Allyl isothiocyanate shows promise as a naturally produced suppressant of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, in biofumigation systems

in Nematology
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The ability of isothiocyanates to suppress Globodera pallida was evaluated through in vitro assays. Several isothiocyanates increased juvenile mortality, the most effective being allyl isothiocyanate, which caused 100% mortality at both 25 and 50 ppm after 72 and 24 h exposure, respectively. In a hatching assay, allyl isothiocyanate was able to suppress hatch; in addition, replenishing allyl isothiocyanate every 3 days increased hatch suppression, and viability staining indicated that egg mortality was increased. Allyl isothiocyanate above concentrations of 50 ppm significantly affected both hatch suppression and mortality. Differing effects of isothiocyanates on G. pallida suggest that their toxicity depends on the pest of interest and this study shows that allyl isothiocyanate is a good candidate for the control of potato cyst nematodes using biofumigation.

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Figures
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    Percentage mortality of Globodera pallida second-stage juveniles (J2) when exposed to different concentrations (12.5-50 ppm) of ten isothiocyanates (ITC) over an exposure period of 72 h. Error bars represent the SEM of four replicates for each 24 h period. Treatments labelled with ∗ indicate a significant difference in total mortality compared to the H2O control at the P<0.05 level based on Dunnett’s test following ANOVA. ITCs used were: allyl (AITC), benzyl (BITC), 2-phenylethyl (PEITC), methyl (MITC), propyl (PITC), isopropyl (IITC), ethyl (EITC), phenyl (PHITC), butyl (BUITC) isothiocyanate and sulforaphane (SUL).

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    Percentage of Globodera pallida second-stage juveniles (J2) that were dead, hatched and unhatched viable after exposure to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (3.125-50 ppm) refreshed every 3 days for A: 1 day’s exposure; B: 4 days exposure; and C: 7 days exposure. Error bars represent the SEM over four replicates for each category. Means labelled with ∗ are significantly different from the H2O control at the P<0.05 level based on Dunnett’s test following ANOVA. Means labelled with ∗∗ indicate significant differences in both dead and hatched J2 compared to the control.

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    Percentage of Globodera pallida second-stage juveniles (J2) that were dead, hatched and unhatched viable after exposure to high concentrations (50-1500 ppm) of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) for 1 day’s exposure followed by 4 week delay before hatch stimulation. Error bars represent the SEM over four replicates for each category. Means labelled with ∗ are significantly different from the H2O control at the P<0.05 level based on Dunnett’s test following ANOVA. Means labelled with ∗∗ indicate significant differences in both dead and hatched J2 compared to the control.

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