High-Tempo and Stinky: High Arousal Sound–Odor Congruence Affects Product Memory

In: Multisensory Research
View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  • 2 Department of Psychology, University of York, UK

Login via Institution

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€25.00$30.00

Abstract

The tendency to match different sensory modalities together can be beneficial for marketing. Here we assessed the effect of sound–odor congruence on people’s attitude and memory for products of a familiar and unfamiliar brand. Participants smelled high- and low-arousal odors and then saw an advertisement for a product of a familiar or unfamiliar brand, paired with a high- or low-arousal jingle. Participants’ attitude towards the advertisement, the advertised product, and the product’s brand was measured, as well as memory for the product. In general, no sound–odor congruence effect was found on attitude, irrespective of brand familiarity. However, congruence was found to affect recognition: when a high-arousal odor and a high-arousal sound were combined, participants recognized products faster than in the other conditions. In addition, familiar brands were recognized faster than unfamiliar brands, but only when sound or odor arousal was high. This study provides insight into the possible applications of sound–odor congruence for marketing by demonstrating its potential to influence product memory.

  • Aravinda, C. and Krishnaiah, R. V. (2013). Smell-o-vision — the future digital display device, Int J. Comput. Sci. Mobile Comput. 2, 227234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Auvray, M. and Spence, C. (2008). The multisensory perception of flavor, Consc. Cogn. 17, 10161031.

  • Baker, J., Levy, M. and Grewal, D. (1992). An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions, J. Retail 68, 445460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B. and Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4, J. Stat. Softw. 67, 148.

  • Batra, R. and Sinha, I. (2000). Consumer-level factors moderating the success of private label brands, J. Retail. 76, 175191.

  • Belkin, K., Martin, R., Kemp, S. E. and Gilbert, A. N. (1997). Auditory pitch as a perceptual analogue to odor quality, Psychol. Sci. 8, 340342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bensafi, M., Rouby, C., Farget, V., Bertrand, B., Vigouroux, M. and Holley, A. (2002). Autonomic nervous system responses to odours: the role of pleasantness and arousal, Chem. Senses 27, 703709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berlyne, D. (1960). Conflict, Arousal, and Curiosity. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA.

  • Biswas, D. and Szocs, C. (2019). The smell of healthy choices: cross-modal sensory compensation effects of ambient scent on food purchases, J. Mark. Res. 56, 123141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biswas, D., Lund, K. and Szocs, C. (2019). Sounds like a healthy retail atmospheric strategy: effects of ambient music and background noise on food sales, J. Acad. Mark. Sci. 47, 3755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bradford, K. D. and Desrochers, D. M. (2009). The use of scents to influence consumers: the sense of using scents to make cents, J. Bus. Ethics 90, 141153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bradley, M. M., Greenwald, M. K., Petry, M. C. and Lang, P. J. (1992). Remembering pictures: pleasure and arousal in memory, J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 18, 379390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Y. C. and Spence, C. (2010). When hearing the bark helps to identify the dog: semantically-congruent sounds modulate the identification of masked pictures, Cognition 114, 389404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, J., Sun, A. and Zeng, D. (2010). Information overload and viral marketing: countermeasures and strategies, in: Third International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral Modeling and Prediction, SPB 2010, pp. 108117. Advances in Social Computing, Bethesda, MD, USA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crisinel, A.-S., Cosser, S., King, S., Jones, R., Petrie, J. and Spence, C. (2012). A bittersweet symphony: systematically modulating the taste of food by changing the sonic properties of the soundtrack playing in the background, Food Qual. Pref. 24, 201204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crisinel, A.-S., Jacquier, C., Deroy, O. and Spence, C. (2013). Composing with cross-modal correspondences: music and odors in concert, Chemosens. Percept. 6, 4552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies, B. J., Kooijman, D. and Ward, P. (2003). The sweet smell of success: olfaction in retailing, J. Mark. Manag. 19, 611627.

  • de Lange, M. A., Debets, L. W., Ruitenburg, K. and Holland, R. W. (2012). Making less of a mess: scent exposure as a tool for behavioral change, Soc. Influ. 7, 9097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Wijk, R. A., Smeets, P. A., Polet, I. A., Holthuysen, N. T., Zoon, J. and Vingerhoeds, M. H. (2018). Aroma effects on food choice task behavior and brain responses to bakery food product cues, Food Qual. Pref. 68, 304314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Wulf, K., Odekerken-Schröder, G., Goedertier, F. and Van Ossel, G. (2005). Consumer perceptions of store brands versus national brands, J. Consum. Mark. 22, 223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deroy, O., Crisinel, A.-S. and Spence, C. (2013). Crossmodal correspondences between odors and contingent features: odors, musical notes, and geometrical shapes, Psychon. Bull. Rev. 20, 878896.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dyer, G. (1982). Advertising as Communication. Routledge, London, UK.

  • Feetham, P. and Gendall, P. (2013). The positioning of premium private label brands, Mark. Soc. Res. 21, 2837.

