The 7E Model of the Human Mind: Articulating a Plastic Self for the Cognitive Science of Religion

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Religious Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, United States

Login via Institution

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€25.00$30.00

Abstract

This article proposes a 7E model of the human mind, which was developed within the cognitive paradigm in religious studies and its primary expression, the Cognitive Science of Religion (CSR). This study draws on the philosophically most sophisticated currents in the cognitive sciences, which have come to define the human mind through a 4E model as embodied, embedded, enactive, and extended. Introducing Catherine Malabou’s concept of “plasticity,” the study not only confirms the insight of the 4E model of the self as a decentered system, but it also recommends two further traits of the self that have been overlooked in the cognitive sciences, namely the negativity of plasticity and the tension between giving and receiving form. Finally, the article matures these philosophical insights to develop a concrete model of the religious mind, equipping it with three further Es, namely emotional, evolved, and exoconscious.

  • Atran, S. (1998). Folk biology and the anthropology of science: cognitive universals and cultural particulars. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21(4), 547569; discussion 569–609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Augusto, L. M. (2011). Unconscious knowledge: A survey. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 6, 116141. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10053-008-0081-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, D. V. (2013). Primitive mechanisms of trauma response: an evolutionary perspective on trauma-related disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 15491566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bargh, J. A. (2017). Before you know it: the unconscious reasons we do what we do. New York: Touchstone.

  • Bargh, J. A., & Huang, J. Y. (2009). The selfish goal. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals (pp. 127150). New York: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bargh, J. A., Lee-Chai, A., Barndollar, K., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Trötschel, R. (2001). The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(6), 10141027.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bargh, J. A., & Morsella, E. (2010). Unconscious behavioral guidance systems. In C. R. Agnew, D. E. Carlston, W. G. Graziano, & J. R. Kelly (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research (pp. 89118). New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrett, L. (2018). n. The Oxford Handbook of 4E Cognition. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198735410.013.38.

  • Bateson, G. (1973). Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine Books.

  • Baumard, N., & Boyer, P. (2013). Religious Beliefs as Reflective Elaborations on Intuitions: A Modified Dual-Process Model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(4), 295300. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721413478610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bering, J. M. (2002). The existential theory of mind. Review of General Psychology, 6(1), 324. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.6.1.3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bering, J. M. (2003). Towards a cognitive theory of existential meaning. New Ideas in Psychology, 21(2), 101120. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0732-118X(03)00014-X.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernstein, J. S. (2005). Living in the borderland: the evolution of consciousness and the challenge of healing trauma. London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyer, P., & Ramble, C. (2001). Cognitive templates for religious concepts: Cross-cultural evidence for recall of counter-intuitive representations. Cognitive Science, 25(4), 535564. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0364-0213(01)00045-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Naranjo, J. R., & Schmidt, S. (2012). Influence of mindfulness practice on cortisol and sleep in long-term and short-term meditators. Neuropsychobiology, 65(3), 109118. https://doi.org/10.1159/000330362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cantor, C. (2009). Post-traumatic stress disorder: evolutionary perspectives. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43(11), 10381048. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048670903270407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castro, E. B. V. de, & Skafish, P. (2014). Cannibal metaphysics: for a post-structural anthropology. Minneapolis: Univocal.

  • Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Chalmers, D. J. (1995). Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2(3), 200219.

  • Chemero, A. (2009). Radical embodied cognitive science. Cambridge: MIT Press. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/id/10331675.

  • Chen, S., Lee-Chai, A. Y., & Bargh, J. A. (2001). Relationship orientation as a moderator of the effects of social power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(2), 173187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christopher, M. (2004). A broader view of trauma: a biopsychosocial-evolutionary view of the role of the traumatic stress response in the emergence of pathology and/or growth. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(1), 7598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2003.12.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, A. (2011). Supersizing the mind: embodiment, action, and cognitive extension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Clark, A., & Chalmers, D. J. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis, 58(1), 719.

  • Colombetti, G. (2014). The feeling body: affective science meets the enactive mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Creswell, J. D., Dutcher, J. M., Klein, W. M. P., Harris, P. R., & Levine, J. M. (2013). Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress. PLOS ONE, 8(5), e62593. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crick, F. (1994). Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul. New York, NY: Scribner.

  • Crick, F., & Koch, C. (1990). Toward a Neurobiological Theory of Consciousness. Seminars in the Neurosciences, 2, 263275.

