An Alternative Chronology for the Xia Dynasty and Discussion on Issues Related to Xia Culture

In: Journal of Chinese Humanities

Abstract

This paper proposes an alternative chronology for the Xia dynasty [ca. 2100-1600 BCE] based on the respective year counts and generation numbers of the Xia, Shang [ca. 1600-1046 BCE], and Zhou [1046-256 BCE] dynasties. It argues that Qi 啟 founded the Xia dynasty midway through the twentieth century BCE and further discusses questions relating to the capital cities and culture of the Xia. By integrating archeological material, it further contends that the ancient city of Wangchenggang 王城崗 located in Dengfeng 登封 was Yangcheng 陽城, the capital established by Yu 禹. It also argues that the Wadian 瓦店 site in Yuzhou 禹州 may have been inhabited by Yu and Qi, that the ancient city of Xinzhai 新砦 was an early capital of the Xia dynasty from the reigns of Qi to Shao Kang 少康, and that the Erlitou 二里頭 site was the capital of the Xia dynasty during its middle and late periods after the reign of Di Huai 帝槐. Xia culture should be approached as a concept that blends the disciplines of archeology and history and defined as the Xia people and the Xia dynasty within its region of governance or a culture whose creators mostly consisted of the Xia people. Furthermore, the ruins of the Xinzhai period represent Xia culture during its formative period, while Erlitou culture represents Xia culture during its maturity.

  • An Jinhuai 安金槐. “Yuxi Xiadai wenhua chutan 豫西夏代文化初探 [A Tentative Exploration of the Xia Culture in Western Henan Province].” Zhongguo lishi bowuguan guankan 中國歷史博物館館刊no. 1 (1979): 24-29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beijing daxue zhendan gudai wenming yanjiu zhongxin 北京大學震旦古代文明研究中心 [Peking University Zhendan Center for Ancient Civilizations Research]et al., ed. Zaoqi Xia wenhua yu xian Shang wenhua yanjiu lunwenji 早期夏文化與先商文化研究論文集 [A Collection of Essays on Early-Period Xia Culture and Pre-Shang Culture Research]. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Huaiquan 陳懷荃. “Jianlun da Yu zhishui he Xia wangchao de jianli 簡論大禹治水和夏王朝的建立 [A Brief Discussion on Yu the Great’s Flood Control and the Founding of the Xia Dynasty].” In Mianxiang xin shiji de Zhongguo lishi dilixue: 2000 nian guoji zhongguo lishi dili xueshu taolunhui lunwenji 面向新世紀的中國歷史地理學—2000 年國際中國歷史地理學術討論會論文集 [Chinese Historical Geography in the New Century: Proceedings of the 2000 Symposium on International Chinese Historical Geography], ed. Fudan daxue lishi dili yanjiu zhongxin 復旦大學歷史地理研究中心170-179. Jinan: Qilu shushe2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Mengjia 陳夢家. “Shang-Yin yu Xia-Zhou de niandai wenti 商殷與夏周的年代問題 [The Question of Chronology in the Shang-Yin and Xia-Zhou Periods].” Lishi yanjiu 歷史研究no. 2 (1955): 53-77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen Xu 陳旭. “Guanyu Xia wenhua wenti de yi dian renshi 關於夏文化問題的一點認識 [Interpretations of the Xia Culture Question].” Zhengzhou daxue xuebao (zhexue shehui kexue ban) 鄭州大學學報(哲學社會科學版)no. 5 (1980): 67-72+79.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding Shan 丁山. “Wen Wu Zhougong yinian 文武周公疑年 [Suspected Years for King Wen, King Wu and Duke of Zhou].” Zeshan banyuekan 責善半月刊no. 1-2 (1941): 2-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong Zuobin 董作賓. “Xizhou nianlipu 西周年曆譜 [An Annual Calendar for the Western Zhou Dynasty].” Zhongyang yanjiuyuan lishi yuyan yanjiusuo jikan, diershisan ben, xia 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊(第二十三本下) [Academia Sinica, Research Department of History and Philology, vol. 23, part 2] (1952): 681-760.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du Jinpeng 杜金鵬 and Xu Hong 許宏, ed. Erlitou yizhi yu Erlitou wenhua yanjiu 二里頭遺址與二里頭文化研究 [Research into the Erlitou Site and the Erlitou Culture]. