Light-dependent green gall formation induced by Meloidogyne incognita

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most detrimental root-knot nematode pests in the world because of its wide range of hosts, infecting almost all plant species. Following infection, this nematode induces gall formation in the root. We have found that these induced galls turn green in tomato roots exposed to light. This gall greening was light-dependent and inhibited by auxin treatment. Chlorophyll was detected in these green galls, and chloroplasts were also observed in the root-knot region. Expression of the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein-4 gene was upregulated in the galls. These results indicate that light treatment induces chloroplast development in tomato plants infected with M. incognita during gall development.

Sections
References
  • BaileyD.J.BrainG.L.KerryB.R.GilliganC.A. (2008). Oathozone dynamic of Meloidogyne incognita in the rhizosphere of tomato plants in the presence and absence of the nematophagous fungus, Pochonia chlamydosporia. Plant Pathology 57354-362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BenzingD.H.FriedmanW.E.PetersonG.RenfowA. (1983). Shootlessness, velamentous roots, and the pre-eminence of Orchidaceae in the epiphytic biotope. American Journal of Botany 70121-133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BirdA.F.LoveysB.R. (1975). The incorporation of photosynthates by Meloidogyne javanica. Journal of Nematology 7111-113.

  • Exposito-RodriguezM.BorgesA.A.Borges-PerezA.PerezJ.A. (2008). Selection of internal control genes for quantitative realtime RT-PCR studies during tomato development process. BMC Plant Biology 8131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GillA.M.TomlinsonP.B. (1977). Studies of the growth of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) 4: the adult root system. Biotropica 9145-155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KobayashiJ.BabaS.ObayashiT.SatoM.ToyookaK.KeraM.AroE.M.FukakiH.OhtaH.SugimotoK. (2012). Regulation of root greening by light and auxin/cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 241081-1095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LambertK.N.TedfordE.C.CaswellE.P.WilliamsonV.M. (1992). A system for continuous production of root-knot nematode juveniles in hydroponic culture. Phytopathology 82512-515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McSorelyR. (2003). Adaptation of nematodes to environmental extremes. Florida Entomologist 86138-142.

  • OkaY.MizukuboT. (2008). Tomato culture filtrate stimulates hatching and activity of Meloydogyne incognita juveniles. Nematology 1151-61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PicherskyE.HoffmanN.E.MalikV.S.BernatzkyR.TanksleyS.D.SzaboL.CashmoreA.R. (1987). The tomato Cab-4 and Cab-5 genes encode a second type of CAB polypeptides localized in Photosystem II. Plant Molecular Biology 9109-120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PorraR.J.ThompsonW.A.KriedelmannP.E. (1989). Determination of accurate extractions and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of concentrations of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 975384-394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TamakiT.BetsuyakuS.FujiwaraM.FukaoY.FukudaH.SawaS. (2013). Suppressor of LLP1 1-mediated C-terminal processing is critical for CLE19 peptide activity. Plant Journal 6970-981.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Figures
  • View in gallery

    Gall development induced by Meloidogyne incognita under light conditions (A-C), dark conditions (D-F), and light conditions with 2 μM IAA (G-I). Galls were observed at 3 (A, D, G), 6 (B, E, H) and 12 (C, F, I) days after inoculation. Gall greening was observed only with the light conditions. Scale bar = 200 μm. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

  • View in gallery

    Effects of inoculation with Meloidogyne incognita and IAA-treatment on the chlorophyll contents in tomato root. Tomato seedlings were grown on agar plates under light or dark conditions for 21 DAI. The bars represent the standard errors (n=3). Different letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 using the Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference Test.

  • View in gallery

    A: Greenish gall was hand-sectioned at the region shown by the white bar; B: The gall section was observed by fluorescence microscopy; C: Chloroplast was detected as green dot (magnified in black box in B). Scale bars: A = 200 μm, B = 100 μm, C = 25 μm. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 89 81 14
Full Text Views 220 220 0
PDF Downloads 7 7 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0