Globalization can be defined as the increased interconnectedness of peoples and nations through technology, trade, and finance, reinforced by an increasing number of multilateral institutions and rules. Globalization can bring health benefits, but is also associated with health risks. Its direct and indirect links to health present a complex puzzle. This essay provides a framework to help in unpacking the links, including a review of some of the evidence of health impacts along the pathways. Particular attention is given to trade agreements and their potential effects on national regulatory abilities to create healthy living, working, and environmental conditions.