Review of the genus Odontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae), with a key to valid species and description of Odontophora atrox sp. n. from the New Zealand coast

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Odontophora is a globally distributed marine nematode genus common in intertidal and subtidal sediments. Odontophora is one of the most diverse genus of the family Axonolaimidae with over 30 valid species described to date; however, the last revision of the genus was made over four decades ago. In addition, limited molecular sequence data are available for the Axonolaimidae and relationships among axonolaimid genera have not yet been investigated using molecular tools. Here, an updated list of species and a key for the identification of all 34 valid species is provided, and preliminary analyses of phylogenetic relationships within the Axonolaimidae are conducted using SSU and D2-D3 of LSU molecular sequences. Odontophora atrox sp. n. is described from intertidal sediments of Wellington, North Island of New Zealand, and is characterised by cephalic setae 1.1-1.5 corresponding body diam. long, 12 subcephalic setae, eight of which are slightly shorter and four of which are markedly shorter than the cephalic setae, excretory pore located slightly posterior to the amphids, and nerve ring located at two-thirds to three-quarters of pharynx length from anterior. Males are characterised by weakly arcuate spicules and tapering gubernacular apophyses, 9-10 small tubular precloacal supplements, cloacal aperture flanked by two sets of heavily cuticularised and eversible spines, and two elongated laterodorsal setae near the tail tip. Preliminary analyses of phylogenetic relationships within the Axonolaimidae provide some support for the monophyly of Odontophora, but drawing more solid inferences about relationships within the Axonolaimidae will require more molecular sequence data of accurately (and verifiably) identified species.

Sections
References
  • AllgénC.A. (1928). Neue oder wenig bekannte freilebende marine Nematoden von der schwedischen Westküste. Zoologischer Anzeiger 27281-307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AllgénC.A. (1929a). Was ist die von Bütschli 1874 aufgestellte Odontophora marina? Zoologischer Anzeiger 81(11/12) 305-309.

  • AllgénC.A. (1929b). Neue freilebende marine Nematoden von der Westküste Schwedens. Zoologische Jahrbücher (Systematik) 57431-496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AllgénC.A. (1929c). Südschwedische marine Nematoden. Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps-och Vitterhets-Samhalled Handlingar 1 B1-40.

  • AllgénC.A. (1935). Die freilebenden Nematoden des Öresunds. Capita Zoologica 61-192.

  • AllgénC.A. (1942). Die freilebenden Nematoden des Mittelmeeres. Zoologische Jahrbücher (Systematik) 761-102.

  • AllgénC.A. (1947). Pacific freeliving marine nematodes. (Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen’s Pacific Expedition 1914-16). Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 11045-63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AllgénC.A. (1951). Pacific free-living marine nematodes. (Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen’s Pacific Expedition 1914-16). Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 113263-411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BelogurovO.I. (1978). [ Study of free-living nematodes from the intertidal zone of the Shikotan Island.] In: Zhivotnyi i rastitel’nyi mir shel’fovykh zon Kuril’skikh Ostrovov. Moscow, USSR“Nauka” pp. 139-148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BlomeD. (1982). Systematik der Nematoda eines Sandstrandes der Nordseeinsel Sylt. Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 861-194.

  • BoucherG. (1973). Nématodes libres marins des Iles Hautes de Polynésie I. Comesomatidae et Axonolaimidae. Cahiers du Pacifique 17205-231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoucherG.HelléouëtM.N. (1977). Nématodes des sables fins infralittoraux de la Pierre Noire (Manche occidentale). III. Araeolaimida et Monhysterida. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Zoologie) 29785-122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BütschliO. (1874). Zur Kenntniss der freilebenden Nematoden, insbesondere der des Kieler Hafens. Abhandlungen Herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 9236-292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChitwoodB.G. (1951). North American marine nematodes. Texas Journal of Science 3617-672.

  • CobbN.A. (1914). Antarctic marine free-living nematodes of the Shackleton expedition. Contributions to the Science of Nematology 11-33.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoomansA. (1979). A proposal for a more precise terminology of the body regions in the nematode. Annales de la Société Royale Zoologique de Belgique 108115-117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De ConinckL.A.Schuurmans StekhovenJ.H. (1933). The freeliving marine nemas of the Belgian coast. II. With general remarks on the structure and the system of nemas. Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 583-163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de ManJ.G. (1889). Espèces et genres nouveaux de Nématodes libres de la mer du Nord et de la Manche. Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France 21-10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de ManJ.G. (1922). Neue freilebende nematoden aus der Zuidersee. Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging 18124-134.