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duan Tianjing 段天璟. Erlitou wenhua shiqi de Zhongguo 二里頭文化時期的中國 [China during the Time of Erlitou Culture]. Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fan Wenlan 範文瀾. Zhongguo tongshi, diyi bian 中國通史(第一編) [History of China, vol. 1]. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fan Xiangyong 範祥雍, ed. Guben zhushu jinian jijiao dingbu 古本竹書紀年輯校訂補 [Supplement of Compiler on the Ancient Text of the Bamboo Annals]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe1957.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fang Yanming 方燕明. “‘Zaoqi Xia wenhua xueshu yantaohui’ jiyao 期‘夏文化學術研討會’紀要 [Summary of the Symposium on Early Xia Culture].” Zhongyuan wenwu 中原文物no. 5 (2008): 33-38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fang Yousheng 方酉生. “Luelun Erlitou yizhi diyi qi yicun yu Xiadai jinian: jian ping Erlitou wenhua yiqi yicun yu Xia wenhua chushi 略論二里頭遺址第一期遺存與夏代紀年—兼評〈二里頭文化一期遺存與夏文化初始〉[A Brief Discussion of Phase I of the Erlitou Site and the Chronology of the Xia Dynasty, with a Review of ‘Phase I of the Erlitou Culture and the Origins of the Xia Culture’].” In Zhongguo shiqian kaoguxue yanjiu: zhuhe Shi Xingbang xiansheng kaogu banshiji ji bazhi huadan wenji 中國史前考古學研究—祝賀石興邦先生考古半世紀暨八秩華誕文集 [Research into Chinese Prehistorical Archeology: Collected Works Celebrating Mr. Shi Xingbang’s Half-Century Contribution to Archeology and his 80th Birthday]509-515. Xi’an: Sanqin chubanshe2004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛. “Yu Qian Xuantong xiansheng lun gushishu 與錢玄同先生論古史書 [Talking about Ancient History with Mr. Qian Xuantong].” Dushu zazhi 讀書雜誌no. 9 (1922): 3-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛 and Tong Shuye 童書業. “Gun Yu de chuanshuo: Xia Shi Kao disi zhang 鯀禹的傳說:夏史考第四章 [The Legend of Gun and Yu: Chapter 4 of ‘Verifying the History of the Xia’].” Shuowen yuekan 說文月刊no. 2-4 (1939): 43-96.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu Jiegang 顧頡剛 and Tong Shuye 童書業. “Xiashi Sanlun: Xia Shi Kao diwu, liu, qi zhang 夏史三論: 夏史考第五、六、七章 [Three Theories on the Xia Dynasty: ‘Verifying the History of the Xia’ Chapters 5, 6 and 7].” Shixue nianbao 史學年報no. 3 (1936): 1-103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo Moruo 郭沫若. Zhongguo gudai shehui yanjiu 中國古代社會研究 [Research into Ancient Chinese Society]. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe1960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang Shilin 黃石林. San lun Xia wenhua wenti 三論夏文化問題 [Three Discussions on the Question of Xia Culture]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iijima Taketsugu 飯島武次. Ka-In bunka no kōkogaku kenkyū 夏殷文化の考古學研究 [Archeological Research into the Culture of the Xia and Yin Dynasties]. Tokyo: Yamakawa1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin Jingfang 金景芳. Zhongguo nuli shehui shi 中國奴隸社會史 [A History of Slavery in China]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe1983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Weiming 李維明. “Erlitou wenhua yi qi yicun yu Xia wenhua chushi 二里頭文化一期遺存與夏文化初始 [Phase I of the Erlitou Culture and the Origins of Xia Culture].” Zhongyuan wenwu 中原文物no. 1 (2002): 33-42.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li Zhongci 李忠慈, ed. Zhongguo lishi renwu shuping: gudaishi bufen shang 中國歷史人物述評: 古代史部分(上) [A Review on Chinese Historical Figures: Ancient History Volume, part 1)]. Tianjin: Tianjin shehui kexueyuan chubanshe1990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu Qiyi 劉啟益. “Xizhou jinian tongqi yu Wuwang zhi Liwang de zaiwei nianshu 西周紀年銅器與武王至厲王的在位年數 [Western Zhou Bronzeware Chronology and Reign Year Counts from King Wu to King Li].” Wenshi 文史no. 13 (1982).