  • Crockett, C. (2011). The Plasticity of Continental Philosophy of Religion. In A. P. Smith & D. Whistler (Eds.), After the postsecular and the postmodern: new essays in continental philosophy of religion (pp. 299315). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: the psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row.

  • Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2010). The unconscious will: how the pursuit of goals operates outside of conscious awareness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 4750. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Custers, R., Eitam, B., & Bargh, J. A. (2012). Conscious and unconscious processes in goal pursuit. In H. Aarts & A. J. Elliot (Eds.), Goal-directed behavior (pp. 231266). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damasio, A. R. (2010a). Self comes to mind: constructing the conscious brain. New York: Pantheon Books.

  • Damasio, A. R. (2010b). Self comes to mind: constructing the conscious brain (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books.

  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

  • Dehaene, S. (2014). Consciousness and the brain: deciphering how the brain codes our thoughts. New York, NY: Viking.

  • Dennett, D. C. (1991). Consciousness explained. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

  • Derrida, J. (1981). Plato’s Pharmacy. In B. Johnson (Trans.), Dissemination (pp. 63171). Chicago: Chicago University Press.

  • Derrida, J. (2005). Preface. In C. Malabou, The future of Hegel: plasticity, temporality, and dialectic (pp. viixlvii). New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Descola, P., & Lloyd, J. (2013). Beyond nature and culture.

  • Dijksterhuis, A., Bos, M. W., Nordgren, L. F., & Baaren, R. B. van. (2006). On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-Without-Attention Effect. Science, 311(5763), 10051007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dreyfus, G. (2011). Self and Subjectivity: A Middle Way Approach. In M. Siderits, E. Thompson, & D. Zahavi (Eds.), Self, no self? perspectives from analytical, phenomenological, and Indian traditions (pp. 114156). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self theories: their role in motivation, personality, and development. New York: Psychology Press.

  • Edelman, G. M. (1992). Bright air, brilliant fire: on the matter of the mind. New York: BasicBooks.

  • Elster, J. (1990). Selfishness and altruism. In J. J. Mansbridge (Ed.), Beyond self-interest (pp. 4452). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epton, T., Currie, S., & Armitage, C. J. (2017). Unique effects of setting goals on behavior change: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(12), 11821198. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, J. S. B. T. (2003). In two minds: dual-process accounts of reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(10), 454459.

  • Evans, J. S. B. T. (2009). How many Dual-Process Theories Do We Need? One, Two, Or Many? In J. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: dual processes and beyond (pp. 3354). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, J. S. B. T., & Frankish, K. (Eds.). (2009). In two minds: dual processes and beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (1996). Rationality and reasoning. Hove: Psychology Press.

  • Evans, J. S. B. T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(3), 223241. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691612460685.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Falk, E. B., O’Donnell, M. B., Cascio, C. N., Tinney, F., Kang, Y., Lieberman, M. D., … Strecher, V. J. (2015). Self-affirmation alters the brain’s response to health messages and subsequent behavior change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(7), 19771982. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1500247112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferguson, M. J., & Porter, S. C. (2009). Goals and (Implicit) Attitudes: A Social-Cognitive Perspective. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals (pp. 447479). New York: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzsimons, G. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2004). Automatic self-regulation. In Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 151170). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flanagan, O. J. (2007). The really hard problem: meaning in a material world. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Gallagher, S. (2003). Phenomenology and experimental design: Toward a phenomenologically enlightened experimental science. Journal Of Consciousness Studies, 10(9–10), 8599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallagher, S. (2005). How the body shapes the mind. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Gallagher, S., & Zahavi, D. (2008). The Phenomenological Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science. New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geertz, A. W., & Petersen, A. K. (2019). Evolution, cognition, and the history of religion: a new synthesis: festschrift in honour of Armin W. Geertz. Leiden: Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldberg, E. (2009). The new executive brain: frontal lobes in a complex world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Greenfield, S. (2011). You and me: the neuroscience of identity. London: Notting Hill Editions.

  • Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108(4), 814834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haig, D. (2002). Genomic imprinting and kinship. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

  • Haig, D. (2006). Intrapersonal conflict. In A. Fabian & M. Jones (Eds.) (pp. 8–22). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Hasenkamp, W. (2014). Using First-Person Reports During Meditation to Investigate Basic Cognitive Experience. In S. Schmidt & H. Walach (Eds.), Meditation Neuroscientific Approaches and Philosophical Implications (pp. 7593). Cham: Springer Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hassin, R. R., Uleman, J. S., & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.). (2005). The New Unconscious. Oxford, UK; New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Heckhausen, H. (1991). Motivaction and action. Berlin: Springer.

