From Swords to Words: the Intersection of Geopolitics and Law, and the Subtle Expansion of International Law in the Consolidation of the Independence of the Latin American Republics

In: Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d'histoire du droit international

Abstract

Looking at successive chronological stages in the development from the de facto independence of former Spanish colonies towards their first timid recognition by the United Kingdom and their later full acceptance as states by the Spanish monarchy, this article examines several factors that indicate that pragmatism, motivated by political and economic reasons, was the defining element that persuaded different European powers to grant recognition to the nascent States in a historical era in which such recognition was essential for statehood. Those Latin American Republics likewise benefited from British recognition and the later definitive recognition of Spain and other European powers, bending the limits of the law then existing with dynamics based on the principle of effectiveness coupled with certain legitimacy considerations, which have been present throughout history, including the present.

  • Becker LorcaArnulf. Mestizo International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2014).

  • BelloAndrés. Principios de Derecho de Gentes Nueva edición revisada y corregida (Madrid and Lima: Librería de la señora viuda de Calleja e hijos1844).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BelloAndrés. Principios de derecho internacional (Buenos Aires: Biblioteca Virtual Universal2003).

  • BenthamJeremy. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (London: Lincoln’s-Inn Fields1823).

  • BilbaoManuel. Obras completas de Francisco Bilbao (Buenos Aires: Imprenta de Buenos Aires1866).

  • BolívarSimón. Carta de Jamaica (1815).

  • BorchardEdwin. ‘The Minimum Standard of Treatment of Aliens’. Michigan Law Review 38 (1940).

  • Bulmer-Thomas Victor. ‘British Trade with Latin America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth

  • BushnellDavid. Colombia: una nación a pesar de sí misma de los tiempos precolombinos a nuestros días (Bogotá: Planeta2004).

  • Cabinet de FranceDeclaration du Cabinet de France en réponse à celle du Cabinet Britannique du 24 Novembre, 1822, 26 November 1822’ F.O. 92/52 in Britain and the independence of Latin America 1812–1830 Select documents from the foreign office archivesvol. II (Oxford: C.K. Webster1938).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CalvoCarlos. Le droit international théorique et pratique précédé d’un exposé historique des progrès de la science du droit des gens (Paris: A. Rousseau1880) t. 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canning George. ‘Carta del ministro inglés de asuntos exteriores, George Canning, al secretario de estado, Francisco de Cea Bermúdez, sobre la situación de las provincias de América y el reconocimiento de su independencia’. 30 de abril 1825Archivo General de IndiasESTADO91N.48 available at: http://pares.mcu.es/BicentenarioIndependencias/catalog/show/6169786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanningGeorge. ‘George Canning to Sir Charles Stuart 14 March 1825’ F.O. 13/1 in Britain and the independence of Latin America 1812–1830 Select documents from the foreign office archivesvol. I (Oxford: C.K. Webster1938).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanningGeorge. ‘Secretary Canning to the Duke of Wellington, September 27, 1822’ in Despatches Correspondence and Memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur Duke of Wellington. K.G. ed. The Duke of Wellington. K.G. (London: John Murray 1867–1860).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CanningGeorge. ‘Appendix III Canning’s Notes on a dispatch from Monsieur de Chateaubriand to the Prince de Polignac, 26th January 1824, enclosed in F.O. France, 27/321’ in The Foreign Policy of Canning 1822–1827 ed. Harold Temperley (Oxfordshire: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd1966).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrillo-SantarelliNicolás. ‘“Sanciones” alternativas y justicia transicional con las FARC en Colombia: ¿eufemismo o modelo legítimo?’. Latin American Journal of International Law 4 (2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CentenoMiguel A. and Agustin E. Ferraro. ‘Republics of the Possible: State Building in Latin America and Spain’ in State and Nation Making in Latin America and Spain eds. Miguel A. Centeno and Agustin E. Ferraro (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2013).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centuries’. University of London Institute of Latin American Studies Occasional Papers 19 (1999).