  • DitlevsenH. (1919). Marine freeliving nematodes from Danish waters. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorik Forening i Kjobenhaven 70147-214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FilipjevI.N. (1918). Free-living marine nematodes of the Sevastopol area. Transactions of the Zoological Laboratory and the Sevastopol Biological Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences Series 21-203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FilipjevI.N. (1930). Les Nématodes libres de la Baie de la Neva et de l’extremité orientale du Golfe de Finlande, Deuxième partie. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 211-64.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FonsecaG.BezerraT.N. (2014). Order Araeolaimida De Coninck & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1933. In: Shmidt-RhaesaA. (Ed.). Handbook of zoology Gastrotricha Cyclioneura and Gnathifera Volume 2: Nematoda. Hamburg, GermanyDe Gruyter pp.  467-486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GaltsovaV.V. (1976). [ Free-living marine nematodes as components of the meiofauna of the Chupa Bay, White Sea.] Issledovaniya Fauny Morei (Nematody i ikh rol’ v meiobentose) 15165-270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GerlachS.A. (1957). Marine Nematoden aus dem Mangrove-Gebiet von Cananéia (Brasilianische Meeres-Nematoden III). Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 5129-176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GerlachS.A.RiemannF. (1973-1974). The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nematodes. A catalogue of Nematoda Adenophorea excluding Dorylaimida. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven (Suppl. 4 Part 1 (1973) and Part 2 (1974)) 1-736.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuiliniK.BezerraT.N.DeprezT.FonsecaG.HolovachovO.LeducD.MiljutinD.MoensT.SharmaJ.SmolN. (2016). NeMys: world database of free-living marine nematodes. Available from http://nemys.ugent.be (accessed on 2016-08-08).

  • HoltermanM.van der WurffA.van den ElsenS.van MegenH.BongersT.HolovachovO.BakkerJ.HelderJ. (2006). Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Molecular Biology and Evolution 131792-1800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoltermanM.HolovachovO.van den ElsenS.van MegenH.BongersT.BakkerJ.HelderJ. (2008). Small subunit ribosomal DNA-based phylogeny of basal Chromadoria (Nematoda) suggests that transitions from marine to terrestrial habitats (and vice versa) require relatively simple adaptations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48758-763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HourstonM.WarwickM.M. (2010). New species of free-living aquatic nematodes from southwestern Australia (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae and Desmodoridae). Records of the Western Australia Museum 2642-69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • InglisW.G. (1983). An outline classification of the phylum Nematoda. Australian Journal of Zoology 31243-255.

  • JensenP.GerlachS.A. (1976). Three new nematodes from Bermuda. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven 1631-44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KeppnerE.J. (1988). Six new species of free-living marine nematodes (Nematoda: Araeolaimida: Enoplida) from two estuaries in northwest Florida, U.S.A. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 10779-95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LarkinM.A.BlackshieldsG.BrownN.P.ChennaR.McgettiganP.A.McwilliamH.ValentinF.WallaceI.M.WilmA.LopezR. (2007). Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 232947-2948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LorenzenS. (1971). Die Nematodenfauna im Verklappungsgebiet für Industrieabwässer nordwestlich von Helgoland: I. Araeolaimida und Monhysterida. Zoologischer Anzeiger 187223-248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LucM.De ConinckL.A. (1959). Nématodes libres marins de la région de Roscoff. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale 98103-165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MurphyD.G. (1966). An initial report on a collection of Chilean marine nematodes. Mitteilungen der Hamburger Zoologisches Museum Institut 6329-50.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NicholsJ.A.MusselmanM.R. (1979). Free-living marine nematodes from sandy sediments off the coast of Peru. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 20449-459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NunnG.B. (1992). Nematode molecular evolution. Ph.D. Thesis University of Nottingham UK.

  • OttJ.A. (1972). Twelve new species of nematodes from an intertidal sandflat in North Carolina. International Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 57463-496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pastor de WardC.T. (1984). Nematodes marinos de la Ria Deseado (Axonolaimoidea: Axonolaimidae, Diplopeltidae, Comesomatidae) Santa Cruz, Argentina. Centro Patagonico Contribucion 861-21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PlattH.M. (1985). The freeliving marine nematode genus Sabatieria (Nematoda: Comesomatidae). Taxonomic revision and pictorial keys. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 8327-78.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PosadaD.CrandallK.A. (1998). MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14817-818.

  • RambautA.DrummondA.J. (2007). Tracer v 1.4. Available from http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer.

  • RonquistF.HuelsenbeckJ.P. (2003). MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 191572-1574.

  • SchulzE. (1932). Beiträge zur kenntnis mariner nematoden aus der kieler bucht. Zoologischer Jahrbücher Jena (Systematik) 62331-430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schuurmans StekhovenJ.H. (1950). The freeliving marine nemas of the Mediterranean. I. The Bay of Villefranche. Mémoires de l’Institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 21-220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schuurmans StekhovenJ.H.De ConinckL.A. (1933). Diagnoses of new Belgian marine nemas. Bulletin du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 91-15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmolyankoO.I.BelogurovO.I. (1995). On the morphology of four species of free-living marine nematodes of the genus Parodontophora (Araeolaimida, Axonolaimidae). Hydrobiological Journal 3194-108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SomerfieldP.J.WarwickR.M. (1996). Meiofauna in marine pollution monitoring programmes: a laboratory manual. Lowestoft, UKMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Directorate of Fisheries Research.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SwoffordD.L. (2002). PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods) version 4. Sunderland, MA, USASinauer Associates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TarjanA.C.KhuongN.B. (1988). A compendium of the family Axonolaimidae (Nematoda). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 29375-393.