  • Hirschfeld, L. A., & Gelman, S. A. (Eds.). (1994). Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, R. W., Hendriks, M., & Aarts, H. (2005). Smells Like Clean Spirit: Nonconscious Effects of Scent on Cognition and Behavior. Psychological Science, 16(9), 689693. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01597.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Ingold, T. (2013). Making anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture. London: Routledge.

  • Jablonka, E., Lamb, M. J., & Zeligowski, A. (2006). Evolution in four dimensions: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the history of life. Cambridge: MIT.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, M. (2007). The Meaning of the Body: Aesthetics of Human Understanding. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Kahneman, D. (2003). A perspective on judgment and choice: mapping bounded rationality. The American Psychologist, 58(9), 697720.

  • Kahneman, D. (2013). Thinking, fast and slow (1st pbk. ed). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

  • Kay, A. C., Wheeler, S. C., Bargh, J. A., & Ross, L. (2004). Material priming: The influence of mundane physical objects on situational construal and competitive behavioral choice. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95(1), 8396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelemen, D. (1999a). Beliefs about purpose: On the origins of teleological thought. In The descent of mind: Psychological perspectives on hominid evolution (pp. 278294). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelemen, D. (1999b). Function, goals and intention: children’s teleological reasoning about objects. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3(12), 461468. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01402-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelemen, D., & Rosset, E. (2009). The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults. Cognition, 111(1), 138143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.01.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kihlstrom, J. F. (1987). The Cognitive Unconscious. Science, 237(4821), 14451452.

  • Klinger, E. (2013). Goal commitments and the content of thoughts and dreams: Basic principles. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

  • Klinger, E., & Cox, W. M. (2011). Motivation and the Goal Theory of Current Concerns. In Handbook of Motivational Counseling (pp. 147). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470979952.ch1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klinger, E., Marchetti, I., & Koster, E. (2018). Spontaneous thought and goal pursuit: from functions such as planning to dysfunctions such as rumination. In The Oxford handbook of spontaneous thought: mind-wandering, creativity, dreaming, and clinical disorders (pp. 215232). Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-8517838.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klug, H. J. P., & Maier, G. W. (2015). Linking Goal Progress and Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(1), 3765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9493-0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koch, C. (2017). Consciousness: confessions of a romantic reductionist. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Kohn, E. (2013). How Forests Think: Toward an Anthropology Beyond the Human (1 edition). Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Kozhevnikov, M., Elliott, J., Shephard, J., & Gramann, K. (2013). Neurocognitive and Somatic Components of Temperature Increases during g-Tummo Meditation: Legend and Reality. PLOS ONE, 8(3), e58244. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Shah, J. Y., Fishbach, A., Friedman, R., Chun, W. Y., & Sleeth-Keppler, D. (2002). A theory of goal systems. In Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 34 (pp. 331378). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(02)80008-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: the embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latour, B. (1993). We Have Never Been Modern. (C. Porter, Trans.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Lenhard, J. (2015). Structuralism and Functionalism: The Difference between Lévi-Strauss, Malinowski and Evans-Pritchard in Reference to Kinship. Munich: GRIN Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1945). Milieu et techniques. Paris: Albin Michel.

  • Lewis-Williams, J. D. (2010). Conceiving God: the cognitive origin and evolution of religion. London: Thames & Hudson.

  • Lewis-Williams, J. D., & Pearce, D. (2005). Inside the Neolithic mind: consciousness, cosmos and the realm of the gods. London: Thames & Hudson.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lifshitz, M., Cusumano, E. P., & Raz, A. (2014). Meditation and Hypnosis at the Intersection Between Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. In S. Schmidt & H. Walach (Eds.), Meditation Neuroscientific Approaches and Philosophical Implications. Cham: Springer Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, S., Huang, J. L., & Wang, M. (2014). Effectiveness of job search interventions: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 10091041. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

  • Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705717. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lutz, A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Meditation and the Neuroscience of Consciousness. In P. D. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch, & E. Thompson (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness (pp. 499554). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lutz, A., & Thompson, E. (2002). Neurophenomenology Integrating Subjective Experience and Brain Dynamics in the Neuroscience of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10(9–10), 3152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malabou, C. (2008). What Should We Do with Our Brain? (S. Rand, Trans.). New York: Fordham University Press.

