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Crickets (Gryllus Bimaculatus) using food waste usefulness of self-selection feed design method through each growth stage

In: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed
Authors:
D. Akiyama Department of Agriculture Engineering, Graduate School of Agro-Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya, Sakuragaoka, 1-1-1, 1568502, Tokyo, Japan

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T. Kaewplik Department of Agriculture Engineering, Graduate School of Agro-Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya, Sakuragaoka, 1-1-1, 1568502, Tokyo, Japan

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T. Fujisawa Department of Bioproduction and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Regional Environmental Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya, Sakuragaoka, 1-1-1, 1568502, Tokyo, Japan

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T. Kurosu Department of Bioproduction and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Regional Environmental Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya, Sakuragaoka, 1-1-1, 1568502, Tokyo, Japan

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Y. Sasaki Department of Bioproduction and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Regional Environmental Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya, Sakuragaoka, 1-1-1, 1568502, Tokyo, Japan

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Open Access

Abstract

In this study, a self-selected feed design was conducted for Japanese food wastes, considering the macronutrients (protein, lipid, carbohydrate) and six feed options and three options for vegetable wastes, and performance was compared with commercial diet to determine the usefulness of the feed design method and the possibility of using food waste in Japan were examined by comparing the performance of the feed design method with commercial diet. Data on self-selection diet design for crickets at different growth stages were obtained to determine the differences in feed consumption rates and nutrient requirements among stages. The results showed that it is possible to achieve cricket weight and feed conversion efficiencies (0.5-0.8) comparable to those of commercial diets using food residues when macro-nutrients are considered, and abundant options are provided. On the other hand, the use of only vegetable wastes resulted in lower cricket weight and higher feed conversion efficiency (0.8-1.4). Based on feed consumption rates, bread bran, rice bran, and fish meal were found to be suitable feeds among Japanese food waste for production in all growth stages, while bean curd and sake less were found to be suitable for production in some growth stages. Data obtained from self-selections separated by growth stage revealed that the percentage of feed consumption varied greatly among growth stages, being about 50-68% in the late growth stage. Percentages of macronutrients and micronutrients were also found to vary by growth stage. Protein percentages were found to be higher in the second week after hatching. Lipids were highest in the first week and decreased thereafter. Crude fiber was lowest in the fourth week. Ash content did not change significantly at all stages. This research is the first attempt at self-selection of crickets in different growth stages, and the data obtained can contribute to feed design.

1 Introduction

According to the United Nations (2022), the world’s population is estimated to increase to approximately 10 billion by 2060 (United Nations, 2023). Population growth causes various problems, and one of the most serious is food security. In light of these issues, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) re-evaluated the potential of insect diets and their use as feed, which have been a traditional culture in many regions, in “Edible Insects – Future Perspectives for Food and Feed Security” in 2013, and reported that insects are beneficial to the environment, health, and livelihood (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2023). Insects have been found to have high nutritional value, with superior protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, and energy (Ramos-Elorduy et al., 1997). In addition, insects use less land, water, feed, and other resources than conventional vertebrate livestock, and are known to emit fewer greenhouse gases during production (Dobermann et al., 2017). Research is also underway to use insects as feed for conventional livestock (Boontiam et al., 2022). While insect proteins are attracting attention from the standpoints of environmental load reduction, productivity, and technology, research and development for mass production has only recently begun, and there are many issues to be addressed, both in Japan and abroad, as the technology has not yet been established (Akiyama and Sasaki, 2022). In Japan, the Insect Business Research and Development Platform has established production guidelines to ensure the safety of the use of crickets as food and feed materials for the four species of crickets: Teleogryllus emma, the Teleogryllus occipitalis, the Gryllus bimaculatus, and the Acheta domestica (Konntyuubizinesukennkyuukaihatupurattoformmu, 2022). Omnivorous insects have the potential to utilize food waste as feed during production. The use of agricultural by-products or waste as feed can significantly reduce the environmental impact of insect production (Smetana et al., 2016). On the other hand, current feed for cricket production uses high-quality livestock feed such as feed for poultry and aquaculture (Dobermann et al., 2017). This is a problem because the items and amounts of food waste and agricultural by-products generated vary from country to country and region to region, making it difficult to utilize them. For example, in Cambodia, cassava leaves are an easily available by-product that can be used as cricket feed (Caparros Megido et al., 2016). Japan is not a major producer of cassava, making it difficult to use it in large quantities as feed (International Fund for Agricultural Development. and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2000). Research with the utilization of food by-products, etc., as feed for cricket production in mind has problems such as the lack of uniformity in measurement and evaluation items (Kuo and Fisher, 2022).