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu Xu 劉緒. Xia-Shang-Zhou kaogu tanyan 夏商周考古探研 [Research into Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasty Archeology]. Beijing: Kexue chubanshe2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lv Zhenyu 呂振羽. Shiqianqi Zhongguo shehui yanjiu 史前期中國社會研究 [Research into Prehistoric Chinese Society]. Beijing: Renwen shudian1934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma Chengyuan 馬承源. “Xizhou jinwen he lishi de yanjiu 西周金文和歷史的研究 [Research on the Bronze Inscriptions and History of the Western Zhou Dynasty].” Shanghai bowuguan jikan 上海博物館集刊 [Periodical of Shanghai Museum]. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe1982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meng Fanren 孟凡人. “Shitan Xia wenhua ji qi yu Shang wenhua de guanxi wenti 試談夏文化及其與商文化的關係問題 [A Tentative Discussion on the Relationship between Xia Culture and Shang Culture].” Zhengzhou daxue xuebao (zhexue shehui kexue ban) 鄭州大學學報(哲學社會科學版)no. 1 (1979): 13-23.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rong Mengyuan 榮孟源. “Shitan Xizhou jinian 試談西周紀年 [A Tentative Discussion on the Year Numbering System of the Western Zhou Dynasty].” Zhonghua wenshi luncong 中華文史論叢no. 1 (1980): 1-21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shinzo Shinjo 新城新藏. “Zhou chu zhi niandai 周初之年代 [A Chronology for the Early Zhou Period].” In Dongyang tianwenxueshi yanjiu 東洋天文學史研究 [Research into the History of East Asian Astronomy], trans. Shen Xuan 沈璿26-159. Shanghai: Zhonghua xueyishe1933.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang Lan 唐蘭. “Zhongguo gudai lishi shang de niandai wenti 中國古代歷史上的年代問題 [The Question of Chronology in Ancient Chinese History].” Xin jianshe 新建設no. 3 (1955): 48-52.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tian Changwu 田昌五. “Gushi de niandai wenti 古史的年代問題 [The Question of Chronology in Ancient History].” In Jinian Wang Yirong faxian jiaguwen yi bai nian lunwenji 紀念王懿榮發現甲骨文一百年論文集 [Collected Papers Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Discovery of the Oracle Bones by Wang Yirong]. Jinan: Qilu shushe2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tian Changwu 田昌五. “Xia wenhua tansuo 夏文化探索 [An Exploration of Xia Culture].” Wenwu 文物no. 5 (1981): 18-26+58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang Kelin 王克林. “Cong Longshan wenhua de jianzhu jishu tansuo Xia wenhua 從龍山文化的建築技術探索夏文化 [Exploring the Xia Culture from the Construction Technology of the Longshan Culture].” Shanxi daxue xuebao (zhexue shehui kexue ban) 山西大學學報 (哲學社會科學版)no. 3 (1980): 75-78.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu Qichang 吳其昌. “Jinwen yinianbiao 金文疑年表 [A Table of Suspected Years in Chinese Bronze Inscriptions].” In Jinwen lishuo shuzheng, juan 6, 7 金文歷朔疏證(卷六、卷七) [A Calendar Verification of Bronze Inscriptions, vols. 6, 7]. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan1936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu Ruzuo 吳汝祚. “Guanyu Xia wenhua ji qi laiyuan de chubu tansuo 關於夏文化及其來源的初步探索 [A Tentative Exploration of Xia Culture and Its Origins].” Wenwu 文物no. 9 (1978): 70-74.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xia Nai 夏鼐. “Tantan tantao Xia wenhua de jige wenti 談談探討夏文化的幾個問題 [On Some Issues Related to Xia Culture].” Henan wenbo tongxun 河南文博通訊no. 1 (1978): 32-33.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xia–Shang–Zhou duandai gongcheng zhuanjia zu 夏商周斷代工程專家組. Xia–Shang–Zhou duandai gongcheng 1996-2000 nian jieduan chengguo baogao jianben 夏商周斷代工程 1996-2000 年階段成果報告(簡本) [The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project Report for the years 1996-2000 (abridged)]. Beijing: Shijie tushu chuban gongsi2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu Shunzhan 許順湛. “Xiadai wenhua de zai tansuo 夏代文化的再探索 [A Re- Exploration of Xia Culture].” Henan wenbo tongxun 河南文博通訊no. 