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‘They Shall See the Glory of the Lord’ (Isa 35:2)

Eschatological Perfection and Purity at Qumran and in Jesus’ Movement

In: Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus
Author: Jodi Magness1
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Jesus’ world view is widely characterized as apocalyptic and eschatological. In this paper, I propose that Jesus’ exorcisms and healings – as reported in the Gospel accounts – were intended not merely as apocalyptic signs, but were performed by Jesus and his disciples to effect the entry of the diseased and disabled into God’s kingdom on earth. Jesus’ attempts to heal others and his emphasis on moral behavior are rooted in biblical concerns with the maintenance of holiness, according to which only pure and unblemished creatures may enter God’s presence. The Qumran sect also had an apocalyptic world view, but in contrast to Jesus’ inclusive approach, they excluded the blemished and impure from the sectarian and messianic assemblies.

Abstract

Jesus’ world view is widely characterized as apocalyptic and eschatological. In this paper, I propose that Jesus’ exorcisms and healings – as reported in the Gospel accounts – were intended not merely as apocalyptic signs, but were performed by Jesus and his disciples to effect the entry of the diseased and disabled into God’s kingdom on earth. Jesus’ attempts to heal others and his emphasis on moral behavior are rooted in biblical concerns with the maintenance of holiness, according to which only pure and unblemished creatures may enter God’s presence. The Qumran sect also had an apocalyptic world view, but in contrast to Jesus’ inclusive approach, they excluded the blemished and impure from the sectarian and messianic assemblies.

Introduction

Jesus’ world view is widely characterized as apocalyptic and eschatological.1 The main features of this outlook typically include the expectation of the imminent arrival of a messiah, the violent overthrow of the current world order, and the establishment of a utopian kingdom of God where earthly fortunes will be reversed and the ‘last will be first’ (Mt. 20:16).2 As Bart Ehrman says:

Jesus stood within a long line of Jewish prophets who understood that God was soon going to intervene in this world, overthrow the forces of evil that ran it, and bring in a new kingdom in which there would be no more war, disease, catastrophe, despair, hatred, sin, or death. And Jesus maintained that this new kingdom was coming soon, that in fact his own generation would see it.3

In preparation for the kingdom, Jesus reportedly emphasized the importance of moral or ethical behavior.4 But Jesus is portrayed above all in the Gospel accounts as performing miracles, in particular exorcising demons and healing the sick, traditions that feature prominently in the earliest Gospel traditions.5 What was the significance of these exorcisms and healings to Jesus and his Jewish followers during his lifetime and in the decades after his death, including the sources of the earliest Gospel traditions? Were they intended to situate Jesus within a long line of biblical prophets who are said to have performed similar miracles? Or, were they signs indicating that the eschaton was underway, signaling the arrival of a kingdom of God in which there would be no disease and death?6

The Consequences of God’s Holiness

Jesus’ reputation as a miracle-worker was examined by Morton Smith in Jesus the Magician, who concluded that Jesus’ performance of healings, exorcisms, and other miracles reflects his rejection of biblical law: ‘Jesus’ rejection of the Law can be understood as a consequence and manifesto of his supernatural claims.’7 In this paper I argue the opposite: that Jesus’ exorcisms and healings as well as his emphasis on moral or ethical behavior are rooted in biblical concerns with the maintenance of holiness. The concept of holiness centers on the God of Israel (sometimes represented by his presence or name), who is holy.8 By way of extension, everyone and everything associated with the God of Israel, including his dwelling place(s) in heaven and on earth, his heavenly and earthly representatives and attendants (angels and priests), his cult (sacrifices, tithes and offerings, and cultic objects), and his people and their land (Israel), are expected to be holy. Time can also be holy, as for example the Sabbath and certain festivals, when the people of Israel are in communion with their God.9 The transgression of holiness due to profanation or pollution has the potential to cause the God of Israel to abandon his people. Profanation transforms the holy into the common, whereas impure or unclean people and objects cause the pollution of holy space.10

Due to God’s holiness, the Hebrew Bible mandates that only perfect, unblemished, pure creatures (Israelites and sacrificial animals) may enter his presence.11 By definition, then, only creatures who fulfil these criteria will be admitted to the eschatological kingdom of God on earth.12 The author of the apocalyptic work 1 Enoch 10: 20–22 describes the elimination of evil-doing in the eschaton, which had polluted the earth: ‘And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth destroy from off the earth… And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement…’13 Although other ancient peoples had similar cultic purity laws, Judaism was distinguished by the development of an apocalyptic outlook, according to which God’s kingdom would be established on earth, leading to an expansion of requirements for purity and perfection (a consequence of Judaism’s peculiarities, including monolatry; a written scripture containing God’s laws [the Torah]; and the biblical Holiness Code, which extends to all Israel the requirement to be holy).14

In this paper, I suggest that Jesus’ exorcisms and healings were intended not merely as apocalyptic signs, but were performed by Jesus and his disciples as God’s agents to effect the admission of the diseased and disabled into the kingdom of God. Jesus thereby sought to eliminate the profane and impure conditions that would have disqualified these individuals from entering God’s presence. My proposal means that Jesus acted in accordance with biblical law, and that he took for granted purity observance, which is necessary for the maintenance of God’s holiness.15 Although profane and impure are separate categories, and therefore the profane is not automatically or necessarily impure, the distinction between these categories can be blurred.16 For example, in addition to attributing profane diseases and physical disabilities to evil spirits or demons, the Qumran sect considered these evil forces impure.17 Cecilia Wassen has highlighted the connection between apocalyptic expectations and demons and evil spirits, diseases and disabilities, and impurity, describing the Qumran sect’s concern ‘to maintain purity and perfection in the presence of angels for the short time remaining before the final destruction of all the evil powers and the beginning of a new, glorious era.’18 The New Testament references to Jesus exorcising unclean spirits show that beliefs connecting demons and evil spirits, diseases and disabilities, impurity, and apocalyptic expectations were widespread among the Jewish population.19

Jesus’ emphasis on moral or ethical purity should be understood as reflecting his concern to ensure Israel’s entry to the kingdom of God. Jesus’ seeming indifference to ritual purity may be due to the fact that it is an impermanent condition that can be remedied relatively quickly and easily.20 In contrast, certain moral violations (sexual transgressions, idolatry, and bloodshed; see Numbers 35: 30–34) are abominations that defile the land and cause God to abandon his sanctuary and people.21 The severe consequences of these violations explain why Israel’s ethical behavior was of such concern to the biblical prophets.22 Moral impurity cannot be cleansed through a process of ritual purification, but instead requires punishment or atonement, or, as Jonathan Klawans says, ‘best of all, by refraining from committing morally impure acts in the first place.’23 Jesus’ repeated exhortations to refrain from immoral or unethical behavior reflect a fear of pollution that had the potential to repel God’s presence.24 Similarly, the people who Jesus reportedly cured suffered from long-term or permanent afflictions which could not be reversed by ritual purification.25 As Saul Olyan remarks, ‘As is true of all who are excluded from the sanctuary sphere because of long-term pollution, removal because of physical defects, whether they are conceived as polluting or not, stigmatizes those removed.’26