In addition, the fact that feed design methods for insects have not yet been established (Morales-Ramos et al., 2022) is another reason for the delay in the utilization of food waste. A method that has been proposed to enable feed design without taking many years is called self-selection, which is a feed design method that utilizes the instincts of organisms. Organisms generally have an instinct called “self-selection” that searches for and actively takes in nutrients that are lacking, and it was discovered by Richter et al. in 1938 (Richter and Barelare, 1938). Several feed designs utilizing this instinct have been reported for crickets and other insects, and the usefulness of feed designs using self-selection for Acheta domestica has been reported (Morales-Ramos et al., 2020). On the other hand, the usefulness of feed design using self-selection for Gryllus bimaculatus, which is subject to mass production, has not been examined. The feed design for Gryllus bimaculatus has been studied in which poultry feed is fed in the early growth stage and food waste are fed in the latter stage, but the growth was found to be inferior when compared with that of reared on poultry feed alone (Dobermann et al., 2019). Tenebrio molitor was found to have different feed consumption rates depending on growth when diets were designed using self-selection (Kröncke and Benning, 2022), but no studies have examined the use of self-selection in cricket feed design and feed consumption growth stages.

The objective of this study is to examine whether the feed design, using self-selection approach with food waste in Japan, can be utilized for the mass production of Gryllus bimaculatus, and to obtain data on cricket feed design by dividing it into difference growth stages and to confirm whether different feed consumption ratios and nutrient requirements are present in the feed design.

2 Materials and methods

Experimental design

Crickets that are mass-produced for food in the world are mainly three species: Gryllus bimaculatus, Acheta domestica, and the Teleogryllus occipitalis, however, this research only target on Gryllus bimaculatus. experiment was conducted for a total of 28 days from January 27 to February 24, 2023. The experimental environment and equipment used were prepared as shown in Figure 1, in accordance with actual mass production. The rearing container was 65 L (52 × 37 × 30.5 cm) in size and made of polypropylene. Seven alternating egg cartons cut in half were placed horizontally on top of each other as a habitat. The temperature was 28.9 ± 1.0 °C, Relative humidity percentage was 21.3 ± 7.2, and the light source was a white, fluorescent lamp maintained at 12 h:12 h (light on:light off). The rearing containers were placed randomly on three metal racks to reduce the effect of position. Regarding crickets usually be handled once a week in actual production sites, hence, data obtaining was planned to be executed by dividing the growth stages into four stages (Stage 1: 1-7 days, Stage 2: 8-14 days, Stage 3: 15-22 days, and Stage 4: 23-28 days). Eggs of Gryllus bimaculatus purchased from an external supplier were placed in an incubator maintained at 35 °C to hatch, and 1 g (approximately 1,000 eggs) were placed in each experimental area. To prevent drowning, only a cotton was wetted with water in Stage 1, and a commercially available waterer that automatically supplied water when the water level was low was used since Stage 2 (Um-Welt Co., 2023). The feed was purchased from an external supplier, crushed for 30 seconds using a grinder and sieved to a particle size of 10 mm or less to eliminate the influence of particle size to diets consuming of crickets. When conducting, the feed was placed individually in the dish that crickets can certainly climb up. The amount of each feed was initially 5 g, and then filled up when it is almost run out. In Figure 1, the feed was randomly arranged in a radial pattern to reduce the effect of position. Alive cricket’ weight was measured and recorded on the last day of each stage.

