Diversity and incidence of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Morocco and their relationship with soil physicochemical properties

In: Nematology
View More View Less
  • 1 Biotechnology Unit, Regional Centre of Agricultural Research, National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA), Rabat, Morocco
  • 2 Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Laboratory of Botany, Mycology and Environment, Rabat, Morocco
  • 3 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), P.K. 39 06511, Emek, Ankara, Turkey

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€25.00$30.00

Summary

Saffron (Crocus sativus) fields in Morocco’s Taliouine and Taznakht regions were surveyed between January and April 2018 to study the diversity and incidence of plant-parasitic nematodes and assess the effects of soil physicochemical properties on the nematodes. Fourteen nematode genera were identified in soil and root samples collected from 66 saffron fields. The most common plant-parasitic nematodes in the Taliouine region were Pratylenchus spp. and Helicotylenchus spp. In the Taznakht region, the most common nematodes were Pratylenchus spp., Tylenchorhynchus spp. and Ditylenchus dipsaci. Nematodes, particularly Pratylenchus spp. and Ditylenchus spp., were abundant and frequent throughout the region. Several nematode genera were significantly associated with soil texture and mineral content, indicating that soil properties play an important role in plant-parasitic nematode communities. This description of plant-parasitic nematode assemblages associated with saffron fields in Morocco and their relationship with soil physicochemical properties provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

  • Ahrazem, O., Rubio-Moraga, A., Castillo-López, R., Mozos, A.T. & Gómez-Gómez, L. (2010). Crocus sativus pathogens and defence responses. In: Husaini, A.M. (Ed.). Functional plant science and biotechnology. Special issue: Saffron. London, UK, Global Science Books, pp. 81-90.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, J.M. & Ingram, J.S.I. (1993). Tropical soil biology and fertility: a handbook of methods, 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ardakani, A., Mafi, Z., Heser, A. & Goltappeh, E. (2014). Relationship between soil properties and abundance of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in citrus orchards, Kohgilouyeh va Boyerahmad Province. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 16, 1699-1710.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barker, K.R., Nusbaum, C.J. & Nelson, L.A. (1969). Effects of storage temperature and extraction procedure on recovery of plant-parasitic nematodes from field soils. Journal of Nematology 1, 240-247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boag, B. (1993). Standardization of ecological terms in Nematology. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 16, 190-191.

  • Castillo, P. & Vovlas, N. (2007). Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): diagnosis, biology, pathogenicity and management. Nematology Monographs and Perspectives 6 (Series Editors: Hunt, D.J. & Perry, R.N.). Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castillo López, R. & Gómez-Gómez, L. (2009). Isolation of a new fungi and wound-induced chitinase class in corms of Crocus sativus. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 47, 426-434. DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2009.01.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caveness, F.E. (1975). A simple siphon method for separating nematodes from excess water. Nematropica 4, 30-43.

  • Dababat, A. & Sikora, R.A. (2007). Importance of application time and inoculum density of Fusarium oxysporum 162 for biological control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Nematropica 37, 267-276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Grisse, A.T. (1969). Redescription ou modification de quelques techniques utilisées dans l’étude des nématodes phytoparasitaires. Meded. Rijksfakulteit Landbowwetenschappen Gent 34, 351-369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Decker, H. (1989). Leaf-parasitic nematodes. In: Sveshnikova, N.M. (Ed.). Plant nematodes and their control (phytonematology). Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill, pp. 354-368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elgin, J.H., Evans, D.W. & Faulkner, L.R. (1975). Factors affecting the infection of Alfalfa seedlings by Ditylenchus dipsaci. Journal of Nematology 7, 380-383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández, J.A. & Pandalai, S.G. (2004). Biology, biotechnology and biomedicine of saffron. Recent Research Developments in Plant Science 2, 127-159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández, J.-A., Santana, O., Guardiola, J.-L., Molina, R.-V., Heslop-Harrison, P., Borbely, G., Branca, F., Argento, S., Maloupa, E., Talou, T., et al. (2010). The world saffron and crocus collection: strategies for establishment, management, characterisation and utilisation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58, 125-137. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-010-9601-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fiscus, D. & Neher, D. (2002). Distinguishing sensitivity of free-living soil nematode genera to physical and chemical disturbances. Ecological Applications 12, 565-575. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[0565:DSOFLS]2.0.CO;2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fortuner, R. & Merny, G. (1973). Les nématodes parasites des racines associés au riz en Basse-Casamance (Sénégal) et en Gambie. Cahiers ORSTOM, Série Biologie 21, 4-43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Francl, L.J. (1993). Multivariate analysis of selected edaphic factors and their relationship to Heterodera glycines population density. Journal of Nematology 25, 270-276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerasimow, B.A. (1954). Measures for controlling the stem nematode injurious to onion and garlic. Trudi Prob Itema Sowing Academia 3, 223-231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holterman, M., van der Wurff, A., van den Elsen, S., van Megen, H., Bongers, T., Holovachov, O., Bakker, J. & Helder, J. (2006). Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23, 1792-1800. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msl044

