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References

1. For example, widespread deposits of Banded Iron Formations. 2. W.H. Schlesinger, Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change (San Diego: Academic Press, 1997).

3.Id. 4. R.A. Berner and D.E. Canfield, "A New Model for Atmospheric Oxygen over Phanerozoic Time," American Journal of .Science 289 (1989): 333-361. 5. J.E. Lovelock, Gaia: A Nera l,ook at Life on Fart (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979). 6. AJ. Watson, "Methanogenesis, Fires, and the Regulations of Atmospheric Oxygen," Biosystems 10 (1978): 293-298. 7. Schlesinger, see n. 2 above. 8. R.A. Berner and Z. Kothavala, "Geocarb III: A Revised Model of Atmospher- ic CO2 over Phanerozoic Time," American Journal of .Science 301 (2001): 182-204. 9. C. Sagan and C. Chyba, "The Early Faint Sun Paradox: Organic Shielding of Ultraviolet-Labile Greenhouse Gases," Sciences (NY) 276 (1997): 1217-1221. 10. Id.

11. C. Sagan, "Reducing Greenhouses and the Temperature of Earth and Mars," Nature vol. 269 (1977): 224-226; C. Sagan and G. Mullen, "Earth and Mars: Evolution of Atmospheres and Surface Temperature," Science (NY) 177 (1972): 52-56. 12. R.A. Berner, "Geocarb II: A Revised Model of Atmospheric C02 over Phanerozoic Time," American Journal of Science 294 (1994): 56-91. 13. J.D. Hays, J. Imbrie and N J. Shackleton, "Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice ages," .Science (NY) 194 (1976): 1121-1132.

14. J.A. Raven and P.G. Falkowski, "Oceanic Sinks for Atmospheric C02," Plant, Cell fs' Environment 6 (1999): 741-755.

15. The IPCC Web site is .

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22. The only significant locations are the Greenland Sea and Labrador Sea off Greenland in the North Atlantic (North Atlantic Deep Water) and beneath sea ice and ice shelves along the margins of the Antarctic continent (Antarctic Bottom Water). 23. Carbon is also transported into the deep sea by the so-called biological pump, which consists primarily of the sinking of organic carbon and CaC03 synthesized by organisms in surface waters. However, because photosynthesis in the ocean is limited by nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron rather than by inorganic carbon, the biological pump has not been stimulated by rising C02 concentrations. 24. PJ. Cnuzen and E.F. Stoenner, "The 'Anthropocene'," Global Change Nezusletter 41 (2000): 12-13. 25. The figure of 48 percent drops to about 30 percent if deforestation is included among anthropogenic effects. 26. Sabine et al., see n. 21 above. 27. R. E. Zeebe and D. Wolf-Glad row, C02 in Sear Equilibrium, Kinetic.s, Isotopes (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001). 28. Royal Society, Ocean Acidification Due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (London: Clyvedon Press, 2005); R.E. Zeebe, D.A. Wolf-Gladrow and H. Jansen,

"On the Time Required to Establish Chemical and Isotopic Equilibrium in the Carbon Dioxide System in Seawater," Marine Chenaistry 65, no. 3-4 (1999): 135-153. 29. SOz is actually a gas, but it undergoes a series of chemical reactions in the atmosphere to produce sulfate aerosols. 30. M.O. Andreae, C.D. Jones and P.M. Cox, "Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future," Nature 435, (2005): 1187-1190. 31. Catalytic converters remove carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons from automobile exhaust gases. 32. Berner, see n. 12 above.

33. J.A. Church and NJ. White, "A 20th Century Acceleration in Global Sea- Level Rise," Geophysical Research Letter 33 (2006, L01602, doi:1029/2005GL024826). 34. IPCC, see n. 15 above. 35. Church and White, see n. 33 above.

36. A.P. Sokolov and P.H. Stone, "Global Warming Projections: Sensitivity to Deep Ocean Mixing," in MIT Global Changejoint Progra (Cambridge, MA: Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996). 37. Sabine et al., see n. 21 above.

38. D. Archer, "Fate of Fossil Fuel C02in Geologic Time," Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (2005): C09S05, doi:10.1029/2004JC002625; K. Caldeira and M. E. Wickett, "Ocean Model Predictions of Chemistry Changes from Carbon Dioxide Emissions to the Atmosphere and Ocean," Journal of Geophysical Research 110, (2005): C09S04, doi:10.1029/2004JC002671. 39. K.P. Bowman and P J. Cohen, "Interhemispheric Exchange by Seasonal Modulation of the Hadley Circulation," journal of the Atmospheric Science 54, no. 16 (1997): 2045-2059.