Figure 1
Figure 1

Experimental arrangement.

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Table 1 shows the feed information used in the experiment. A feed used in the controlled experiment was a carp aquaculture feed adopted by Japanese companies producing crickets for human consumption, allowing for comparison of feed design by self-selection with the feed used at the production site. The experimental treatment B and C was designed to compare the self-selection feed design with the feed used at the production site (controlled experiment). The feed selection, used in the experiment treatment B and C, was based on the choice of food waste in Japan, and was chosen based on bread bran, rice bran (japonica rice), and sake lees (Japanese sake), which are defined as food manufacturing by-products in the “Guidelines for Ensuring the Safety of Feed Using Food Waste and Other Resources” (Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center, 2020). issued by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The six B feeds used in the experimental area were selected from among those defined as food manufacturing by-products in the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries’ feed safety guidelines, considering differences in macronutrients. The C experimental treatment was evaluated for viability on a plant-based diet with different macronutrients to determine the impact of a plant-based diet only. Bread bran, Rice bran, and Bean curd were chosen because of their availability in Japan and differences in macronutrients. Each experiment was intentionally conducted with 12 replicates. However, human error occurred in some experiments during the measurement of data, as the result of flawed conducts and must be omitted. For example, water leaked from water supply and flood the diet in the container while moving it, and leftover diet weight was thrown away without measuring. Therefore, 11 replicates for control A and 10 replicates for treatment B were used in the analysis in the end.

Table 1
Table 1

Experiment feed control and treatment. Where to purchase. All purchased over the internet. 1: Sumac Co. (Aichi, Japan), 2: Dream Co. (Japan), 3: Shinanoya (Nagano, Japan), 4: Nihonga-rikku Co.(Gunma, Japan), 5: Tamagoya Ltd. (Ibaraki, Japan), 6: Ehougen Co. (Kanagawa, Japan), 7: Shizenkennkousya (Nara, Japan)

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Regarding data obtaining from the recorded feed input and remaining feed data, the percentage consumption of each feed was calculated using Equation 1 based on the calculation method of J.A. Morales-Ramos et al., 2020. The consumption of ingredient i (Ii) was calculated as added weight of ingredient ‘i’ minus remaining weight of ingredient ‘i’, where i is ingredient index. The feed consumption ratios over repetition (ACFCr) were calculated using formula Equation 2.
(1) F C r = I i F C × 100 (2) A C F C r = F C r FCr × 100
where FCr (Feed Consumption ratios): feed consumption ratios for each feed (%), Ii (Consumption of ingredient i): The consumption of each ingredient (g), FC (Total Feed Consumption): The summation of li for every ingredient (g), and ACFCr (After correction Feed Consumption ratios): the percentage of each feed consumed after correction (%).
The percentage of consumption each stage to the total feed consumption was calculated using Equation 3.
(3) P T F C = E F C T F C
where PTFC (percentage of total feed consumption): percentage of total feed consumption (%), EFC (Each Feed Consumption): each stage feed consumption (g), and TFC (Total Feed Consumption): total feed consumption (g).
Feed requirement Equation 4 was calculated as follows.
(4) F C R = T F C F B W
where FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio): feed requirement, FBW (Final Biomass Weight): final biomass weight (g), and TFC (Total Feed Consumption): total feed consumption (g).

Macronutrients ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid of the feeds used were estimated based on purchased products and publicly available information (Amazon.co.jp: Natural Health Company Sake Lees Powder, 2.2 lbs (1 kg), Liquor Powder, Additive-Free, Made in Japan, 2023; Eat Smart, 2023a,b; fat secret, 2023; GAROP, 2023; NICHIGA Co., 2023; Yotsuba Milk Industry Co., 2023).

Macronutrients intake ratios were calculated based on the following method Equations 5-8 described in the study by Morales-Ramos et al. (2022).
(5) M N = P + C + L (6) Pr = P M N (7) C r = C M N (8) L r = L M N
where MN (Macro-Nutrition): Macronutrients (g/100 g), P (Protein): Protein (g/100 g), C (Carbohydrate): Carbohydrate (g/100 g), L (Lipid): Lipid (g/100 g), Pr (Protein rate): Protein ratio (%), Cr (Carbohydrate rate): Carbohydrate ratio (%), Lr (Lipid rate): Lipid ratio (%).