  • ChasteenJohn Charles. Americanos: Latin America’s Struggle for Independence (Oxford: Oxford University Press2009).

  • ChiaramonteJosé Carlos. ‘Fundamentos iusnaturalistas de los movimientos de independencia’ in Las guerras de independencia en la América española eds. Marta Terán and José Antonio Serrano Ortega (Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán2002).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cortés MartínJosé Manuel. Las Organizaciones Internacionales: Codificación y Desarrollo Progresivo de su Responsabilidad Internacional (Sevilla: Instituto Andaluz de Administración Pública2008).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CrawfordJames R.States’ in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press2011).

  • Declaration du Cabinet Autrichien en réponse à celle du Cabinet Britannique en date du 24 Novembre, 1822, 26 November 1822’ F.O. 92/52 in Britain and the independence of Latin America 1812–1830 Select documents from the foreign office archivesvol. II (Oxford: C.K. Webster1938).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • del ArenalCelestino. ‘Mundialización, creciente interdependencia y globalización en las relaciones internacionales’. in Cursos de derecho internacional y relaciones internacionales de Vitoria-Gasteiz (2008).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DesiertoDiane. ‘The Revived Debate over Development and Human Rights: Economic Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and Non-Discrimination in State Policies’. 2018 available at: https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-revived-debate-over-development-and-human-rights-sequenced-or-selective-compliance/.

    • Export Citation
  • DreschnerSeymour and Paul Finkelman. ‘Slavery’ in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law eds. Bardo Fassbender and Anne Peters (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2012).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DumberryPatrick and Daniel Turp. ‘State Succession with Respect to Multilateral Treaties in the Context of Secession: From the Principle of Tabula Rasa to the Emergence of a Presumption of Continuity of Treaties’. Baltic Journal of International Law 13 (2013).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Earl of BathurstEarl of Bathurst to the Duke of Wellington, including an extract from a Memorandum composed by Castlereagh, 14 September 1822’ in Despatches Correspondence and Memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur Duke of Wellington. K.G. ed. The Duke of Wellington. K.G. vol. 1 (London: John Murray1847).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FletcherJohn. The Wars of Spanish American Independence: 1809–29 (Oxford: Osprey Publishing2013).

  • FoxMr. ‘Mr Fox to Viscount Palmerston, September 26, 1835’ in British and foreign state papers 1835–1836vol. XXIV (London: James Ridgway and sons1853).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FranckThomas M. Fairness in International Law and Institutions (Oxford: Oxford University Press1998).

  • GathiiJames Thuo. ‘International Law and Eurocentricity’. European Journal of International Law 9 (1998).

  • GobatMichel. ‘The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race’. The American Historical Review 118 (2013).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gomez AranaArantza. The European Union’s policy towards Mercosur: Responsive not strategic (Manchester: Manchester University Press2017).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoodmanRyan and Derek Jinks. Socializing States: Promoting Human Rights Through International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press2013).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Government of Spain Ministry of Education Culture and Sport. ‘Instrucciones secretas para embajadores europeos’ in ‘Bicentenario de las Independencias Americanas’ available at: http://pares.mcu.es/BicentenarioIndependencias/catalog/show/6169966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Government of Spain Ministry of Education Culture and Sport. ‘Reconocimiento por parte de España’ in ‘Bicentenario de las Independencias Americanas’ available at: http://pares.mcu.es/Bicentenarios/portal/reconocimientoEspana.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrugelJean. ‘Spain, the European Union and Latin America: Governance and Identity in the Making of ‘New’ Inter-Regionalism (WP)’. 2002 available at: http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_en/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_in/zonas_in/dt9-2002.

    • Export Citation
  • HafnerGerhard. ‘Austria and Slovenia: Succession to Bilateral Treaties and the State Treaty of 1955’ in Succession of States ed. Mojmir Mrak (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff1999).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HigginsRosalyn. Problems & Process: International Law and How We Use it (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2004).