Not only were skin diseases such as leprosy a source of impurity, but the Temple Scroll indicates that in some Jewish circles, the blind were considered impure:27

‘No blind person shall enter it [Jerusalem] all their days, so they shall not defile the city in which I dwell; for I, the Lord, dwell among the children of Israel forever and ever.’ (11QT 45:12–14)28

Yigael Yadin noted that the Temple Scroll expands purity requirements to all of Jerusalem because it is the city where God’s presence dwells, and he understood the reference to the blind as denoting physical defects in general.29 Even if not all diseased and disabled individuals were considered impure, their profane condition would have disqualified them from entering God’s presence. In discussing 2 Sam 5:8b’s reference to ‘the blind and the lame [who] shall not enter the house’ (describing David’s conquest of Jerusalem), Olyan concludes that whether or not these disabilities were considered defiling, physical blemishes disqualified individuals (and animals) from entering God’s presence as if they were defiled: ‘…the blemished worshiper, whether his defect is constructed as profaning or polluting, has effectively become the equal of the polluted person… In these texts, the effect of having a blemish is the same as that of being polluted, whether the blemished individual is constructed as polluting or not.’30 Similarly, concerning priests Aharon Shemesh observes that, ‘the notion of individuals with deformities appearing before God is intolerable. It proclaims lack of perfection and is perceived as hurling defiance at God. There can be no greater profanation of the sacred.’31 When considered in this light, Jesus’ exorcisms, healings, and admonitions to behave morally may be understood as reflecting a desire to prepare Israel for entry to the kingdom of God according to biblically mandated criteria.

Like Jesus, the Qumran sect had an apocalyptic world view and anticipated the imminent arrival of the eschaton. They too believed that only perfect, unblemished, pure creatures may enter the divine realm. However, in contrast to Jesus, the Qumran sect effected this by excluding the blemished and impure from the sectarian assembly in their day and from the messianic assembly/eschatological council of the community.32 I begin by examining the evidence from Qumran.

Eschatological Perfection and Purity in the Qumran Sect

The Qumran sect believed that the end of days was imminent and would be marked by the arrival of two messiahs: a royal messiah (of Israel) (referred to as the ‘prince’ [nasi] or ‘prince of the congregation’ in the War Rule, War Scroll, and Damascus Document [CD 7:20–21]) and a priestly messiah (of Aaron). One or both messiahs would play a leadership role in a violent upheaval – a forty-year long eschatological war – that would obliterate evil and usher in a utopian era with the establishment of an eschatological temple in a new and purified Jerusalem (see 1QM; 4Q285).33

Apocalyptic literature is well-represented among the Dead Sea Scrolls, and although none of the major sectarian works is written in the form of an apocalypse, they express a typically apocalyptic world view. These works include the following genres: the serekh or rule book, the pesher or commentary, and thanksgiving hymns (Hodayot).34

The Rule of the Congregation (1QSa), which Lawrence Schiffman characterizes as ‘Among the most significant documents of apocalyptic speculation deriving from the Qumran sect,’ describes the community in the messianic era.35 He says that ‘the sect lived on the verge of the eschaton, with one foot, as it were, in the present age and one foot in the future age. The messianic era would happen in their lifetime. Their life in the sect was dedicated to preparing for that new age by living as if it had already come.’36 As Heinz-Wolf Kuhn notes, the Qumran sect transposed future eschatological concepts into the present.37 Referring to the War Rule, John Collins says, ‘Here again the sense that the community is already living the angelic life renders the conventions of apocalyptic revelation superfluous. While the readers of an apocalypse might glimpse the heavenly world as through a glass darkly, the sectarians of Qumran believed that they encountered it face to face.’38 According to Schiffman, ‘The Rule of the Congregation presents an eschatological “mirror image” of the Community Rule, which contains legislation that attempted to create messianic conditions even before the eschaton.’39 To achieve these conditions, both works envision communities of absolute purity and perfection.40

The Rule of the Congregation opens:

‘And this is the rule of all the congregation of Israel in the final days, when they gather [in community to wa]lk in accordance with the regulation of the sons of Zadok, the priests, and the men of their covenant who have turn[ed away from the] path of the nation. These are the men of his counsel who have kept his covenant in the midst of wickedness to ato[ne for the ear]th.’ (1QSa 1:1–3)41

The congregation of Israel consists of members of the sect led by the Sons of Zadok, the priests, and the men of the counsel.42 All the people of this new Israel, including women and children, are to assemble for a renewal of the covenant ceremony, to be instructed in the Torah according to sectarian interpretation. This ceremony is modeled after Deuteronomy 29, where Moses assembled ‘all of Israel’ in Moab for the renewal of the covenant:43

When they come, they shall assemble all those who come, including children and women, and they shall read into [their] ea[rs] [a]ll the precepts of the covenant, and shall instruct them in all their regulations, so that they do not stray in [the]ir e[rrors.] (1QSa 1:4–5)

You stand assembled today, all of you, before the Lord your God – the leaders of your tribes, your elders, and your officials, all the men of Israel, your children, your women and the aliens who are in your camp, both those who cut your wood and those who draw your water – to enter into the covenant of the Lord your God, sworn by an oath, which the Lord your God is making with you today, in order that he may establish you today as his people, and that he may be your God… (Deut. 29:10–15)44

Schiffman assumes that the instruction described in 1QSa would have involved a process of initiation analogous to the admission of new members into the sect.45

The Rule of the Congregation continues by detailing the duties of adult males who are full members (described as ‘the hosts [or armies] of the congregation… every native-born in Israel’) at various stages of life, proceeding from youth to old age (1QSa 1:6–19). Men were eligible for full membership only upon reaching the age of twenty, when they were also permitted to marry (1QSa 1:8–11). Mentally incompetent men were excluded from administrative, judicial, and military service:46

‘No man who is a simpleton shall enter the lot to hold office in the congregation of Israel for dispute or judgment, or to perform a task of the congregation, or to go out to war to subdue the nations; he shall only write his family in the army register, and he will do his service in the chores to the extent of his ability.’ (1QSa 1:19–22)

1QSa 1:25–27 and 2:1–3 define the functions and composition of the assembly, which will be convened for the purposes of judgment, council of the community, and to declare war.47 The assembly will include sages and wise men (described as ‘ones of perfect path and men of valor’), the officers over tribes, judges, Levites, and will be led by ‘the Sons of Zadok, the priests.’48 The fact that the assembly would decide when to declare war indicates that 1QSa describes conditions at the dawn of the eschaton – a messianic era preceding the final war which would obliterate evil and Israel’s enemies.49 This is the setting for the legislation in this document.

1QSa 1:25–27 specifies that everyone participating in meetings of the assembly must be in a state of absolute purity and perfection, reflecting the sectarian belief that the assembly was divinely inspired and operating in the presence of angels:50

And if there is a convocation of all the assembly for a judgment, or for the community council, or for a convocation of war, they shall sanctify themselves during three days, so that every one who comes is pre[pared for the cou]ncil.