  • Fiegel, A., Meullenet, J.-F., Harrington, R. J., Humble, R. and Seo, H.-S. (2014). Background music genre can modulate flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli, Appetite 76, 144152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fransen, M. L., Verlegh, P. W. J., Kirmani, A. and Smit, E. G. (2015). A typology of consumer strategies for resisting advertising, and a review of mechanisms for countering them, Int. J. Advert. 34, 616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gabrielsson, A. (2001). Emotions in strong experiences with music, in: Music and Emotion: Theory and Research, P. N. Juslin and J. A. Sloboda (Eds), pp. 431449. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagtvedt, H. and Brasel, S. A. (2016). Cross-modal communication: sound frequency influences consumer responses to color lightness, J. Mark. Res. 53, 551562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, R. W., Hendriks, M. and Aarts, H. (2005). Smells like clean spirit: nonconscious effects of scent on cognition and behavior, Psychol. Sci. 16, 689693.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoyer, W. D. and Brown, S. P. (1990). Effects of brand awareness on choice for a common, repeat-purchase product, J. Consum. Res. 17, 141148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karray, S. and Martín-Herrán, G. (2009). A dynamic model for advertising and pricing competition between national and store brands, Eur. J. Oper. Res. 193, 451467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kellaris, J. J. and Kent, R. J. (1993). An exploratory investigation of responses elicited by music varying in tempo, tonality, and texture, J. Consum. Psychol. 2, 381401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kent, R. J. and Allen, C. T. (1994). Competitive interference effects in consumer memory for advertising: the role of brand familiarity, J. Market. 58, 97105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khalfa, S., Isabelle, P., Jean-Pierre, B. and Manon, R. (2002). Event-related skin conductance responses to musical emotions in humans, Neurosci. Lett. 328, 145149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishna, A., Elder, R. S. and Caldara, C. (2010). Feminine to smell but masculine to touch? Multisensory congruence and its effect on aesthetic experience, J. Consum. Psychol. 20, 410418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lang, P. J., Greenwald, M. K., Bradley, M. M. and Hamm, A. O. (1993). Looking at pictures: affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions, Psychophysiology 30, 261273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laviolette, E. M., Radu Lefebvre, M. and Brunel, O. (2012). The impact of story bound entrepreneurial role models on self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention, Int. J. Entrep. Behavi. Res. 18, 720742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liljenquist, K., Zhong, C.-B. and Galinsky, A. D. (2010). The smell of virtue: clean scents promote reciprocity and charity, Psychol. Sci. 21, 381383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindstrom, M. (2005). Broad sensory branding, Prod. Brand Manag. 14, 8487.

  • Mandler, G. (1980). Recognizing: the judgment of previous occurrence, Psychol. Rev. 87, 252271.

  • Mandler, G. (1982). The structure of value: accounting for taste, in: Affect and Cognition: the 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium, M. S. Clark and S. T. Fiske (Eds), pp. 336. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, USA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mathy, F. and Feldman, J. (2012). What’s magic about magic numbers? Chunking and data compression in short-term memory, Cognition 122, 346362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattila, A. S. and Wirtz, J. (2001). Congruency of scent and music as a driver of in-store evaluations and behavior, J. Retail. 77, 273289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDaniel, C. and Baker, R. C. (1977). Convenience food packaging and the perception of product quality, J. Market. 41, 5758.

  • Meredith, M. A., Nemitz, J. W. and Stein, B. E. (1987). Determinants of multisensory integration in superior colliculus neurons. I. Temporal factors, J. Neurosci. 7, 32153229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyers-Levy, J. and Tybout, A. M. (1989). Schema congruity as a basis for product evaluation, J. Consum. Res. 16, 3954.

  • Mikutta, C. A., Schwab, S., Niederhauser, S., Wuermle, O., Strik, W. and Altorfer, A. (2013). Music, perceived arousal, and intensity: psychophysiological reactions to Chopin’s “Tristesse”, Psychophysiology 50, 909919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information, Psychol. Rev. 63, 8197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, D. J., Kahn, B. E. and Knasko, S. C. (1995). There’s something in the air: effects of congruent or incongruent ambient odor on consumer decision making, J. Consum. Res. 22, 229238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moeran, B. (2007). Marketing scents and the anthropology of smell, Soc. Anthrop. 15, 153168.

  • Morrin, M. and Ratneshwar, S. (2000). The impact of ambient scent on evaluation, attention, and memory for familiar and unfamiliar brands, J. Bus. Res. 49(2), 157165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrin, M. and Ratneshwar, S. (2003). Does it make sense to use scents to enhance brand memory? J. Mark. Res. 40, 1025.

  • Morris, J. D. (1995). Observations: SAM: the self-assessment manikin: an efficient crosscultural measurement of emotional response, J. Advert. Res. 35, 6368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morris, J. D. and Boone, M. A. (1998). The effects of music on emotional response, brand attitude, and purchase intent in an emotional advertising condition, Adv. Consum. Res. 25, 518526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, M., Gan, S., Dubelaar, C. and Oppewal, H. (2011). In-store music and aroma influences on shopper behavior and satisfaction, J. Bus. Res. 64, 558564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J. and McKendrick, J. (1999). The influence on in-store music on wine selections, J. Appl. Psychol. 84, 271276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North, A. C. (2012). The effect of background music on the taste of wine, Br. J. Psychol. 103, 293301.