  • TimmR.W. (1952). A survey of the marine nematodes of Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Chesapeake Biological Laboratory 951-70.

  • TimmR.W. (1963). Marine nematodes of the suborder Monhysterina from the Arabian Sea at Karachi. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 3034-49.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van MegenH.van den ElsenS.HoltermanM.KarssenG.MooymanP.BongersT.HolovachovO.BakkerJ.HelderJ. (2009). A phylogenetic tree of nematode based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Nematology 11927-950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VitielloP. (1971). Nématodes libres marins des vases profondes du Golfe de Lion III. Monhysterida, Araeolaimida, Desmodorida. Thetys 2647-690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WarwickR.M.PlattH.M. (1973). New and little known marine nematodes from a Scottish sandy beach. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 14135-158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WarwickR.M.PlattH.M.SomerfieldP.J. (1998). Free-living marine nematodes part III. Monhysterids. Shrewsbury, UKField Studies Council.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WieserW. (1956). Free-living marine nematodes III. Axonolaimoidea and Mohysteroidea. Acta Universitets Lund 21-115.

  • WieserW. (1959). Free-living nematodes and other small invertebrates of Puget Sound beaches. University of Washington Publications in Biology 191-179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WieserW.HopperB. (1967). Marine nematodes of the east coast of North America. I. Florida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 135239-344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhengJ.W.SubbotinS.A.HeS.S.GuJ.F.MoensM. (2002). Molecular characterisation of some Asian isolates of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus using PCR-RFLPs and sequences of ribosomal DNA. Russian Journal of Nematology 1117-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Figures
  • View in gallery

    Differences in the arrangement of subcephalic setae used to separate Odontophora species into groups and aid identification of species in the dichotomous key. A: Single mediolateral subcephalic seta (shown in black) present immediately posterior to each amphid (couplets 1-3 in dichotomous key); B: Two subcephalic setae situated immediately adjacent to, and at mid-level of, each amphid (couplets 5-9); C: Subcephalic seta situated immediately posterior to each cephalic seta (couplets 10-14). The fourth group, comprising species without subcephalic setae in the positions described above, includes all remaining species of the genus (couplets 15-33). Drawings modified from Boucher (1973).

  • View in gallery

    Spicule shape in Odontophora. A: Arcuate (e.g., O. articulata); B: L-shaped (e.g., O. rectangula); C: Strongly bent (e.g., O. octosetosa). Redrawn from Keppner (1988), Lorenzen (1981) and Boucher & Helléouët (1977).

  • View in gallery

    Odontophora atrox sp. n. Males. A: Anterior body region; B: Lateral surface view of cephalic region; C, D: Lateral view of cephalic region; E: Posterior body region with inverted cloacal spines; F: Copulatory apparatus, showing everted cloacal spines. Arrows show position of two posteriormost precloacal supplements. (Scale bar: A = 40 μm; B-E = 30 μm; F = 26 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Odontophora atrox sp. n. A: Anterior body region of female; B, C: Female cephalic region; D: Female posterior body region; E: Female reproductive system; F: Entire male. (Scale bar: A = 40 μm; B-D = 30 μm; E = 90 μm; F = 220 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Odontophora atrox sp. n. Light micrographs of female. A: Ventral view of cephalic region showing optical section of buccal cavity; B: Ventral view of same specimen showing odontia and accessory structures; C: Detail of accessory structure in longitudinal cross-section; D: Detail of accessory structure in cross-section perpendicular to longitudinal axis. Abbreviations: a = amphidial fovea; amp = ampulla of secretory excretory system; as = accessory buccal structure; od = odontia; ol = outer labial papilla. (Scale bar: A, B = 10 μm; C, D = 2.5 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Odontophora atrox sp. n. Schematic representation showing shape and arrangement of odontia and accessory buccal structures in anterior portion of buccal cavity.

  • View in gallery

    Bayesian tree inferred from SSU sequences under the general time reversible (GTR) + proportion of invariable sites (I) + gamma distribution (G) model. Posterior probability greater than or equal to 50% are given on appropriate clades. The new sequence provided in the present study is shown in bold. The scale (bottom left) stands for substitutions per site.

  • View in gallery

    Bayesian tree inferred from D2-D3 of LSU sequences under the general time-reversible (GTR) + proportion of invariable sites (I) + gamma distribution (G) model. Posterior probability greater than or equal to 50% are given on appropriate clades. The new sequence provided in the present study is shown in bold. The scale (bottom left) stands for substitutions per site.

Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 59 46 2
Full Text Views 128 128 0
PDF Downloads 9 9 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0