Phylogeny of Meloidogyne spp. based on 18S rDNA and the intergenic region of mitochondrial DNA sequences

In: Nematology
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The 18S rDNA of 19 populations of Meloidogyne spp. was amplified and directly sequenced. The region of mitochondrial DNA, located in the 3′ portion of the gene that codes for cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) through a portion of the 16S rRNA (lRNA) gene, from 16 of these populations was cloned and sequenced. Heteroplasmic sequences were identified from both rDNA and mtDNA regions for several taxa. Several sequences sampled from nominal taxa differed from previously published accounts. Phylogenetic trees based on alignments of these sequences were constructed using distance, parsimony and likelihood optimality criteria. For 18S rDNA data, three main clades were identified. One well supported clade (86–91% bootstrap) included the most common and widely disseminated species, e.g.,M. arenaria, M. javanica and M. incognita, some recently described or redescribed species (M. floridensis, M. paranaensis, and M. ethiopica) plus numerous unidentified isolates. All mitotic parthenogenetic species, except for M. oryzae, were included in this clade. Other, less well supported clades included the amphimictic and facultative meiotic species M. hapla, M. microtyla, M. maritima and M. duytsi. One such clade comprised three meiotic parthenogens (M. exigua, M. graminicola and M. chitwoodi) and M. oryzae. This clade was moderately supported (77% bootstrap) but the relationships within this clade were poor. For mitochondrial DNA data, only the species in clade I from rDNA analysis, and M. hapla were analysed. These species formed a well supported clade (100% bootstrap) to the exclusion of M. mayaguensis and M. hapla. The addition of taxa and mtDNA data to publicly available records improved the discrimination sensitivity of species and atypical, non-identified, isolates.

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