  • Petruzzellis, L., Chebat, J.-C. and Palumbo, A. (2014). “Hey dee-jay let’s play that song and keep me shopping all day long”: the effect of famous background music on consumer shopping behavior, J. Mark. Dev. Compet. 8, 3849.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piqueras-Fiszman, B. and Spence, C. (2015). Sensory expectations based on product-extrinsic food cues: an interdisciplinary review of the empirical evidence and theoretical accounts, Food Qual. Prefer. 40, 165179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Core Team (2013). R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

  • Reinoso-Carvalho, F., Van Ee, R., Rychtarikova, M., Touhafi, A., Steenhaut, K., Persoone, D., Spence, C. and Leman, M. (2015). Does music influence the multisensory tasting experience? J. Sens. Stud. 30, 404412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rickard, N. S. (2004). Intense emotional responses to music: a test of the physiological arousal hypothesis, Psychol. Music 32, 371388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sayman, S., Hoch, S. J. and Raju, J. S. (2002). Positioning of store brands, Market. Sci. 21, 378397.

  • Seo, H. S. and Hummel, T. (2011). Auditory–olfactory integration: congruent or pleasant sounds amplify odor pleasantness, Chem. Senses 36, 301309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sievers, B., Lee, C., Haslett, W. and Wheatley, T. (2017). A multi-sensory code for arousal. https://psyarxiv.com/wucs4/download?format=pdf.

  • Simner, J., Cuskley, C. and Kirby, S. (2010). What sound does that taste? Cross-modal mappings across gustation and audition, Perception 39(4), 553569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Small, D. M. and Prescott, J. (2005). Odor/taste integration and the perception of flavor, Exp. Brain Res. 166, 345357.

  • Speed, L. J. and Majid, A. (in press). Linguistic features of fragrances: the role of grammatical gender and gender associations. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-4379-A.

  • Spence, C. (2011). Crossmodal correspondences: a tutorial review, Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 73, 971995.

  • Spence, C. and Parise, C. V. (2012). The cognitive neuroscience of crossmodal correspondences, i-Perception 3, 410412.

  • Spence, C. (2019). Multisensory experiential wine marketing, Food Qual. Pref. 71, 106116.

  • Spence, C. and Wang, Q. J. (2015a). Wine and music (I): on the crossmodal matching of wine and music, Flavour 4, 34. DOI:10.1186/s13411-015-0045-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spence, C. and Wang, Q. J. (2015b). Wine and music (II): can you taste the music? Modulating the experience of wine through music and sound, Flavour 4, 33. DOI:10.1186/s13411-015-0043-z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stach, J. (2015). A conceptual framework for the assessment of brand congruent sensory modalities, J. Brand Manag. 22, 673694.

  • Treisman, A. (1996). The binding problem, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 171178.

  • Treisman, A. (1998). Feature binding, attention and object perception, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 353, 12951306.

  • Velasco, C., Balboa, D., Marmolejo-Ramos, F. and Spence, C. (2014). Crossmodal effect of music and odor pleasantness on olfactory quality perception, Front. Psychol. 5, 1352. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Velasco, C. and Spence, C. (2019). The multisensory analysis of product packaging framework, in: Multisensory Packaging, C. Velasco and C. Spence (Eds), pp. 191223. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, Switzerland.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voss, K. E., Spangenberg, E. R. and Grohmann, B. (2003). Measuring the hedonic and utilitarian dimensions of consumer attitude, J. Market. Res. 40, 310320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Q. and Spence, C. (2016). ‘Striking a sour note’: assessing the influence of consonant and dissonant music on taste perception, Multisens. Res. 29, 195208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, J., Stönner, C., Wicker, J., Krauter, N., Derstroff, B., Bourtsoukidis, E., Klüpfel, T. and Kramer, S. (2016). Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath, Sci. Rep. 6, 25464. DOI:10.1038/srep25464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wirtz, J., Mattila, A. S. and Tan, R. L. P. (2007). The role of arousal congruency in influencing consumers’ satisfaction evaluations and in-store behaviors, Int. J. Serv. Ind. Manag. 18, 624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeshurun, Y. and Sobel, N. (2010). An odor is not worth a thousand words: from multidimensional odors to unidimensional odor objects, Annu. Rev. Psychol. 61, 219241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoon, K., Bolls, P. and Lang, A. (1998). The effects of arousal on liking and believability of commercials, J. Mark. Commun. 4, 101114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 9, 127.

  • Zellner, D., Geller, T., Lyons, S., Pyper, A. and Riaz, K. (2017). Ethnic congruence of music and food affects food selection but not liking, Food Qual. Pref. 56, 126129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 392 352 32
Full Text Views 47 40 0
PDF Downloads 29 21 0