  • Malabou, C. (2015). Whither Materialism? Althusser/Darwin. In J. Goldberg-Hiller & B. Bhandar (Eds.), Plastic Materialities: Politics, Legality, and Metamorphosis in the Work of Catherine Malabou (pp. 4760). Durham: Duke University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malafouris, L. (2013). How things shape the mind: a theory of material engagement. Cambridge: MIT Press. Retrieved from http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3339639.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mansbridge, J. J. (1990). The rise and fall of self-interest in the explanation of political life. In J. J. Mansbridge (Ed.), Beyond self-interest (pp. 322). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, L. L., & Tesser, A. (2009). Five markers of motivated behavior. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals (pp. 257276). New York: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martinon, J.-P. (2007). On futurity; Malabou, Nancy and Derrida. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Maryanski, A., & Turner, J. H. (1991). The Offspring of Functionalism: French and British Structuralism. Sociological Theory, 9(1), 106115. https://doi.org/10.2307/201876.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masicampo, E. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2011). Consider it done! Plan making can eliminate the cognitive effects of unfulfilled goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), 667683. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCauley, R. N. (2011). Why religion is natural and science is not. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • McCauley, R. N. (2017a). Philosophical Foundations of the Cognitive Science of Religion. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

  • McCauley, R. N. (2017b). Twenty-Five Years In: Landmark Empirical Findings in the Cognitive Science of Religion. In L. H. Martin & D. Wiebe (Eds.), Religion explained?: the cognitive science of religion after twenty-five years (pp. 4356, 203204). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L. (1953). The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Retrieved from http://0-search.proquest.com.fama.us.es/psycbooks/publication/177429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McEwan, D., Harden, S. M., Zumbo, B. D., Sylvester, B. D., Kaulius, M., Ruissen, G. R., … Beauchamp, M. R. (2016). The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 10(1), 6788. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2015.1104258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNamara, P. (2009). The Neuroscience of Religious Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Menary, R. (2010a). Introduction to the Special Issue on 4E Cognition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11097-010-9187-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menary, R. (2010b). The extended mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/id/10397662.

  • Mesmer-Magnus, J., & Viswesvaran, C. (2007). Inducing Maximal Versus Typical Learning Through the Provision of a Pretraining Goal Orientation. Human Performance, 20(3), 205222. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959280701333016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, J. (2016). Religion and dual-process cognition: a continuum of styles or distinct types? Religion, Brain & Behavior, 6(2), 112129. https://doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2014.966315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moskowitz, G. B., & Gesundheit, Y. (2009). Goal Priming. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals (pp. 203233). New York: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moskowitz, G. B., & Grant, H. (2009). Introduction: Four Themes in the Study of Goals. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals (pp. 126). New York: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noë, A. (2004). Action in perception. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Noë, A. (2012). Varieties of presence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Nunez, P. L. (2016). The new science of consciousness: exploring the complexity of brain, mind, and self. Amherst: Prometheus Books.

  • O’Leary, K., O’Neill, S., & Dockray, S. (2016). A systematic review of the effects of mindfulness interventions on cortisol. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(9), 21082121. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105315569095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oviedo, L. (2015). Religious Cognition as a Dual-Process: Developing the Model. Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, 27(1), 3158. https://doi.org/10.1163/15700682-12341288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pals, D. L. (2006). Eight Theories of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Penn, D. C., Holyoak, K. J., & Povinelli, D. J. (2008). Darwin’s mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(2), 109130; discussion 130–178. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X08003543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porubanova, M., & Shaver, J. H. (2017). Minimal Counterintuitiveness Revisited, Again: The Role of Emotional Valence in Memory for Conceptual Incongruity. In L. H. Martin & D. Wiebe (Eds.), Religion explained?: the cognitive science of religion after twenty-five years (pp. 123132). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: an essay on the cognitive unconscious. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Rescorla, R. A. (2003). Contemporary study of Pavlovian conditioning. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6(2), 185195.

  • Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning: Variations in the Effectiveness of Reinforcement and Nonreinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: current research and theory (pp. 6499). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ricard, M., & Singer, W. (2017). Beyond the Self: Conversations between Buddhism and Neuroscience. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2005). Not By Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rinella, M. A. (2012). Pharmakon: Plato, drug culture, and identity in ancient Athens. Lanham: Lexington Books.