40. J.H. Yin, "A Consistent Poleward Shift of the Storm Tracks in Simulations of 21st Century Climate," Geophysical Research Letters 32 (2005): All8701, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023684. 41. Id.

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51. Keim, see n. 42 above, p. 40. 52. F. Miller, F. Thomalla, T. Downing and M. Chadwick, "Case Study: Resilient Ecosystems, Healthy Communities-Hrnnan Health and Sustainable Ecosys- tems after the December 2004 Tsunami," Oceanography 19, no. 2 (2006): 50-51.

53. I�L., p. 50.

54. The other two groups are the diatoms and dinoflagellates. 55. P.G. Falkowski, M.E. Katz, A.H. Knoll, A. Quigg, J.A. Raven, O. Schofield, and FJ.R. Taylor, "The Evolution of Modern Eukaryotic Phytoplankton," Science 305 (2004): 354-360. 56. The other important component being calcareous or coralline algae.

57. Royal Society, see n. 28 above. 58. Royal Society, see n. 28 above. 59. J.P. Gattsuo, D. Allemand, and M. Frankignoulle, "Photosynthesis and Calcification At Cellular, Organismal and Community Levels in Coral Reefs: A Review on Interactions and Control by Carbonate Chemistry," American Zoologist 39, no. 1 (1999): 160-183; J.A. Kleypas, R.W. Buddemeier, D. Archer, J.-P. Gattuso, C. Langdon, and B.N. Opdyke, "geochemical Consequences of Increased Atmospher- ic COz on Coral Reefs," Science 284 (1999): 118-120; J.A. Kleypas, R.A. Feely, VJ. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine and L.L. Robbins, "Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers (Washington, D.C., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2006); C. Langdon, T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, D. Chipman, J. Goddard, F. Marubini, H. Aceves, H. Barnett and M J. Atkinson, "Effect of Calcium Carbonate Saturation State on the Calcification Rate of an Experimental Coral Reef," Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14 (2000): 639-654. 60. Kleypas et al., n. 59 above; D.A. Wolf-Gladrow, U. Riebesell, S. Burkhardt, and J. Bijma, "Direct Effects of C02 Concentration on Growth and Isotopic Composition of Marine Plankton," Tellus. Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 51B, no. 2 (1999): 461-476. 61. Royal Society, see n. 28 above, p. 23.

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67. L. Bopp, O. Aumont, S. Belviso, and P. Monfray, "Potential Impact of Climate Change on Marine Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions," Tellus. Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55 (2003): 11-22. 68. P.W. Boyd and S.C. Doney, "Modelling Regional Responses by Marine Pelagic Ecosystems to Global Climate Change," Geophysical Research Letters 29, no. 16 (2002): doi:10.1029/2001GL014130. 69. B.T. Huber, D.A. Hodell, and C.P. Hamilton, "Middle-Late Cretaceous Climate of the Southern High Latitudes: Stable Isotopic Evidence for Minimal Equator-To-Pole Thermal Gradients," Geological Society of America Bulletin 107, no. 10 (1996): 1164-1191. 70. Falkowski et al., see n. 55 above. 71. S. Tozzi, O. Schofield, and P.G. Falkowski, "Historical Climate Change and Ocean Turbulence As Selective Agents for Two Key Phytoplankton Functional Groups," Marine Ecology Progress Serzes 274 (2004): 123-132. 72. Falkowski et al., see n. 55 above. 73. L.C. Backer and D. McGillicuddy, Jr., "Harmful Algal Blooms At the Interface Between Coastal Oceanography and Human Health," Oceanography 19, no. 2 (2006): 94-106.

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78. Id. 79. Id., Table 1. 80. Id, p. 31. 81. Boyd and Doney, see n. 68 above.

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87.Id. 88. Id. 89. Id., p. 468. 90. Id.

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102. Sea ice contains very little salt compared to the water from which it was formed. The liquid brines that remain after sea ice forms are literally at the freezing point of seawater and are hypersaline due to the exclusion of salt from the ice.

