serrès par les Turcs Byzantion 1965 35 302 319

  • Otetea Andrei A Concise History of Romania 1985 London Robert Hale

  • Roman L. Les Transylvanians en Valachie Revue roumaine d’histoire 1972 11 5 774 782

  • Sedlar Jean W. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500 1994 Seattle University of Washington Press

  • Severcan Şefaatin Hulusi Ahmet Şeyh Bedreddin Olayının Tarihi Zemini Şeyh Bedreddin (1358?-1420) 1996 Kayseri Erciyes Üniversitesi Matbaası 13 18 The Historical Background of the Incident of Sheikh Bedreddin

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stefanescu Stefan Aspects de la vie rurale dans les principautes roumaines au Moyen-Age: Le paysage rural Revue romaine d’histoire 1989 28 1/2 3 15

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Treptow Kurt W. A History of Romania 1996 Iasi Center for Romanian Studies

  • Vacalopoulos A. E. History of Macedonia, 1354-1833 1973 Thessalonica Institute for Balkan Studies

  • Werner Ernst Häresie, Klassenkampf und religiöse Toleranz in einer islamisch-christlichen Kontakzone: Bedr ed-din un Börklüce Mustafa Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 1964 12 255 276

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Werner Ernst Ketzer und Weltverbesserer, Zwei Beitraege zur Geschichte Südosteuropas im 13. un 14. Jahrhundert 1974 Berlin Akademie Verlag

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wittek Paul De la défaite d’Ankara à la prise de Constantinople Revue des études islamiques 1938 12 1 34

  • Yaltkaya Mehmed Şerefeddin Simavna Kadısıoğlu Şeyh Bedreddin Sheikh Bedreddin, the Son of the Kadı of Simavna 1924 Istanbul Evkaf-ı Islâmiyet Matbaası

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zachariadou Elizabeth Early Ottoman Documents of the Prodromos Monastery (Serres) Südost-Forschungeün 1969 27 1 12

  • Zachariadou Elizabeth “Süleyman Çelebi in Rumili and the Ottoman Chronicles” Der Islam 1983 60 2 268 296

  • 10)

    Angeliki E. Laiou-Thomadakis, Peasant Society in the Late Byzantine Empire: A Social and Demographic Study (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977): 24, 145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11)

    George C. Maniatis, “Pricing of the Factors of Production in the Byzantine Economy.” Byzantion 73/1 (2003): 67, 68.

  • 14)

    Nevra Necipoğlu, “The Aristocracy in Late Byzantine Thessalonike: A Case Study of the City’s Archontes (Late14th and Early 15th Centuries).” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 57, Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike (2003): 136-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15)

    George C. Maniatis, “The Domain of Private Guilds in the Byzantine Economy, Tenth to Fifteenth Centuries.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 55 (2001): 348, 352-5, 358, 364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16)

    Demetrios J. Constantelos, Poverty, Society and Philanthropy in Late Medieval Greek World (New Rochelle: Aristide D. Caratzas, 1992): 55, 56.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18)

    John W. Barker, “Late Byzantine Thessalonike: A Second City’s Challenges and Responses.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 57, Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike (2003): 17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26)

    Bosnia (1384), Albania (1385), Bulgaria (1386), Bosnia (1388), Bulgaria (1389), first Battle of Kosovo (1389), Bulgaria and Bosnia (1390), first siege of Constantinople (1391), first occupation of Thessaloniki (1391), Bosnia and Hungary (1391), Wallachia (1391-2), Albania (1392), Bulgaria (1393), campaign in the regions of Larissa and Thessaloniki (1394), Albania (1394), second siege of Constantinople (1395), Battle of Nicopolis (1396), Albania (1396), third siege of Constantinople (1396-7), Greece-Morea (1397). For the chronology of these military campaigns, see İsmail Hami Danişmend, İzahlı Osmanlı Tarihi Kronolojisi, vol. 1: 1258/656-1512/918 [A Detailed Chronology of Ottoman History, Volume 1: 1258/656-1512/918] (Istanbul: Türkiye Yayınevi, 1971): 68-125. Before Bayezid I, Ottoman political domination relied on vassalage rather than on direct subjugation. With Bayezid I, there was a swift change toward the latter, resulting in an increase in Ottoman military campaigns, both in the Balkans and in Anatolia; see Halil İnalcık, “Ottoman Methods of Conquest.” Studia Islamica 2 (1954): 104-6.

  • 27)

    On May 8, 1402, the Venetian senate ordered the captain of the Gulf to inquire whether Timur was already in Ottoman territories, and if so, to assemble six galleys and take control of the island of Tenedos across from Gallipoli. It is unlikely that the news of Timur’s approach had not reached Serres sometime in early May. See Freddy Thiriet, ed., Regestes des deliberations du Sénat de Venise concernant la Romaine, vol. 2, 1400-1430 (Paris: Mouton, 1959): 27, no. 1056; for the summoning of Albanian vassals see p. 13, no. 994.

  • 32)

    Dimitris J. Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representations in the Ottoman Civil War of 1402-1413 (Boston: Brill, 2007): 41.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34)

    Elizabeth Zachariadou, “Süleyman Çelebi in Rumili and the Ottoman Chronicles.” Der Islam, 60/2 (1983): 283-7. Zachariadou identifies İsa as the elder brother. For a different interpretation, which is adopted in this study, see Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: 42, note 4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39)

    George T. Dennis, “The Byzantine-Turkish Treaty of 1403.” Orientalia Christiana Periodica 33 (1967): 78.

  • 53)

    Kemal Sılay, “Ahmedi’s History of the Ottoman Dynasty.” Journal of Turkish Studies 16 (1992): 144. İskendername was a popular genre, in which the author incorporated the history of the ruling dynasty, under whose patronage he was writing, into the epic of Alexander the Great; equating the qualities of the current ruler with those of Alexander, he praised his patron as the rightful owner of the throne. Sılay’s publication is a critical edition and translation of the relevant sections of Ahmedi’s text on the history of the Ottoman dynasty.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63)

    Andrei Otetea, A Concise History of Romania (London: Robert Hale, 1985): 174; Vlad Georgescu, The Romanians: A History (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1984/1991): 19-23, 29; Kurt W. Treptow, ed., A History of Romania (Iasi: The Center for Romanian Studies, 1996): 76, 77, 80, 81; Jean W. Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994): 88, 93; Stefan Stefanescu, “Aspects de la vie rurale dans les principautes roumaines au Moyen-Age: Le paysage rural.” Revue romaine d’histoire 28/1-2 (1989): 9. Among these authors, only Otetea argues for dependent peasantry over free peasantry, but he nevertheless maintains that, between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, most of the peasants had the right both to leave the land freely and to not be forced to do so.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64)

    L. Roman, “Les Transylvanians en Valachie.” Revue roumaine d’histoire 11/5 (1972): 774-82; Georgescu, The Romanians: 21, 22; Sedlar, East Central Europe: 93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70)

    N. Oikonomidès, “Ottoman Influence on Late Byzantine Fiscal Practice.” Südost Forschungen 45 (1989): 3, 4.

  • 114)

    Gh.J. Constantin, “Sur la date de passage par la valachie du Cheikh Bedr ed-Din.” Der Islam 54 (1977): 118-125.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 667 228 19
Full Text Views 312 14 0
PDF Views & Downloads 40 16 1