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hooper, D.J. (1986). Extraction of free living nematode stages from soil. In: Southey, J.F. (Ed.). Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes, 6th edition. London UK, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, p. 5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hussaini, A.M., Hassan, B., Ghani, M.Y., Teixeira de Silva, J.A. & Kirmani, N.A. (2010). Saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) cultivation in Kashmir: practices and problems. Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology 4, 108-115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kandji, S.T., Ogol, C.K.P.O. & Albrecht, A. (2001). Diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes and their relationships with some soil physico-chemical characteristics in improved fallows in western Kenya. Applied Soil Ecology 18, 143-157. DOI: 10.1016/S0929-1393(01)00157-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koliopanos, C.N. & Kalyviotis-Gazelas, C.L. (1979). Nematodes and host plants identified for the first time in Greece. Annales de l’Institut Phytopathologique Benaki 12, 50-58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krebs, C.J. (1985). Ecology: the experimental analysis of distribution and abundance, 3rd edition. New York, USA, Harper & Row.

  • Mahdikhani, E. & Alvani, S. (2013). Plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) with two new records of Geocenamus squamatus and Filenchus pratensis from Iran. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 31, 99-103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mai, W.F. & Lyon, H.H. (1975). Pictorial key to the genera of plant parasitic nematodes, 4th edition. Ithaca, NY, USA, Cornell University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mai, W.F. & Mullin, P.G. (1996). Plant-parasitic nematodes: a pictorial key to genera, 5th edition. Ithaca, NY, USA, Cornell University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MAPM (2017). Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime. Dossier : produits de terroirs, une stratégie d’action le long de la chaine de valeur. Situation de l’Agriculture Marocain. Rabat, Morocco, Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime, pp. 97-157.

  • Mateille, T., Tavoillot, J., Martiny, B. & Fargette, M. (2014). Importance of soil characteristics for plant-parasitic nematode communities in European coastal foredunes. European Journal of Soil Biology 64, 53-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2014.08.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCuiston, J.L., Hudson, L.C., Subbotin, S.A., Davis, E.L. & Warfield, C.Y. (2007). Conventional and PCR detection of Aphelenchoides fragariae in diverse ornamental host plant species. Journal of Nematology 39, 343-355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metcalf, H. (1903). Cultural studies of a nematode associated with plant decay. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 24, 89-102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miyagawa, S.T. & Lear, B. (1970). Factors influencing survival of Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn, 1857) in soil. Journal of Nematology 2, 139-142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicol, J.M., Davies, K.A., Hancock, T.W. & Fisher, J.M. (1999). Yield loss caused by Pratylenchus thornei on wheat in south Australia. Journal of Nematology 31, 367-376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nielsen, U.N., Ayres, E., Wall, D.H., Li, G., Bardgett, R.D., Wu, T. & Garey, J.R. (2014). Global-scale patterns of assemblage structure of soil nematodes in relation to climate and ecosystem properties. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23, 968-978. DOI: 10.1111/geb.12177

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norton, D.C. & Hoffmann, J.K. (1974). Distribution of selected plant parasitic nematodes relative to vegetation and edaphic factors. Journal of Nematology 6, 81-86.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ortuño, N. & Oros, R. (2002). Nematodos que atacan cultivos ornamentals. Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Agroecologia 66, 76-81.