Treatment’s macro-nutrition and micro-nutrition ratios, including protein (P), lipid (Li), Crude fiber (CF), and ash (Ash), were determined based on the findings of Kuo et al. (2022) and published data from commercial diets (Amazon.co.jp: smack brocade carp 7 kg purple, 2023; Eat Smart, 2023a,b; EatSmart, 2023; GAROP, 2023; INRAE-CIRAD-AFZ Feed tables, 2023; Ministry of education, 2023; Norio Ariyasu et al., 2012; Ryo Abe et al., 2008; Ryouji Onodera et al., 1989).

Treatment’s macronutrients and micronutrients were calculated by summation of treatment ingredient’s micro-nutrients ( F ( m , t )) using the formula Equation 9.
(9) F ( m , t ) = i = 1 I A C F C r ( t , i ) × K ( m , i ) 100
where i is the ingredient index, I: total number of ingredients in each treatment. m { protein , lipid , crude fiber , ash }, K ( m , i ) is the portion ratio of nutrient m in ingredient i. A C F C r ( t , i ) is the feed consumption ratios after the correction from Equation 2.

Data analysis

To ensure proper and accurate results, data from flawed experiments (2 from control A, and 1 from treatment B) were first excluded from the data analysis. As the result, control A has 10 repetitions, treatment B has 11 repetitions, and treatment C has 12 repetitions used. The Shapiro-Wilk test was performed on all the acquired data, including cricket weight, FCR, and micronutrients, to check for normal distribution, and the Bartlett test was performed to check for equal variances of the experimental intervals. As a result, all data were compared using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) because the data were not normally distributed or equivariantly distributed at some stages. GLMM can handle various probability distributions other than the normal distribution, such as binomial and gamma distributions, and can include effects that cannot be observed or measured by humans, such as location differences, as random effects in the model (Breslow and Clayton, 1993). Cricket weight, FCR, and micronutrients were used as objective variables, respectively, and the explanatory variable was the experimental treatment, and random effects were modeled by including effects due to placement. Since the objective variables used in this study are continuous and take values greater than or equal to 0, the gamma distribution was selected as the probability distribution and log was used as the link function. Since there are two factors in this study, group (A-B) and stage (1-4), ANOVA ( α = 0.05) was used to check the interaction between the factors. The Tukey-Kramer test, purposely used to analyze different sample sizes (Dunnett, 1980), ( α = 0.05) was used to compare the differences among the experimental treatment after ANOVA test. The effect of individual nutrient intakes on cricket body weight was assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. The effects of multiple nutrients and location on cricket body weight were assessed using GLMM. The macronutrients and micronutrients protein (P), lipid (Li), crude fiber (CF), and ash (Ash) were used as explanatory variables, and cricket weight was the objective variable. The explanatory variables were checked for multicollinearity using variance inflation factors (VIF), and highly correlated variables (VIF > 10) were removed sequentially from the variables with the highest values, and combinations of independent variables were adjusted. The best model was then selected for each growth stage based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The probability distribution was the gamma distribution, and log was used as the link function. Statistical analysis was performed using R (version 4.2.0) (R Core Team, 2022). GLMM was lmer4 (Bates et al., 2015), the Tukey-Kramer test was multcomp (Hothorn et al., 2008), and car was used to check multicollinearity and type III of ANOVA (Fox and Weisberg, 2019).

3 Results

Cricket weights

Table 2 shows cricket weights. ANOVA showed that feed consumption rate was not significantly different ( P = 0.172) among the control and treatment groups. Depend on growth stages, total crickets mass weight was significant difference ( P < 0.001). Furthermore, the interaction between control and treatment group and stage was significant ( P < 0.001), indicating that the relationship between group and weight differ depend on stages. Next, the Tukey-Kramer method was used to test the results, which showed that the weights of crickets in control group A and experimental group B fed commercial diets were not significantly different at any growth stage; the weights of crickets in experimental group C were significantly lower than other group at all growth stages.