Due to holiness concerns, 1QSa 1:3–9 excludes all adult men who are impure or imperfect due to physical deformities, disease, or old age:51

No man, defiled by any of the impurities of a man, shall enter the assembly of these; and no-one who is defiled by these should be established in his office among the congregation: everyone who is defiled in his flesh, paralysed in his feet or in his hands, lame, blind, deaf, dumb or defiled in his flesh with a blemish visible to the eyes, or the tottering old man who cannot keep upright in the midst of the assembly; these shall not en[ter] to take their place [a]mong the congregation of the men of renown, for the angels of holiness are among their [congre]gation.

The phrase ‘impurities of a man’ (human impurities) denotes any kind of ritual impurity, and, in my opinion, it reflects the ideal of imitatio Dei (or, more accurately, angelic imitation) which underlies this passage.52

The blanket prohibition excluding all ritually impure men from the assembly is followed by a list that expands upon this ban. Defilement of the flesh refers to impurities from causes other than seminal emissions, including gonorrhea, skin disease and other diseases, and corpse-impurity.53 Physical deformities and blemishes also disqualified men from admission to the assembly, specifically, being crippled in the legs or hands (physical deformities), being lame (walking with a limp), and being blind, deaf, or dumb.54 Men afflicted with temporary blemishes (those defiled in the flesh with a blemish visible to the eyes) were excluded. Schiffman understands ‘the tottering old man’ as denoting anyone over the age of sixty, at which age members were excluded from the council of the community.55 Shemesh suggests that ‘tottering’ was considered a physical disability and therefore a blemish, constituting a reason for exclusion.56 As noted above, 11QT 45:12–14 indicates that some Jews considered the blind (and perhaps people with other disabilities) not only blemished (profane) but impure. In any case, both profane and impure conditions are covered by the blanket prohibition in this legislation.

The physical disabilities listed in this passage are permanent or semi-permanent conditions that cannot be remedied by ritual purification. Nevertheless, like ritual impurity they disqualified men from the assembly.57 The underlying rationale is based on biblical law, according to which only ritually pure and unblemished creatures may enter God’s presence, with even stricter requirements for the priests who serve him.58 1QSa makes this explicit by explaining that impure, deformed, and diseased men are excluded from the assembly due to the presence of ‘the angels of holiness.’ In other words, anyone with any kind of human impurity or physical affliction or blemish – conditions which distinguish humans from angels - was excluded from the assembly. The idea is that humans in God’s presence should be like angels – absolutely pure and physically perfect. The Qumran sect applied this ideal to the present as well as the future, as Collins notes: ‘The goal of the Qumran community… was an angelic form of life.’59 Klawans argues that this does not mean the sectarians believed the divine presence dwelt among them in the present age, as ‘there is a clear difference between dwelling among the angels and dwelling among a divine presence.’60 However, a passage in the War Scroll suggests the sectarians did not make this distinction:61

You, God, are awe[some] in the splendor of your majesty, and the congregation of your holy ones is amongst us for everlasting assistance. We will [treat] kings with contempt, with jeers and mockery the heroes, for the Lord is holy and the King of glory is with us the nation of his holy ones are [our] he[roes, and] the army of his angels is enlisted with us; the war hero is in our congregation; the army of his spirits is with our steps. (1QM 12:7–9)

Parallels to the exclusionary list in 1QSa 1:3–9 are found in other works such as 11QT and CD.62 The War Scroll, which describes the forty-year long eschatological war, provides the largest number of parallels and the closest parallels. These include banning from the war camp all women and children (1QM 7:3–4), men who are impure due to seminal emissions and are defiled in the flesh (1QM 7:4–6), and men who are lame, blind, crippled, or have a permanent blemish (1QM 7:4):63

And no young boy or any woman at all shall enter the camps when they leave Jerusalem to go to war, until they return. And no lame, blind, paralysed person nor any man who has an indelible blemish on his flesh, nor any man suffering from uncleanness in his flesh, none of these will go out to war with them. All these shall be volunteers for war, perfect in spirit and in body, and ready for the day of vengeance. (1QM 7:3–5)

Women and children were banned from the eschatological assembly and the war camp to avoid the possibility of sexual activities that could cause ritual impurity.64 As Klawans puts it, ‘By separating from sex and death – by following the ritual purity regulations – ancient Israelites (and especially ancient Israelite priests and Levites) separated themselves from what made them least God-like. In other words, the point of following these regulations is nothing other than the theological underpinning of the entire Holiness Code: imitatio Dei.’65 Like the Rule of the Congregation, 1QM makes explicit that these exclusions are due to the presence of angels:

And every man who has not cleansed himself of his ‘spring’ on the day of battle will not go down with them, for the holy angels are together with their armies. (1QM 7:5–6)

The underlying concern is to keep God’s presence, represented by his angels, among the army to ensure victory. Violations of the exclusionary ban had the potential to drive away God and his angels.

1QSa describes a messianic era that precedes the eschatological war and the time of salvation that would follow it. Collins notes, ‘The conditions of human existence are not greatly altered by the coming of the Messiahs. Provision must still be made for the education of children and for community meals and regulations.’66 The arrival of the messiahs was expected to precede, not follow the eschatological war, as indicated by the involvement of the royal messiah (the ‘prince’ [nasi] or ‘prince of the congregation’).67

The War Rule, represented by fragments from Caves 4 and 11, not only refers to the royal messiah in connection with the eschatological war, but provides a rare glimpse into the utopia expected to follow the war:

May God Most High bless you, may he show you his face, and may he open for you his good treasure which is in the heavens, to cause to fall down on your earth showers of blessing, dew, and rain, early and late rains in their season, and to give you fru[it,] the harvests of wheat, of wine and of oil in plenty. And for you the land will yield [de]licious fruits. And you shall eat (them) and be replete. In your land there will be no miscarriage nor will one be sick; drought and blight will not be seen in its harvests; [there will be no disease] at all or [stum]bling blocks in your congregation, and wild animals will vanish from [the land. There will be no pesti]lence in your land. For God is with you and [his holy] angels [are] in the midst of your Community. (11Q14 [11QSM] Frag. 1 Col. ii = 4Q285 Frag. 1 3–9)

This vision of utopia is characterized by plentiful rain and bountiful harvests, without drought, blight, pestilence, or wild animals. Moreover, there will be no more miscarriages (death), sickness, or disease. In other words, the conditions that cause human suffering – and distinguish humans from angels – will be eliminated. This is because only pure and perfect creatures may dwell in the kingdom of God, for only they may enter his presence: ‘For God is with you and [his holy] angels [are] in the midst of your Community.’ According to this view, absolute human purity and perfection are prerequisites for the kingdom of God, not merely consequences of its establishment. This is the reason for the exclusionary bans in the Rule of the Congregation and the War Scroll, and it explains why the apocalyptic Qumran sect was so concerned with the scrupulous observance of these laws.