  • Prasard, J.S. & Rao, Y.S. (1980). Influence of edaphic factors on the buildup of the root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus indicus Das, 1960 in rice. 1. Effect of type, texture, porosity and moisture of soil. Revue d’Écologie et de Biologie du Sol 17, 173-179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prot, J.C. & Van Gundy, S.D. (1981). Effect of soil texture and the clay component on migration of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles. Journal of Nematology 13, 213-217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, L.A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Washington DC, USA, US Department of Agriculture.

  • Ryss, A.Y. (1988). World fauna of the root parasitic nematodes of the family Pratylenchidae (Tylenchida). St Petersburg, Russia, Nauka.

  • Schenk, P.K. (1970). Root rot in Crocus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 76, 159-164.

  • Seinhorst, J.W. (1959). A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica 4, 67-69. DOI: 10.1163/187529259X00381

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharma, K.D., Singh, B.M., Sharma, T.M., Rathour, R., Sharma, R. & Goel, S. (2005). Development of low-cost media for in vitro shoot regeneration in saffron (Crotus sativus L.). India Perfumer 49, 333-337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheikh, J.H., Chishti, M.Z., Rasheed, M. & Dar, S.A. (2014). Occurrence of Helicotylenchus chishti sp. n. (order Tylenchida) on Crocus sativus (Saffron) and its generic buildup analysis and a note on its possible management strategy. Journal of Zoological and Bioscience Research 1, 10-14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sikora, R.A. & Fernández, E. (2005). Nematode parasites of vegetables. In: Luc, M., Sikora, R.A. & Bridge, J. (Eds). Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture, 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK, CAB International, pp. 319-392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steiner, G. & Buhrer, E.M. (1932). The nonspecificity of the brown-ring symptoms in narcissus attacked by nematodes. Phytopathology 22, 927-928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephens, M.A. (1974). EDF statistics for goodness of fit and some comparisons. Journal of the American Statistical Association 69, 730-737.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, J.P., Clewett, T.G. & O’Reilly, M.M. (1993). Tolerance and resistance in wheat to Pratylenchus thornei. Pratylenchus workshop. In: 9th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society, Hobart, Tasmania, July 1993, pp. 43-48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Leeuwen, P.J. & Trompert, J. (2008). Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium. Acta Horticulturae 886, 273-276. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.886.38

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winterhalter, P. & Straubinger, M. (2000). Saffron – renewed interest in an ancient spice. Food Reviews International 16, 39-59. DOI: 10.1081/FRI-100100281

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yavuzaslanoglu, E., Elekcioglu, H.I., Nicol, J.M., Yorgancilar, O., Hodson, D., Yildirim, A.F., Yorgancilar, A. & Bolat, N. (2012). Distribution, frequency and occurrence of cereal nematodes on the central Anatolian plateau in Turkey and their relationship with soil physicochemical properties. Nematology 14, 839-854. DOI: 10.1163/156854112X631926

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yavuzaslanoglu, E., Dikici, A., Elekcioğlu, İ.H. & Aydoğdu, M. (2015). [Distribution of nematodes on onion and their relationship with soil physicochemical characteristics in Karaman province, Turkey.] Turkish Journal of Entomology 39, 251-259. DOI: 10.16970/ted.48085

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zijlstra, C. & Van Hoof, R.A. (2006). A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan) assay for the simultaneous detection of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax. Phytopathology 96, 1255-1262. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO-96-1255

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zijlstra, C., Donkers-Venne, D. & Fargette, M. (2000). Identification of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria using sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) based PCR assays. Nematology 2, 847-853. DOI: 10.1163/156854100750112798

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 329 313 25
Full Text Views 17 16 1
PDF Views & Downloads 21 20 4