Table 2
Table 2

Cricket weights is represented as mean ± standard deviation (g). The same letters represent the experimental control and treatment that were not significantly different by the Tukey-Kramer method ( α = 0.05)

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Feed conversion ratio

Table 3 shows the feed conversion rates for experimental treatments at stage 1 and 4. ANOVA showed that the main effects of control and treatment groups were significant ( P < 0.01) and that FCR differed between experimental groups. However, the main effect of stage was not significant ( P = 0.459). Furthermore, the interaction between control and treatment groups and stage was significant ( P < 0.001), indicating that the relationship between group and FCR may differ by stage. The Tukey-Kramer method then found significant differences between controls and treatments. At Stages 2 and 3, there was no significant difference between experimental control A and treatment B. For experimental treatment C, the feed conversion rate was significantly higher at all growth stages.

Table 3
Table 3

Feed conversion ratio represented as mean ± standard deviation. The same letters represent the experimental control and each treatment that were not significantly different by the Tukey-Kramer method ( α = 0.05)

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Percentage of feed consumption

Figure 2 shows the percentage of total feed consumption. The control A and treatment B showed similar consumption trends at each growth stage, with the C treatment consuming about 15% of the total feed by Stage 2, indicating that it consumed more feed in the early stages than A and B. The C treatment consumed about 15% of the total feed by stage 2, indicating that it consumed more feed in the early stages than control A and treatment B.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Percentage of total feed consumed ratio each growth stage.

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Figure 3 shows the percentage of feed consumption for each stage. The results showed that the percentage of feed consumed varied by growth stage. The consumption of bean curd decreased with growth in B and C. The consumption of bread bran increased with growth in experimental treatment C.

Figure 3
Figure 3

Percentage of each feed consumed ratio each growth stage. 1B-S1 = treatmentB stage1, B-S2 = treatmentB stage2, B-S3 = treatmentB stage3, B-S4 = treatmentB stage4, C-S1 = treatmentC stage1, C-S2 = treatmentC stage2, C-S3 = treatmentC stage3, C-S4 = treatmentC stage4.

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Table 4
Table 4

Macronutrients and micronutrients inferred from feed mix proportions represented as mean ± standard deviation (%). The same letters represent the experimental treatment that were not significantly different by the Tukey-Kramer method ( α = 0.05)

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Table 5 shows the effects of individual nutrients on cricket weight. Protein and ash were found to positively affect growth at all stages. Lipids and crude fiber were found to negatively affect growth at all stages.

Table 5
Table 5

Correlation between cricket weight between macronutrients and micronutrients

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Table 6
Table 6

Relationship between cricket weight between macronutrients and micronutrients by GLMM

Citation: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 10, 2 (2024) ; 10.1163/23524588-20230077

Feed nutrient content

Table 4 shows the macronutrients and micronutrients in the diets; ANOVA tests showed that the main effects of each nutrient and the main effects of the control and treatment groups were significant (P: P < 0.001, Li: P < 0.001, CF: P < 0.001, Ash: P < 0.001), indicating that each nutrient was different among the experimental groups. However, the main effects of stage were not significant (P: P = 0.997, Li: P = 0.999, CF: P = 0.990, Ash: P = 0.999). Furthermore, the interaction between control, treatment, and stage was significant for lipids and Crude fiber (Li: P < 0.001, CF: P < 0.001), indicating that the relationship between each nutrient and group differed by stage. On the other hand, protein and ash were not significant (P: P = 0.211, Ash: P = 0.108). Next, the Tukey-Kramer test revealed that in experimental treatment B, protein does not differ from the commercial feed at Stage 2, however, there is significantly lower in percentage at the other stages compared to control A. In addition, ash was found to be significantly lower in percentage and lipid higher in percentage at all stages. Crude fiber was found to be not significantly different from commercial diets. There were differences in macronutrients and micronutrients ratios at each growth stage. Protein was found to be significantly higher in Stage 2 and significantly lower in Stage 3 than in Stage 4. Lipids were most abundant in Stage 1, with no significant differences among the stages. Crude fiber was significantly lower in Stage 4 and did not differ significantly in the other stages. Ash content was found to be significantly lower in Stages 1 and 3 than in Stage 4. Experimental treatment C had significantly lower percentages of protein and ash and higher percentages of lipid and Crude fiber compared to control A. There were differences in the proportions of macronutrients and micronutrients at each growth stage. Protein was found to be significantly lower in Stage 4 than in Stage 2. Lipids differed significantly among all stages, with the proportions decreasing as growth stages progressed. Crude fiber was significantly higher in Stage 1 than in Stage 4 and significantly higher in Stage 2 than in Stages 3-4. Ash was found to be significantly lower in Stage 2 than in Stage 3.