Jesus and Eschatological Perfection and Purity

The Gospel accounts indicate that Jesus shared apocalyptic expectations similar to those of the Qumran sect, including a distinction between a messianic era and a violent upheaval that would usher in the kingdom of God on earth.68 Jesus believed that the end of days was already underway, with the arrival of a messianic figure (who Jesus identifies as himself in Mark).69 Ehrman notes, ‘The very first thing that Jesus is recorded to have said in our very earliest surviving source [Mk 1:14–15] involves an apocalyptic pronouncement of the coming Kingdom of God.’70

Jesus’ exorcising of demons, healing of the sick, and raising of the dead are presented as signs that the kingdom of God has arrived:71

When the men had come to him, they asked, ‘John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask, ‘Are you the one who is to come, or are we to wait for another?’ Jesus had just then cured many people of diseases, plagues, and evil spirits, and had given sight to many who were blind. And he answered them, “Go and tell John that you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, the poor have good news brought to them”. (Lk. 7:20–22 = Mt. 11:2–5 [Q])72

Jesus reportedly even performed healings on the Sabbath (Mk 3:1–6; Lk. 13:10–17), imparting a sense of urgency to his mission while drawing the criticism of his opponents.

The messianic era would be followed by a violent upheaval overseen by the Son of Man, which would eliminate evil and reverse the current world order, leading to the establishment of God’s kingdom on earth (see Mk 8:38–9:1; 9:35; 10:24–31; 13:7–8; 13:19–20; 13:24–27; 13:30).73

In Mark’s account, Jesus embarked on a campaign of exorcisms and healings immediately after being baptized by John and assembling a group of disciples.74 Already in Mk 1:21, while teaching in the synagogue at Capernaum, Jesus exorcised a man with an unclean spirit. This was followed by the performance of many more exorcisms and the healing of numerous people who suffered from various diseases and disabilities. Early on, Mk 1:40–45 refers to Jesus healing a leper:75

A leper came to him begging him, and kneeling he said to him, “If you choose, you can make me clean.” Moved with pity, Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, and said to him, “I do choose. Be made clean!” Immediately the leprosy left him, and he was made clean. After sternly warning him he sent him away at once, saying to him, “See that you say nothing to anyone; but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing what Moses commanded, as a testimony to them”.

This passage describes Jesus as ‘cleansing’ rather than healing the leper, reflecting an underlying concern with purification. Jesus then referred the leper to a priest, as biblical law gives priests alone the authority to diagnose leprosy and pronounce someone cured, at which point the former leper was required to undergo a process of ritual purification (see Lev. 13–14; Deut. 24:8).76 This suggests that rather than rejecting ritual purification, Jesus took it for granted.77

According to the Gospel accounts, the afflictions that Jesus cured are leprosy, paralysis, a withered hand, hemorrhages, deafness, dumbness, and blindness.78 These correspond with afflictions mentioned in 1QSa 1:3–9 as disqualifying men from admission to the sectarian eschatological assembly. This correspondence suggests that like the Qumran sect, Jesus assumed that all creatures entering God’s presence must be absolutely pure and perfect. Therefore, Jesus’ exorcisms and healings were intended to enable those suffering from diseases, physical deformities and disabilities, and ‘unclean spirits’ or demonic possession to enter the kingdom of God.

Whereas Jesus’ attitude towards the diseased and disabled can be characterized as inclusive and proactive, the Qumran sect was exclusive and reactive. During his Galilean ministry Jesus went out of his way to heal as many unfortunates as possible, even empowering his disciples to perform exorcisms and healings.79 In contrast, the Qumran sect established strict admission criteria excluding the diseased and disabled from full membership. The Qumran sect attempted to create a demon-free congregation by banning the diseased and disabled: ‘Living at the dawn of the eschaton, the sectarians were deeply aware of the evil forces’ destructive and deceiving abilities and therefore developed coping strategies to protect themselves and join forces with the angels in combat.’80 Jesus, however, sought to overcome demons by casting them out. According to Q, Jesus’ first act after his baptism by John was to overcome Satan’s temptation (Mt. 4:1–11; Mk 1:12–13; Lk. 4:1–3), thereby establishing his ability to defeat demons.81 The eschatological dimension of Jesus’ exorcisms is expressed clearly in another Q passage: ‘But if it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come to you.’ (Lk. 11:20; Mt. 12:28)82

The Community Rule makes clear that impurity stemming from immoral or unethical behavior cannot be cleansed by means of ritual purification, but instead requires repentance:

And anyone who declines to enter [the covenant of Go]d in order to walk in the stubbornness of his heart shall not [enter the Com]munity of his truth, since his soul loathes the disciplines of knowledge of just judgments. He has not the strength to convert his life and shall not be counted with the upright… In the source of the perfect he shall not be counted. He will not become clean by the acts of atonement, nor shall he be purified by the cleansing waters, nor shall he be made holy by seas or rivers, nor shall he be purified by all the water of ablution. Defiled, defiled shall he be all the days he spurns the decrees of God, without allowing himself to be taught by the Community of his counsel. (1QS 2:25–3:1–6)

He should not go into the waters to share in the pure food of the men of holiness, for one is not cleansed unless one turns away from one’s wickedness, for he is unclean among all the transgressors of his word. (1QS 5:13–14)

However, to the spirit of deceit belong greed, sluggishness in the service of justice, wickedness, falsehood, pride, haughtiness of heart, dishonesty, trickery, cruelty, much insincerity, impatience, much foolishness, impudent enthusiasm for appalling acts performed in a lustful passion, filthy paths in the service of impurity, blasphemous tongue, blindness of eyes, hardness of hearing, stiffness of neck, hardness of heart in order to walk in all the paths of darkness and evil cunning.. And the visitation of all those who walk in it will be for an abundance of afflictions at the hands of all the angels of destruction, for eternal damnation by the scorching wrath of the God of revenges… (1QS 4:9–12)

Similarly, Jesus must have been concerned with immoral or unethical behavior because it causes impurity that cannot be cleansed by means of ritual purification. Jesus focused on conditions that cannot be reversed through ritual purification alone, specifically, permanent and semi-permanent diseases and physical deformities and disabilities (which he and his disciples tried to heal), and immoral and unethical behavior (which he urged his followers to avoid):

He said to them, “Then do you also fail to understand? Do you not see that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile, since it enters, not the heart but the stomach, and goes out into the sewer!” And he said, “It is what comes out of a person that defiles. For it is from within, from the human heart that evil intentions come: fornication, theft, murder, adultery, avarice, wickedness, deceit, licentiousness, envy, slander, pride, folly. All these things come from within, and they defile a person”. (Mk 7:18–23)

According to Mark, Jesus claimed to be the messiah:

Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?” Jesus said, “I am; and ‘you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power,’ and ‘coming with the clouds of heaven’.”(Mk 14:61–62)

If true, this means that Jesus’ vision of the end of days included a messianic figure whose healings and exorcisms were intended to enable the diseased and disabled to enter the coming kingdom of God.83 In contrast, the messiahs in 1QSa do not heal the diseased and disabled, who were excluded from the eschatological assembly and table fellowship.84 However, 4Q521 (the ‘Messianic Apocalypse’), which might not be a sectarian work, displays striking parallels to the Gospel accounts, and in particular Q:85