  • Rowlands, M. (2013). The new science of the mind: from extended mind to embodied phenomenology. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 6878. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samuels, R. (2009). The magical number two, plus or minus: Comments on dual systems. In J. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: dual processes and beyond (pp. 129148). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sen, A. K. (1977). Rational Fools: A Critique of the Behavioral Foundations of Economic Theory. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 6(4), 317344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serres, M. (2013). Le gaucher boîteux: figures de la pensée. Paris: Le gaucher boîteux : figures de la pensée.

  • Shah, J. (2003). Automatic for the people: how representations of significant others implicitly affect goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 661681.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shah, J. Y., Hall, D., & Leander, N. P. (2009). Moments of motivation: Margins of opportunity in managing the efficacy, need, and transitions of striving. In G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals (pp. 234254). New York: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shweder, R. A. (2012). The Metaphysical Realities of the Unphysical Sciences: Or Why Vertical Integration Seems Unrealistic to Ontological Pluralists. In E. G. Slingerland & M. Collard (Eds.), Creating consilience: integrating the sciences and the humanities (pp. 5673). New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sigman, M. (2017). The secret life of the mind: how your brain thinks, feels, and decides. London: William Collins.

  • Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. London: Jonathan Cape.

  • Slingerland, E. G. (2008). What Science Offers the Humanities: Integrating Body and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 322.

  • Souriau, E., Stengers, I., Latour, B., & Souriau, E. (2015). The different modes of existence. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sova, R. (2005). Genesis of Two Algebraic Theories of Language. Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics, 83, 5974.

  • Sperber, D., & Hirschfeld, L. A. (2004). The cognitive foundations of cultural stability and diversity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(1), 4046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2003.11.002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sperry, R. W. (1974). Lateral specialization in the surgically separated hemispheres. In F. O. Schmitt & F. G. Worden (Eds.), The neurosciences: third study program (pp. 519). Cambridge: MIT Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Springer, S. P., & Deutsch, G. (2003). Left brain, right brain: perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. New York: W. H. Freeman.

  • Stajkovic, A. D., Locke, E. A., & Blair, E. S. (2006). A first examination of the relationships between primed subconscious goals, assigned conscious goals, and task performance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5), 11721180. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stanovich, K. E. (1999). Who is rational? studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Stanovich, K. E. (2009). Distinguishing the Reflective, Algorithmic, and Autonomous Minds: Is It Time For a Tri-Process Theory? In J. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: dual processes and beyond (pp. 89108). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stanovich, K. E. (2011). Rationality and the reflective mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: implications for the rationality debate? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(5), 645665; discussion 665–726. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00003435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stiegler, B. (2012). Relational Ecology and the Digital Pharmakon. Culture Machine, 13(0). Retrieved from https://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/view/464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, Y.-Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 16(4), 213225. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taves, A. (1999). Fits, trances, & visions: experiencing religion and explaining experience from Wesley to James. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thagard, P., & Kroon, F. (2008). Hot Thought: Mechanisms and Applications of Emotional Cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Thompson, E. (2007). Mind in life: biology, phenomenology, and the sciences of mind. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Thompson, E., & Camlin, A. (2015). Waking, dreaming, being: new light on the self and consciousness from neuroscience, meditation, and philosophy. New York: Columbia University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turakitwanakan, W., Mekseepralard, C., & Busarakumtragul, P. (2013). Effects of mindfulness meditation on serum cortisol of medical students. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, 96 Suppl. 1, S9095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, J. H., Maryanski, A., Petersen, A. K., Geertz, A. W., Maryanski, A., Petersen, A. K., & Geertz, A. W. (2017). The Emergence and Evolution of Religion: By Means of Natural Selection. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315111995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185(4157), 11241131. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.185.4157.1124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Varela, F. J. (1979). Principles of biological autonomy. New York: North Holland.

  • Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1991). Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  • Walach, H., & Römer, H. (2011). Generalized Entanglement – A Nonreductive Option for a Phenomenologically Dualist and Ontologically Monist View of Consciousness. In H. Walach, S. Schmidt, & W. B. Jonas (Eds.), Neuroscience, Consciousness and Spirituality (pp. 8195). New York: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watson, J. B. (1925). Behaviorism. New York: W. W. Norton.

  • Whitehouse, H. (2004). Modes of Religiosity: A Cognitive Theory of Religious Transmission. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.

  • Wilson, T. D. (2002). Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious. Boston: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xygalatas, D. (2018). Bridging the Gap: the Cognitive Science of Religion as an Integrative Approach. Evolution, Cognition, and the History of Religion: A New Synthesis, 255272. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004385375_017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1270 1270 18
Full Text Views 23 23 0
PDF Downloads 16 16 0