Table 6 shows the combined effect of several nutrients, including effects such as case position, on cricket weight. Proteins were found to have a positive effect on Stages 1,2 and 4. Lipids and Ash were found to have a significant negative effect on Stage 3.

4 Discussion

Utilization of self-selected Gryllus bimaculatus feed design using food waste

The results obtained in this study indicate that Gryllus bimaculatus has a self-selection ability, as it tends to recognize the nutrients it needs from various feed options and adjust the primary nutrients required for its growth. This tendency is consistent with previous studies on omnivorous insects (Kröncke and Benning, 2022; Morales-Ramos et al., 2020).

The relationship between weight and each nutrient in crickets because of Spearman’s correlation coefficient showed that protein and ash had a positive effect on growth at all stages. Lipids and Crude fiber were found to have a negative effect on growth at all stages. The results of the generalized linear mixed model showed a similar trend, with protein and lipid found to have positive and negative effects at Stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and at Stage 3. Higher protein content was found to increase survival and body weight and shorten developmental period (Harsányi et al., 2020). It has also been found that higher levels of indigestible fiber in the diet correlate with lower survival and growth rates of insects (Straub et al., 2019). Even when Japanese food waste was used, experimental treatment B, with its abundant feed choices, was found to have the same level of growth as experimental control A, which used commercial feed. Micronutrients results for the diets indicated that the ratios of nutrients were relatively like those of the commercial diets, but that the ratio of lipids was significantly higher. Since lipids were found to have a negative effect on growth in the present results, further growth could be achieved by reducing the ratio of lipids. Poultry and aquaculture feeds used to feed crickets contain a large amount of animal protein, and other animal proteins are simply converted to the protein source, insects. Therefore, to examine the effects of plant-based diets alone, viability was evaluated with plant-based diets with different macronutrients in the C experimental treatment. The C experimental treatment was found to have significantly less weight at all growth stages compared to the A and B treatments. The C experimental has a higher level of macronutrients in the diet than the A and B treatments. Dietary micronutrients results revealed lower percentages of protein and ash and significantly higher percentages of fat and crude fiber, and the reduction in cricket weight in experimental treatment C is possible related to the proportions of these nutrients. Therefore, it is difficult to grow crickets to the same level as commercial diets using only plant-based food options, and protein- and ash-rich diets should be added to the options.

Regarding feed conversion rate in this research, cricket’s FCR ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 in experimental groups A and B and from 0.9 to 1.4 in experimental group C. Comparing to other livestock’s, FCR was reported to be 2.3 for chickens, 4.0 for pigs, and 8.8 for grain-fed cattle (Wilkinson, 2011). Moreover, The FCRs of Acheta domestica and Gryllus bimaculatus in other studies were found to be 1.58 and 2.9, respectively (Bawa et al., 2021; Mitchaothai et al., 2022). Therefore, using this self-selection, all growth stages, less feed was required for weight gain compared to conventional livestock and other studies.

In summary, it was found that a self-selected diet design using Japanese food waste can be used for Gryllus bimaculatus to produce weight gain and feed efficiency like commercial diets.