…[for the heav]ens and the earth will listen to his anointed one, [and all th]at is in them will not turn away from the precepts of the holy ones. Strengthen yourselves, you who are seeking the Lord, in his service! Will you not in this encounter the Lord, all those who hope in their heart? For the Lord will consider the pious, and all the righteous by name, and his spirit will hover upon the poor, and he will renew the faithful with his strength. For he will honor the pious upon the throne of an eternal kingdom, freeing prisoners, giving sight to the blind, straightening out the twisted [my translation: those who are bent over]… And the Lord will perform marvelous acts such as have not existed, just as he sa[id], [for] he will heal the badly wounded and will make the dead live… (4Q521 Frag. 2 2:1–12)

Both 4Q521 and Q contain references to healing the blind, raising the dead, and preaching to the poor that are drawn from Isa. 35:5; 29:18; 26:19; 61:1 and Ps. 146:1–8.86 Kuhn suggests that these commonalities point to ‘a common Jewish tradition that describes the time of salvation.’87 In 4Q521, it is God himself, not a messiah (like Jesus), who performs ‘these marvelous acts.’88 The oracle in Isa. 35 makes clear the connection between salvation, perfection, and purity:

The wilderness and the dry land shall be glad, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom… They shall see the glory of the Lord, the majesty of our God… Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf unstopped; then the lame shall leap like a deer, and the tongue of the speechless sing for joy… A highway shall be there, and it shall be called the Holy Way; the unclean shall not travel on it, but it shall be for God’s people; no traveler, not even fools, shall go astray.

Conclusion

Smith suggested that the ‘mystery [or secret] of the kingdom’ mentioned in Mk 4:11 ‘was a magical rite, by which initiates were made to believe that they had entered the kingdom and so escaped from the realm of Mosaic Law.’89 This view de-Judaizes Jesus and anachronistically assumes that he envisioned a kingdom of God without the Torah.90 How could Jesus act as God’s agent to bring about his kingdom without observing the laws that God gave his people Israel? Collins notes that, ‘The “apocalyptic” character of a community lies in this hope for angelic support and eschatological vindication, not in its specific practice or its understanding of the Law.’91 In this paper, I have proposed that Jesus’ exorcisms and healings as well as his emphasis on moral or ethical behavior are rooted in biblical concerns with the maintenance of holiness. Due to God’s holiness, all creatures entering his presence must be absolutely pure and perfect, making these conditions a prerequisite for the establishment of his eschatological kingdom on earth.92

1 For overviews see John J. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (Grand Rapids, mi: Eerdmans, 1998), pp. 257–63; Albert L. A. Hogeterp, Expectations of the End. A Comparative Traditio-Historical Study of Eschatological, Apocalpytic and Messianic Ideas in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament (Leiden: Brill, 2009), pp. ­7–10, 133, 156–61. I am grateful to Bart Ehrman, Bennie Reynolds, Jason Staples, Cecilia Wassen, Jonathan Klawans, and Lutz Doering for their comments on this paper, although I alone am responsible for its contents.

2 The notion that earthly fortunes will be reversed in the kingdom of God seems to correspond to Leach’s model of ritual (Model I), in which ‘The concept of the Other World is generated by direct inversion of the characteristics of ordinary experience’; see Edmund Leach, Culture and Communication, The Logic by Which Symbols are Connected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976), p. 81.

3 Bart D. Ehrman, Jesus, Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 21; also see pp. 177, 180.

4 Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 165–67.

5 Mark and Q; see Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, 197–99; Morton Smith, Jesus the Magician (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978), pp. 10–12; Thomas Kazan, Jesus and Purity Halakhah, Was Jesus Indifferent to Purity? (Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 2002), p. 332.

6 See Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 198–99; Émile Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, in E. Ulrich and J. VanderKam (eds.), The Community of the Renewed Covenant, The Notre Dame Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Notre Dame, in: Notre Dame University Press, 1993), pp. 235–56 (244). Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 324–25, says, ‘While it is possible to look at magic and miracles outside an eschatological context, this is not likely in the case of Jesus. This applies especially to his exorcisms. The overall context for Jesus’ activities, according to the Synoptic gospel traditions, is the kingdom of God.’

7 Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 144. For Jesus’ miraculous healings, see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 91–198.

8 For an overview, see David P. Wright, ‘Holiness (ot)’, in D. N. Freedman (ed.), The Anchor Bible Dictionary, 3 (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 237–49.

9 See Saul M. Olyan, Rites and Rank, Hierarchy of Biblical Representations in Cult (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), pp. 17–18.

10 For the distinctions between holy and profane (or common), and pure and impure, see Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 15–27, 129–31 nn. 10, 12; Wright, ‘Holiness’, 246. Also see David P. Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, in D. N. Freedman (ed.), The Anchor Bible Dictionary, 6 (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 729–41. Doering observes that pollution requires physical contact with impurity (space), whereas time is susceptible to desecration but not pollution; see Lutz Doering, ‘The Concept of the Sabbath in the Book of Jubilees’, in M. ­Albani, J. Frey, and A. Lange (eds.), Studies in the Book of Jubilees (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997), pp. 179–205 (196).

11 See Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 104, 108; Jonathan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple. Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (New York: Oxford ­University Press, 2006), pp. 58, 63, 112. For the extension of this requirement within the sacred area of the temple to all Israelites and not only priests, see Aharon Shemesh, ‘”The Holy Angels Are in Their Council”: The Exclusion of Deformed Persons from Holy Places in Qumranic and Rabbinic Literature’, dsd 4.2 (1997), pp. 179–206 (185–86).

12 Lutz Doering’s proposal (in his oral response to this paper) that the eschatological kingdom of God on earth is envisioned as the primordial garden does not affect my basic premise, as God’s presence in the Garden of Eden makes it analogous to his kingdom, which means the same requirements for perfection and purity apply to both. For conditions in the Garden of Eden, see Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, p. 739; Wright, ‘Holiness’, p. 243. Also see Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels are in Their Council’, p. 189, who describes the ‘human-divine encounter of man standing before God.’

13 From Robert H. Charles, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, 2, Pseudepigrapha (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 195.

14 Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 132, acknowledges that the expectation of a coming kingdom of God is peculiarly Jewish.

15 See Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 16–17. For Jesus’ attitude to ritual purity laws, see Kazen, Jesus and Purity. I agree with Cecilia Wassen, ‘The Jewishness of Jesus and Ritual Purity’, that ‘There is no evidence that Jesus transgressed, challenged, or disregarded purity laws,’ and that most Jews were not generally concerned with avoiding impurity (I am grateful to Wassen for sharing with me her unpublished paper). For the importance of purity – both ritual and moral - in God’s presence and kingdom, see Bruce Chilton, Pure Kingdom, Jesus’ Vision of God (Grand Rapids, mi: Eerdmans, 1996), pp. 38–40. However, Chilton frames Jesus’ purity concerns with regard to the kingdom of God mainly in relation to table fellowship; see pp. 80, 90, 98. For a critique of Chilton’s position see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 24–25.

16 See Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 17, 49, 172 n. 36; Wright, ‘Holiness’, pp. 245–46; Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, p. 736. David P. Wright, The Disposal of Impurity (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987), p. 163 (and ff.), argues that ‘only communicable impurities, those which can pollute the profane sphere, are excluded from or restricted in this sphere, while noncommunicable impurities, those which cannot affect other nonholy persons and objects, are not excluded from or restricted in this sphere. These lesser impurities, like all impurities, are only restricted from the holy sphere.’