  • I/A Court H.R. Case of the Massacres of El Mozote and nearby places v. El Salvador. Merits Reparations and Costs Judgment of 25 October 2012 Series C No. 252.

  • ICJAccordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo Advisory Opinion of 22 July 2010 ICJ Reports 2010 p. 403.

  • ICRC Commentary of 1987 on Penal Prosecutions available at: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/Comment.xsp?action=openDocument&documentId=C6692EB184B56F56C12563CD0043A476.

  • ICTYProsecutor v. Anto Furundzija Judgment of 10 December 1998.

  • International Criminal Court Office of the Prosecutor. ‘Escrito de Amicus Curiae de la Fiscal de la Corte Penal Internacional sobre la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz ante la Corte Constitucional de la República de Colombia’. 2007.

  • JacobiniH.B.Some Observations concerning Jeremy Bentham’s Concepts of International Law’. American Journal of International Law 42 (1948).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaksic A.Iván. Andrés Bello: La pasión por el orden (Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria2001).

  • José María Torres CaicedoLas dos américas’. El correo de ultramar (15 February 1857).

  • KingJames Ferguson. ‘The Latin-American Republics and the Suppression of the Slave Trade’. The Hispanic American Historical Review 24 (1944).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KlabbersJan. International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2013).

  • KlabbersJan. International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2nd edition2017).

  • KohHarold Hongju. ‘Why Do Nations Obey International Law?’. The Yale Law Journal 106 (1997).

  • KotzurMarkus. ‘Intertemporal Law’ in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press2008).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lagos CarmonaGuillermo. Los títulos históricos: Historia de las fronteras de Chile (Santiago de Chile: Editorial Andrés Bello1985).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MälksooLauri. Russian Approaches to International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press2017).

  • ManciniPasquale Stanislao. Della Nazionalità come fondamento del dritto delle genti: Prelezione al corso di dritto internazionale e marittimo pronunziata nella R. Università di Torino (Turin: Tipografia Eredi Botta1851).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDougalMyres S. and Harold D. Lasswell. ‘The Identification and Appraisal of Diverse Systems of Public Order’. American Journal of International Law 53 (1959).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MeronTheodor. The Humanization of International Law (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff2006).

  • MirandaFrancisco. Miranda en la Revolución Francesa: colección de documentos auténticos referentes a la historia del general Francisco de Miranda durante su permanencia en Francia de 1792 a 1798 (Caracas: Gobierno Nacional1889).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States 26 December 1933.

  • Mr MandevilleMr Mandeville to Viscount Palmerston, Buenos Aires, January 23, 1839’ in Accounts and papers. Slave trade Vol XLIX Class D 1839 Correspondence with foreign powers. Argentina (Oxford1839).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NariñoAntonio. Escritos varios del general Antonio Nariño (Bogotá: Librería Nueva1897).

  • NijmanJanneke. ‘Sovereignty and Personality: A Process of Inclusion’. State Sovereignty and International Governance eds. Gerard Kreijenet al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press2002).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noticias TM.com. ‘La verdadera independencia de México’. 2016.

  • OAS Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Report on Poverty and Human Rights OEA/Ser.L/V/II.164 Doc. 147 2017.

  • ObregónLiliana. ‘Carlos Calvo y la profesionalización del derecho internacional’. Latin American Journal of International Law 3 (2015).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ObregónLiliana. ‘The civilized and the uncivilized’ in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law eds. Bardo Fassbender and Anne Peters (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2012).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olarte BácaresDiana Carolina. ‘El Derecho Internacional de las Inversiones en América Latina: el Reencuentro con los Derechos Humanos’ in Realidades y Tendencias del Derecho en el Siglo XXI ed. JaramilloCarlos Ignacio (Bogota: Temis2010).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OrakhelashviliAlexander. ‘Statehood, Recognition and the United Nations System: A Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Kosovo’. Max Planck UNYB 12 (2008).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ÖzsuUmut. ‘B.S. Chimni’s “Relatively Autonomous” International Law’. 2017 available at: https://www.ejiltalk.org/b-s-chimnis-relatively-autonomous-international-law/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PCA Island of Palmas case 1928