Feed consumption rates each growth stage

Gryllus bimaculatus was found to change its feed consumption rate and nutrients with growth when diets were designed using self-selection; Tenebrio molitor was found to change its feed consumption with growth when diets were designed using self-selection (Kröncke and Benning, 2022), and this was also found to be true for Gryllus bimaculatus in our conducted research. The feed consumption rate of A and B crickets was found to be approximately 40% of the total feed consumed in the first few weeks after hatching, and approximately 60% in the fourth week; C crickets consumed approximately 50% of the total feed in the first few weeks after hatching, and the remaining 50% in the fourth week. Regarding applicable raw materials, Materials with a feed consumption rate of more than 10% are considered suitable for feeding (Kröncke and Benning, 2022), from Figure 3, bread bran, rice bran, and fish meal are applicable in stages 1-4, sake less in stages 2-4, and bean curd in only stages 1-3, and are effective as feed in these growth stages. Skimmed milk is consumed in all growth stages, although it accounts for less than 10%, so it can be used as feed, but only in small amounts. Macronutrients and micronutrients percentages were also found to vary across growth stages. In treatments B and C, protein percentages were found to be higher in Stage 2 than in all growth stages. Lipid percentages were highest in Stage 1 and decreased in the later stages. Crude fiber decreased with advancing growth stage. Ash content did not change significantly at all stages in either experimental treatment, but the percentage was higher in Stage 4 in experimental treatment B.

In conventional livestock production, it has been shown that nutrition provided early in the growth stage has a significant impact on subsequent development (Kilpatrick and Steen, 1995). On the other hand, in crickets, it has been found that feeding a high nutrient diet in the early growth stages positively affects final growth (Dobermann et al., 2019) and it has been reported that the metabolism of feed differs at different growth stages in Acheta domestica (Woodring et al., 1979). As same as our results that Gryllus bimaculatus consumed less feed in the early stages of growth and more in the later stages, moreover, the nutrition consumption ratios significantly change through the stages. Therefore, using the findings of this study, crickets’ diets could be designed to be less expensive and more efficient through self-selection by dividing them into growth stages as in conventional livestock production, offering diets containing high nutrients such as protein as an option in the early stages, and adding crude fiber and other miscellaneous diets such as bread bran, rice bran food waste as an option in the later stages. This could be designed to be inexpensive and efficient.

5 Conclusion

In this study, we investigated the utility of self-selected diet design for mass production of Gryllus bimaculatus, considering macronutrients and food waste utilization in Japan. We also obtained data at different growth stages of the self-selected cricket diet design to determine different feed consumption rates and different food consumption rates for different self-selected cricket diet designs to determine if different nutrient requirements exist. We also obtained data at different growth stages. The results show that Gryllus bimaculatus recognizes its own nutrient requirements among different diet options and tends to adjust the key nutrients needed for growth, demonstrating that self-selection can be utilized in diet design. Even if crickets were given commercial diets, there was no significant difference in body weight and utilization efficiency, and it was shown that self-selectable diet design using Japanese food waste in consideration of macronutrients is effective. However, when using commercially available feed or Japanese food waste, there is an exceptional option to use only plant byproducts, resulting in poor growth and feed consumption efficiency. Bread bran, rice bran, fish meal, and sake lees were found to be suitable feeds to produce Japanese food residues. Furthermore, self-selection by growth stage revealed that the ratio of feed consumption varied greatly depending on the growth stage and was about 50-68% in the later growth stage. It was also found that the proportions of macronutrients and micronutrients differed at different stages of development. The protein percentage was found to be higher two weeks after hatching. Lipids were highest in the first week and then decreased. Crude fiber was lowest in week 4. Ash content did not change significantly at all stages. In the future, based on the results of this study, we will add high-nutrition feed as an option in the early stage when feed consumption is low, and examine feed design methods that take food waste and agricultural by-products into consideration.

*

Corresponding author; e-mail: y3sasaki@nodai.ac.jp

Supplementary material

Supplementary material is available online at: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.24024900

Acknowledgements

Part of this work is supported by the Um-Welt company and Saito Seiki Foundation. We would like to thank for their support.

References

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