17 For demons as causes of diseases and disabilities, see Cecilia Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have against the Blind and the Deaf? Rules of Exclusion in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in: W. O. McCready and A. Reinhartz (eds.), Common Judaism, Explorations in Second-­Temple Judaism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2008), pp. 115–29. Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, p. 739, and Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 129 n. 10, each notes that in the Hebrew Bible impurity is non-demonic in nature.

18 Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 129.

19 Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 125. Also see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 300–13; Chilton, Pure Kingdom, p. 70.

20 Whereas Kazen, Jesus and Purity, p. 338, concludes that, ‘In view of God’s coming reign, and the powers of authority associated with it, Jesus did not regard impurity in the form of contact-contagion as menacing enough to give it much attention.’

21 Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, pp. 54–55, 70–71, 93. Also see Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 144 n. 16, who describes these as ‘behavioral offenses,’ while Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, 733, categorizes them as ‘prohibited impurities’ (in contrast to unavoidable impurities). Feder distinguishes between ‘cultic’ and ‘non-cultic’ instead of ‘ritual’ and ‘moral’ purity and impurity; see Yitzhak Feder, ‘The Wilderness Camp Paradigm in the Holiness Source and the Temple Scroll: From Purity Laws to Cult Politics’, jaj 5.3 (2014), pp. 290–310 (305–6 including n. 69). Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 204–35, 261, criticizes Klawans’ equation of literal with ritual purity and metaphorical with moral impurity.

22 Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 93.

23 Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 55. Also see Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 144 n. 16.

24 Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 59, notes that moral or behavioral violations cause long-term pollution.

25 For recent discussions of scholarly categorizations of purity and impurity, see Tracy M. Lemos, ‘Where There is Dirt, Is There System? Revisiting Biblical Purity Constructions’, jsot 37.3 (2013), pp. 265–94; Thomas Kazen, ‘The Role of Disgust in Priestly Purity Law’, Journal of Law, Religion and State 3 (2014), pp. 62–92; Yitzhak Feder, ‘Contagion and Cognition: Bodily Experience and the Conceptualization of Pollution (tumah) in the Hebrew Bible’, jnes 72.2 (2014), pp. 151–67. Lemos and Kazen question the validity of such categories (e. g. ritual versus moral impurity). In this paper, I employ Klawans’ terminology of ritual versus moral purity and impurity to denote those types of impurity caused by temporary conditions which can be reversed by ritual immersion and the passage of time, as opposed to types of impurity caused by long-term or permanent afflictions or disabilities or immoral acts which cannot be cured or reversed through such processes.

26 Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 113.

27 See Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 154; Saul M. Olyan, ‘The Exegetical Dimensions of Restrictions on the Blind and the Lame in Texts from Qumran’, dsd 8.1 (2001), pp. 38–50 (40 n. 6; 43 n. 18).

28 From Yigael Yadin, The Temple Scroll, 2 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1983), p. 193.

29 Yadin, Temple Scroll, 1, pp. 278–81, 289–91, who notes that the basis is Isa 52:1. Yadin’s interpretation of this passage as referring not only to the blind but to the physically disabled in general has been rejected by some scholars; see Olyan, ‘Exegetical Dimensions’, p. 41; Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, pp. 195 n. 39, 201 n. 60.

30 Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 113–14 (quote is from p. 114). Also see Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, p. 184, who discusses the exclusion of the uncircumcised and unclean from Jerusalem in Isa 52:1.

31 Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, p. 189; also see p. 188: ‘Scripture characterizes the performance of sacred duties by priests with deformities as profanation of the Temple… This profanation evidently arises from the polarity between holiness, perceived as perfection, and deformity, its opposite.’

32 Lawrence H. Schiffman, The Eschatological Community of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), pp. 37, 51; Heinz-Wolfgang Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, in L. H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 404–8 (405).

33 John J. Collins, The Scepter and the Star, The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature (New York: Doubleday, 1996), pp. 59, 76, 109; John J. Collins, ‘Eschatology’, in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1, pp. 256–61; John J. Collins, ‘Teacher and Messiah? The One Who Will Teach Righteousness at the End of Days’, in The Community of the Renewed Covenant, pp. 193–210 (195–96, 199); Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 157; Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 6–7. For an overview, see Michael A. Knibb, ‘Eschatology and Messianism in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in P. W. Flint and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years, 2 (Leiden: Brill, 1999), pp. 379–402. For the term ‘end of days,’ see Collins, The Scepter and the Star, pp. 104–9; John J. Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Routledge, 1997), p. 151.

34 See Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 147; Devorah Dimant, ‘Apocalyptic Texts at Qumran’, in The Community of the Renewed Covenant, pp. 175–91 (179–80, 188–89); Hogeterp, Expectations of the End, pp. 336–39.

35 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 8.

36 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 7. Collins, ‘Teacher and Messiah?’, 196, argues (pace George Brooke) that the sect did not believe the end of days was underway. According to Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 253, ‘the Essenes did not adopt a purely realized eschatology.’ For a critique of Puech’s view, see Knibb, ‘Eschatology’, p. 384; also see John J. Collins, ‘Apocalypticism and Literary Genre in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years, 2, pp. 403–30 (426–27).

37 Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, 407; also see Heinz.-Wolfgang Kuhn, ‘Qumran Texts and the Historical Jesus: Parallels in Contrast’, in L. H. Schiffman, E. Tov, and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls Fifty Years After their Discovery, Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2000), pp. 573–580 (579); Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, 177, 180.

38 Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 152–53.

39 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 9.

40 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 7, 9.

41 Unless otherwise indicated, all translations of Dead Sea Scrolls are from Florentino García Martínez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition 1–2 (Grand Rapids, mi: Eerdmans, 2000).

42 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 12.

43 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 13.

44 All biblical passages are from the nrsv.

45 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 13.

46 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 25.

47 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 32–33.

48 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 33–35, who notes the parallels to Exodus and Deuteronomy.

49 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 31.

50 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 32, noting parallels to Exod 19:10–15.

51 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 36.

52 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 38–39. For imitatio Dei and imitatio angeli, see Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, pp. 58, 62–63, 112–13.

53 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 39, 42.

54 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 43–46.

55 Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 49.

56 Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, pp. 192, 196. He notes (pp. 196–97) that the list in 1QSa is limited to physical deformities and does not include mental disabilities.

57 See Olyan, ‘Exegetical Dimensions’, p. 48, who attributes the exclusion of the blind and the lame in 1QSa and 1QM to profanation rather than pollution, but notes that these ­categories are based on biblical legislation concerning pollution. Also see Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 111.

58 See Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 40–49.

59 Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 176; also see Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 128.

60 Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 166.

61 Also see Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, p. 194: ‘As in rabbinic law, the proximity of “holy angels” [in 1QM, 1QSa, and cd]… stands for the divine presence itself…’; and 194 n. 37. On p. 195, Shemesh says in relation to 1QSa, ‘Due to the presence of God within the Qumran community the aforementioned individuals [the disabled] cannot stand there.’

62 See Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 40–41, 47–49; Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 121.

63 See Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 39, 46–47, 51.

64 See Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 127, who attributes the exclusion of boys from the war camp in M to age requirements; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 97; Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 51.