  • Plumas libres. ‘España reconoce oficialmente la independencia de México mediante el tratado “Santa María – Calatrava”’. 2014 available at: http://plumaslibres.com.mx/2014/12/27/espana-reconoce-oficialmente-la-independencia-de-mexico-mediante-el-tratado-santa-maria-calatrava/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II) 8 June 1977.

  • RajagopalBalakrishnan. International Law from Below: Development Social Movements and Third World Resistance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2003).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Remiro BrotónsAntonioet al. Derecho Internacional (Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch2007).

  • RobertsAnthea. Is International Law International? (Oxford: Oxford University Press2017).

  • Rodríguez BraunCarlos. Panfletos liberales II (Madrid: LID Editorial2010).

  • Secretary of Foreign Affairs of New Granada. Esposición del Secretario de Relaciones Esteriores al Congreso de la Nueva Granada en sus Sesiones Ordinarias de 1856 (Bogotá: Imprenta del Neo-granadino1856).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SenBiswanath. A Diplomat’s Handbook of International Law and Practice (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 3rd Revised Edition1988).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShanyYuvalet al.ISIS: Is the Islamic State Really a State?2014 available at: https://en.idi.org.il/articles/5219.

  • SumnerBrian Taylor. ‘Territorial Disputes at the International Court of Justice’. Duke Law Journal 53 (2004).

  • SunsteinCass R.et al.On the Expressive Function of Law’. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144 (1996).

  • TakiHiroshi. ‘Effectiveness’ in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press2013).

  • TemperleyHarold. The Foreign Policy of Canning 1822–1827 (Oxfordshire: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd1966).

  • Terán EnríquezAdriana. ‘La propiedad de las Indias para la corona de Castilla: una controversia jurídica del siglo XVI con carácter universal’ in Estudios jurídicos en homenaje a Marta Morineau ed. Nuria González Martín (México: UNAM2006).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tratado de Paz y Reconocimiento entre la República de Venezuela y Su Majestad la Reina de España doña Isabel II 30 March 1845.

  • Tratado de Reconocimiento Paz y Amistad celebrado entre la Confederación Argentina y España 21 September 1863.

  • Tratado definitivo de paz y amistad entre la República Mexicana y S.N.C. la Reina Gobernadora de España 29 December 1836.

  • Treaty between Great Britain and Uruguay for the abolition of the traffic in slaves 13 July 1839.

  • Treaty Between the Honourable Government of Buenos Aires Responsible for External Relations of the Argentine Confederation and of Her Majesty the Queen of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the Full Abolition Of Slave Trafficking 24 May 1839.

  • Treaty of Friendship Commerce and Navigation between the United Provinces of the River Plate and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 2 February 1825.

  • United Nations International Law Commission Draft Articles on most-favoured-­nation clauses with commentaries 1978.

  • United Nations International Law Commission Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts with commentaries 2001.

  • United Nations International Law Commission Final Report of the Study Group on the Most-Favoured-Nation clause 2015.

  • Van AakenAnne. ‘Behavioral International Law and Economics’. Harvard International Law Journal 55 (2014).

  • Van HulleInge. ‘Britain’s recognition of the Spanish American republics: The gap between theory and practice in international law (1810–1900)’. The Legal History Review 82 (2014).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of Treaties 23 August 1978 UNTS.

  • WheatonHenry. Elements of International law (Boston: Little Brown and Co.1866).

  • WoodwardSir Llewellyn. The Age of Reform: 1815–1870 (Oxford: Oxford University Press1997).

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 13 13 13
Full Text Views 4 4 4
PDF Downloads 4 4 4