3 (1979): 13-21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu Zhaofeng 徐昭峰 and Cao Rui 曹蕊. “Kaoguxue yu Xia wenhua tansuo 考古學與夏文化探索 [Exploring Archeology and Xia Culture].” In Xia Shang duyi yu wenhua,yi: Xia Shang duyi kaogu ji jinian yanshi shangcheng faxian 30 zhou nian guoji xueshu yantaohui lunwenji 夏商都邑與文化(一): 夏商都邑考古暨紀念偃師商城發現 30 週年國際學術研討會論文集 [The Cities and Culture of the Xia and Shang Dynasties, vol. 1: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Archeology of the Cities of the Xia and Shang Dynasties and the 30th Anniversary of the Discovery of the Shangcheng Site in Yanshi], ed. Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan kaogu yanjiusuo 中國社會科學院考古研究所89-97. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yin Weizhang 殷瑋璋. “Guanyu Xiadai wenhua de tansuo 關於夏代文化的探索 [On Exploring the Culture of the Xia Dynasty].” In Xin Zhongguo de kaogu faxian he yanjiu 新中國的考古發現和研究 [Archeological Discoveries and Research in New China], ed. Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan kaogu yanjiusuo 中國社會科學院考古研究所211-215. Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe1984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan Ziqing 詹子慶. Xiashi yu Xiadai wenming 夏史與夏代文明 [History of the Xia Dynasty and Its Civilization]. Shanghai: Shanghai kexue jishu wenxian chubanshe2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Guoshuo 張國碩. “Xia jinian yu Xia wenhua yicun chuyi 夏紀年與夏文化遺存芻議 [My View on the Chronology of the Xia Dynasty and the Xia Culture Site].” Zhongguo wenwu bao 中國文物報no. 20 (2001): 7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Xuelian 張雪蓮 and Qiu Shihua 仇士華et al.Xinzhai Erlitou Erligang wenhua kaogu niandai xulie de jianli yu wanshan 新砦—二里頭—二里岡文化考古年代序列的建立與完善 [The Establishment and Improvement of the Xinzhai-Erlitou-Erligang Culture Chronology].” Kaogu 考古no. 8 (2007): 74-89.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang Zhongpei 張忠培. “Guanyu Erlitou wenhua he Xiadai kaoguxue yicun de ji dian renshi 關於二里頭文化和夏代考古學遺存的幾點認識 [Some Interpretations of Erlitou Culture and Archeological Remains of the Xia Dynasty].” Zhongguo lishi wenwu 中國歷史文物no. 1 (2009): 4-8+2+93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao Zhiquan 趙芝荃 and Liu Zhongfu 劉忠伏. “Shitan Yanshi Shangcheng de shijian niandai bing jian lun Xia wenhua de shangxian 試談偃師商城的始建年代並兼論夏文化的上限 [A Tentative Discussion on the Founding Year of Shangcheng, Yanshi, and the Upper Limit of Xia Culture].” In Huaxia wenming, diyi ji 華夏文明(第一集) [Chinese Civilization, vol. 1], ed. Tian Changwu 田昌五180-196. Beijing: Peking University Press1987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng Xuan 鄭玄, annot., Kong Yingda 孔穎達, comm. “Liji zhengyi 禮記正義 [Interpretations of the Book of Rites].” In Shisanjing zhushu 十三經注疏 [Commentary on the Thirteen Classics], ed. Ruan Yuan 阮元1221-1696. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe1997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan kaogu yanjiusuo 中國社會科學院考古研究所, ed. Erlitou 二里頭 (1999-2006). Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan kaogu yanjiusuo 中國社會科學院考古研究所, ed. Zhongguo kaoguxue Xia Shang juan 中國考古學·夏商卷 [Chinese Archeology: The Xia-Shang Volume]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhongguo xian Qinshi xuehui 中國先秦史學會 and Luoyangshi dier wenwu gongzuodui 洛陽市第二文物工作隊, ed. Xiawenhua yanjiu lunji 夏文化研究論集 [Xia Culture Research: A Monograph Series]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu Fenghan 朱鳳瀚 and Zhang Rongming 張榮明, ed. “Xizhou zhuhou wang niandai zhushuo yilanbiao 西周諸侯王年代諸說一覽表 [A Table of the Various Theories of the Chronology of the Kings and Lords of the Western Zhou Dynasty].” In Xizhou zhu wang niandai yanjiu 西周諸王年代研究 [Research into the Chronology of the Kings of the Western Zhou Dynasty]432-433. Guiyang: Guizhou renmin chubanshe1998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu Shaohou 朱紹侯et al., ed. Zhongguo gudaishi shang 中國古代史(上) [Ancient Chinese History, part 1]. Fuzhou: Fujian renmin chubanshe2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 62 62 28
Full Text Views 11 11 6
PDF Downloads 9 9 6