65 Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 58. Also see Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, p. 739: ‘…impurity is human centered. It arises mainly out of persons’ bodily conditions and sins…’

66 Collins, ‘Eschatology’, 258; also Collins, ‘Teacher and Messiah?’, p. 199.

67 Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 59; Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 167; Martin G. Abegg, ‘Messianic Hope and 4Q285: A Reassessment’, jbl 113.1 (1994), pp. 81–91 (86); also see 11Q14; 1QM 5:1; cd 7:20–21.

68 See Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 255; Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, p. 142.

69 For the imminence of the end, see Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 160–61; Chilton, Pure Kingdom, pp. 15, 16, 57–66, 97.

70 Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 141–42.

71 See Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, p. 407; Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 244; Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 11.

72 For other Q passages indicating that the end of days was underway, see Lk. 11:19–20 = Mt. 12:28; Lk. 10:23–24 = Mt. 13:16–17; Mk 2:19a = Mt. 9:15a = Lk. 5:34. For Q passages with Jesus’ apocalyptic predictions, see Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, p. 129 (Lk. 17:24; 26–27, 30; Mt. 24:27, 37–39; Lk. 12:39 = Mt. 24:44).

73 For the identity of the Son of Man, see Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 145–48; Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, pp. 261–63; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, pp. 173–89, 209; Chilton, Pure Kingdom, p. 25.

74 See Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, p. 137; Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 106. For a summary of Jesus’ exorcisms and healings see Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 197–200.

75 For a discussion of this passage, see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 100–4.

76 Also see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, p. 108; Y. Feder, ‘Contagion and Cognition’, p. 163.

77 Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 197–98, 249–50.

78 For a discussion see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 91–198.

79 See Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 113.

80 Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 116; for the Qumran sect’s strategies to combat demons, see pp. 116–20.

81 See Kazan, Jesus and Purity, p. 331, on Jesus’ ability to bind Satan.

82 See Chilton, Pure Kingdom, p. 67; Kazan, Jesus and Purity, pp. 330–32.

83 Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 204, argues, ‘The messianic identity of Jesus must be grounded in some way before his crucifixion.’

84 See Kuhn, ‘Qumran Texts and the Historical Jesus’, pp. 574–75.

85 See Hogeterp, Expectations of the End, pp. 277–81, 446–48; Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, p. 407; Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 245; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, pp. 117–23. Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 168–69, 247, 327, suggests that the messiah in this work might heal, though the reference seems to be to God.

86 Kuhn, ‘Qumran Texts and the Historical Jesus’, p. 575; Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, pp. 244–45; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 117.

87 Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, 407; also see Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 122.

88 See Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 245; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, pp. 118, 120, 205, suggests, ‘it is likely that God acts through the agency of a prophetic messiah’ (p. 120), either Elijah or a prophet like Elijah.

89 Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 135.

90 Also see Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 144, where he says that Jesus claimed to be a supernatural being on whom the Law was not binding. However, Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, 164–65, shows that the Gospel accounts indicate the Torah’s centrality to Jesus’ life; also see p. 172.

91 Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 154.

92 See Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 162–63, who notes that Jesus’ ethical views were not intended to create a just society but were necessary to prepare for the kingdom of God.

  • 3

    Bart D. Ehrman, Jesus, Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 21; also see pp. 177, 180.

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  • 4

    Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 165–67.

  • 5

     Mark and Q; see Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, 197–99; Morton Smith, Jesus the Magician (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978), pp. 10–12; Thomas Kazan, Jesus and Purity Halakhah, Was Jesus Indifferent to Purity? (Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 2002), p. 332.

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  • 6

     See Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 198–99; Émile Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, in E. Ulrich and J. VanderKam (eds.), The Community of the Renewed Covenant, The Notre Dame Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Notre Dame, in: Notre Dame University Press, 1993), pp. 235–56 (244). Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 324–25, says, ‘While it is possible to look at magic and miracles outside an eschatological context, this is not likely in the case of Jesus. This applies especially to his exorcisms. The overall context for Jesus’ activities, according to the Synoptic gospel traditions, is the kingdom of God.’

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  • 7

    Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 144. For Jesus’ miraculous healings, see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 91–198.

  • 9

     See Saul M. Olyan, Rites and Rank, Hierarchy of Biblical Representations in Cult (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), pp. 17–18.

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  • 11

     See Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 104, 108; Jonathan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple. Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (New York: Oxford ­University Press, 2006), pp. 58, 63, 112. For the extension of this requirement within the sacred area of the temple to all Israelites and not only priests, see Aharon Shemesh, ‘”The Holy Angels Are in Their Council”: The Exclusion of Deformed Persons from Holy Places in Qumranic and Rabbinic Literature’, dsd 4.2 (1997), pp. 179–206 (185–86).

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  • 14

    Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 132, acknowledges that the expectation of a coming kingdom of God is peculiarly Jewish.

  • 15

     See Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 16–17. For Jesus’ attitude to ritual purity laws, see Kazen, Jesus and Purity. I agree with Cecilia Wassen, ‘The Jewishness of Jesus and Ritual Purity’, that ‘There is no evidence that Jesus transgressed, challenged, or disregarded purity laws,’ and that most Jews were not generally concerned with avoiding impurity (I am grateful to Wassen for sharing with me her unpublished paper). For the importance of purity – both ritual and moral - in God’s presence and kingdom, see Bruce Chilton, Pure Kingdom, Jesus’ Vision of God (Grand Rapids, mi: Eerdmans, 1996), pp. 38–40. However, Chilton frames Jesus’ purity concerns with regard to the kingdom of God mainly in relation to table fellowship; see pp. 80, 90, 98. For a critique of Chilton’s position see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 24–25.

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  • 16

     See Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 17, 49, 172 n. 36; Wright, ‘Holiness’, pp. 245–46; Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, p. 736. David P. Wright, The Disposal of Impurity (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987), p. 163 (and ff.), argues that ‘only communicable impurities, those which can pollute the profane sphere, are excluded from or restricted in this sphere, while noncommunicable impurities, those which cannot affect other nonholy persons and objects, are not excluded from or restricted in this sphere. These lesser impurities, like all impurities, are only restricted from the holy sphere.’

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  • 18

    Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 129.

  • 19

    Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 125. Also see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 300–13; Chilton, Pure Kingdom, p. 70.

  • 20

    Whereas Kazen, Jesus and Purity, p. 338, concludes that, ‘In view of God’s coming reign, and the powers of authority associated with it, Jesus did not regard impurity in the form of contact-contagion as menacing enough to give it much attention.’

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  • 21

    Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, pp. 54–55, 70–71, 93. Also see Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 144 n. 16, who describes these as ‘behavioral offenses,’ while Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, 733, categorizes them as ‘prohibited impurities’ (in contrast to unavoidable impurities). Feder distinguishes between ‘cultic’ and ‘non-cultic’ instead of ‘ritual’ and ‘moral’ purity and impurity; see Yitzhak Feder, ‘The Wilderness Camp Paradigm in the Holiness Source and the Temple Scroll: From Purity Laws to Cult Politics’, jaj 5.3 (2014), pp. 290–310 (305–6 including n. 69). Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 204–35, 261, criticizes Klawans’ equation of literal with ritual purity and metaphorical with moral impurity.

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  • 22

    Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 93.

  • 23

    Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 55. Also see Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 144 n. 16.