103. S. Manabe and R J. Stouffer, "Two Stable Equilibria of a Coupled Ocean- Atmosphere Model," Journal of Climate 1 (1988): 841-866; S. Rahmstorf and A. Ganopolski, "Long-Term Global Warming Scenarios Computed With an Efficient Coupled Climate Model," Climatic Change 43, no. 2 (1999): 353-367. 104. M.G. Gross, Oceanography: A View of the Earth 3rd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982).

105. One Sverdrup = 10fi m�/s or 3.2 x 101 km�/y. 106. S. Rahmstorf, "The Thermohaline Ocean Circulation: A System With Dangerous Thresholds?," Climccte Change 46 (2000): 247-256.

107. W.S. Broecker, "Thermohaline Circulation, the Achilles Heel of Our Climate System: Will Man-Made C02 Upset the Current Balance?," Science 278 (1997): 1582-1588. 108. Id. 109. Lake Agassiz was an immense lake, larger than the area of the present-day Great Lakes combined, and covered much of Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan, and northern Minnesota and North Dakota. It appears to have formed ca. 13,000 years ago and was fed by glacial runoff. At various times it discharged to the south through the Mississippi River system or to the northwest through the Mackenzie River. The event that triggered drainage of about 85 percent of Lake Agassiz's volume through the St. Lawrence River about 12,700 years ago was apparently the failure of an ice dam. Modern remnants of Lake Agassiz include, inter alia, Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Manitoba, and Lake of the Woods. 110. S. Perkins, "Once upon a Lake," Sciences Nerus 162, no. 18 (2002): 283. 111. For example, large ice-dammed lakes that are known to have formed in the Siberian Altai Mountains.

112. D.C. Barber, A. Dyke, C. Hillaire-Marcel, A.E. Jennings, J.T. Andrews, M.W. Kerwin, G. Bilodeau, R. McNeely, J. Southon, M.D. Morehead, and J.-M. Gagnon, "Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes," Nature 400 (1999): 344-348. 113. Id. 114. G. Bond, W.J. Showers, M. Cheseby, R. Lotti, P. Almasi, P. deMenocal, P. Priore, H. Cullen, I. Hajdas, and G. Bonani, "A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates," Science 278 (1997): 1257-1266; P. deMenocal, J. Ortiz, T. Guilderson, and M. Sarnthein, "Coherent High- and Low- Latitude Climate Variability During the Holocene Warm Period," Science 288 (2000): 2198-2202.

115. DeMenocal et al., see n. 114 above, p. 2201. 116. Rahmstorf, see n. 107 above. 117. I�l., p. 251. 118. J. M. Gregory, P. Huybrechts, and S. C. B. Raper, "Threatened Loss of the Greenland Ice-Sheet," Nature 428 (2004): 616. 119. Id.

120. Caldeira and Wickett, see n. 62 above. 121. Berner, see n. 12 above. 122. Rahmstorf, see n. 107 above. 123. Caldeira and Wickett, see n. 62 above. 124. Rahmstorf, see n. 107 above, p. 253. 125. Id., p. 252.

131. J.T. Overpeck, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, G.H. Miller, D.R. Muhs, R.B. Alley, and J.T. Kiehl, "Paleoclirnatic Evidence for Future Ice-Sheet Instability and Rapid Sea- Level Rise," Science 311 (2006): 1747-1750, p. 1747.

132. Rignot and Thomas, see n. 126 above, p. 1505. 133. Smith et al, see n. 128 above. 134. Id., p. 951. 135. Id., p. 949. 136. B. Ammann, "Biotic Responses to Rapid Climatic Changes: Introduction to a Multidisciplinary Study of the Younger Dryas and Minor Oscillations on an Altitudinal Transect in the Swiss Alps," Palaeogeography, Palaeclirzzatology, Palaeoecology 159 (2000): 191-201; B. Ammann, HJ.B. Birks, SJ. Brooks, U. Eicher, U. von Grafenstein, W. Hofmann, G. Lemdahl, J. Schwander, K. Tobolski and L. Wick, "Quantification of Biotic Responses to Rapid Climatic Changes Around the Young Dryas-A Synthesis," Palaeogeograpizy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 159 (2000): 313-347. 137. Smith et al, see n. 128 above. 138. Id.

139. A lesson apparently being learned the hard way by mamifacturers and drivers of gas-guzzling sport utility vehicles.

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