  • 24

    Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 59, notes that moral or behavioral violations cause long-term pollution.

  • 26

    Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 113.

  • 27

     See Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 154; Saul M. Olyan, ‘The Exegetical Dimensions of Restrictions on the Blind and the Lame in Texts from Qumran’, dsd 8.1 (2001), pp. 38–50 (40 n. 6; 43 n. 18).

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  • 30

    Olyan, Rites and Rank, pp. 113–14 (quote is from p. 114). Also see Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, p. 184, who discusses the exclusion of the uncircumcised and unclean from Jerusalem in Isa 52:1.

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  • 31

    Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, p. 189; also see p. 188: ‘Scripture characterizes the performance of sacred duties by priests with deformities as profanation of the Temple… This profanation evidently arises from the polarity between holiness, perceived as perfection, and deformity, its opposite.’

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  • 32

    Lawrence H. Schiffman, The Eschatological Community of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), pp. 37, 51; Heinz-Wolfgang Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, in L. H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 404–8 (405).

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  • 33

    John J. Collins, The Scepter and the Star, The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature (New York: Doubleday, 1996), pp. 59, 76, 109; John J. Collins, ‘Eschatology’, in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1, pp. 256–61; John J. Collins, ‘Teacher and Messiah? The One Who Will Teach Righteousness at the End of Days’, in The Community of the Renewed Covenant, pp. 193–210 (195–96, 199); Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 157; Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 6–7. For an overview, see Michael A. Knibb, ‘Eschatology and Messianism in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in P. W. Flint and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years, 2 (Leiden: Brill, 1999), pp. 379–402. For the term ‘end of days,’ see Collins, The Scepter and the Star, pp. 104–9; John J. Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Routledge, 1997), p. 151.

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  • 34

     See Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 147; Devorah Dimant, ‘Apocalyptic Texts at Qumran’, in The Community of the Renewed Covenant, pp. 175–91 (179–80, 188–89); Hogeterp, Expectations of the End, pp. 336–39.

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  • 35

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 8.

  • 36

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 7. Collins, ‘Teacher and Messiah?’, 196, argues (pace George Brooke) that the sect did not believe the end of days was underway. According to Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 253, ‘the Essenes did not adopt a purely realized eschatology.’ For a critique of Puech’s view, see Knibb, ‘Eschatology’, p. 384; also see John J. Collins, ‘Apocalypticism and Literary Genre in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years, 2, pp. 403–30 (426–27).

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  • 37

    Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, 407; also see Heinz.-Wolfgang Kuhn, ‘Qumran Texts and the Historical Jesus: Parallels in Contrast’, in L. H. Schiffman, E. Tov, and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls Fifty Years After their Discovery, Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2000), pp. 573–580 (579); Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, 177, 180.

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  • 38

    Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 152–53.

  • 39

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 9.

  • 40

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 7, 9.

  • 42

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 12.

  • 43

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 13.

  • 45

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 13.

  • 46

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 25.

  • 47

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 32–33.

  • 48

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 33–35, who notes the parallels to Exodus and Deuteronomy.

  • 49

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 31.

  • 50

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 32, noting parallels to Exod 19:10–15.

  • 51

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 36.

  • 52

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 38–39. For imitatio Dei and imitatio angeli, see Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, pp. 58, 62–63, 112–13.

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  • 53

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 39, 42.

  • 54

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 43–46.

  • 55

    Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 49.

  • 56

    Shemesh, ‘The Holy Angels’, pp. 192, 196. He notes (pp. 196–97) that the list in 1QSa is limited to physical deformities and does not include mental disabilities.

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  • 57

     See Olyan, ‘Exegetical Dimensions’, p. 48, who attributes the exclusion of the blind and the lame in 1QSa and 1QM to profanation rather than pollution, but notes that these ­categories are based on biblical legislation concerning pollution. Also see Olyan, Rites and Rank, p. 111.

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  • 58

     See Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 40–49.

  • 59

    Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 176; also see Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 128.

  • 60

    Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 166.

  • 62

     See Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 40–41, 47–49; Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 121.

  • 63

     See Schiffman, Eschatological Community, pp. 39, 46–47, 51.

  • 64

     See Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 127, who attributes the exclusion of boys from the war camp in M to age requirements; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 97; Schiffman, Eschatological Community, p. 51.

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  • 65

    Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple, p. 58. Also see Wright, ‘Unclean and Clean’, p. 739: ‘…impurity is human centered. It arises mainly out of persons’ bodily conditions and sins…’

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  • 66

    Collins, ‘Eschatology’, 258; also Collins, ‘Teacher and Messiah?’, p. 199.

  • 67

    Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 59; Collins, Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 167; Martin G. Abegg, ‘Messianic Hope and 4Q285: A Reassessment’, jbl 113.1 (1994), pp. 81–91 (86); also see 11Q14; 1QM 5:1; cd 7:20–21.

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  • 68

     See Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 255; Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, p. 142.

  • 70

    Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 141–42.

  • 71

     See Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, p. 407; Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 244; Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 11.

  • 74

     See Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, p. 137; Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 106. For a summary of Jesus’ exorcisms and healings see Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 197–200.

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  • 76

     Also see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, p. 108; Y. Feder, ‘Contagion and Cognition’, p. 163.

  • 77

    Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 197–98, 249–50.

  • 78

     For a discussion see Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 91–198.

  • 79

     See Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 113.

  • 80

    Wassen, ‘What Do Angels Have’, p. 116; for the Qumran sect’s strategies to combat demons, see pp. 116–20.

  • 81

     See Kazan, Jesus and Purity, p. 331, on Jesus’ ability to bind Satan.

  • 82

     See Chilton, Pure Kingdom, p. 67; Kazan, Jesus and Purity, pp. 330–32.

  • 83

    Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 204, argues, ‘The messianic identity of Jesus must be grounded in some way before his crucifixion.’

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  • 84

     See Kuhn, ‘Qumran Texts and the Historical Jesus’, pp. 574–75.

  • 85

     See Hogeterp, Expectations of the End, pp. 277–81, 446–48; Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, p. 407; Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 245; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, pp. 117–23. Kazen, Jesus and Purity, pp. 168–69, 247, 327, suggests that the messiah in this work might heal, though the reference seems to be to God.

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  • 86

    Kuhn, ‘Qumran Texts and the Historical Jesus’, p. 575; Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, pp. 244–45; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 117.

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  • 87

    Kuhn, ‘Jesus’, 407; also see Collins, The Scepter and the Star, p. 122.

  • 88

     See Puech, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology’, p. 245; Collins, The Scepter and the Star, pp. 118, 120, 205, suggests, ‘it is likely that God acts through the agency of a prophetic messiah’ (p. 120), either Elijah or a prophet like Elijah.

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  • 89

    Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 135.

  • 90

     Also see Smith, Jesus the Magician, p. 144, where he says that Jesus claimed to be a supernatural being on whom the Law was not binding. However, Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, 164–65, shows that the Gospel accounts indicate the Torah’s centrality to Jesus’ life; also see p. 172.

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  • 91

    Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 154.

  • 92

     See Ehrman, Apocalyptic Prophet, pp. 162–63, who notes that Jesus’ ethical views were not intended to create a just society but were necessary to prepare for the kingdom of God.

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