The Church Slavonic Song of Songs Translated from a Jewish Source in the Ruthenian Codex from the 1550s (RSL Mus. 8222)

A New Revised Diplomatic Edition

In: Scrinium
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  • 1 Moscow State Pedagogical University, Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian State Library, and St. Tikhon’s University for the Humanities

Abstract

This paper presents the new and actually the first diplomatic publication of the unique 16th-century copy of the Church Slavonic Song of Songs translated from a Jewish original, most likely not the proper Masoretic Text but apparently its Old Yiddish translation. This Slavonic translation is extremely important for Judaic-Slavic relations in the context of literature and language contacts between Jews and Slavs in medieval Slavia Orthodoxa.

Abstract

This paper presents the new and actually the first diplomatic publication of the unique 16th-century copy of the Church Slavonic Song of Songs translated from a Jewish original, most likely not the proper Masoretic Text but apparently its Old Yiddish translation. This Slavonic translation is extremely important for Judaic-Slavic relations in the context of literature and language contacts between Jews and Slavs in medieval Slavia Orthodoxa.

1 Introduction

In February 2018, I accidentally found a very interesting set of the Old Ruthenian biblical translations from Jewish sources in the Miscellany No. 436 from the Collection of Ivan Zabelin, 1640s–50s, deposited in the State Historical Museum, Moscow. Zabelin’s Set1 follows the fragment of the so-called Judaic Chronograph – being written in the same quires and in the same East Slavic brief cursive – and consists of the second known copy of the Cyrillic Manual of Hebrew2 and four unknown works: 1) scholia on the passages from Church Slavonic and Old Ruthenian translations of the Song of Songs from Jewish sources; 2) Old Ruthenian translation of Numbers 24:2-25, 23:18-19 from “Jewish books”;3 3) Old Ruthenian translation of Isaiah 10:32-12:4 also from Hebrew; and 4) Old Ruthenian translation of the fragment of Proverbs divided into two parts, 8:11-21 and 8:22-31, also from Hebrew. The whole of Proverbs, translated into Old Ruthenian with the Church Slavonic influence, is known in the Vilna Biblical Collection (Vilnius, Wróblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, F 19, No. 262, the first quarter of the 16th century), but it contains another Old Ruthenian translation of Proverbs than the fragment 8:11-31 from Zabelin’s Set; however, there could be a textual connection between the two translations like it was found for two translations of the Songs of Songs that are preserved in the Vilna Codex mentioned above (hereinafter called Vil., for the Songs of Songs only) and in the Museum Codex of the Russian State Library (hereinafter called Mus., also for the Songs of Songs only) which this publication is dedicated to. Just the need to study the scholia on the Song of Songs from Zabelin’s Set has inevitably led me to a detailed comparative analysis of Vil. and Mus.

Vil. was published as a part of the Five Megillot in facsimile and in parallel with typed version, being accompanied with textual and linguistic commentaries by Moshé Altbauer (and the concordance compiled by Moshé Taube).4 This edition is absolutely adequate for studying Vil., that cannot be said about the situation with the editions of Mus. The only publisher of Mus. was Anatoly Alekseev, who printed the text in typed form two times.5 It is a regrettable fact that these editions could be assumed as a mere preliminary, although Alexeev is privileged to be a discoverer of Mus., its first publisher and researcher. His first discussion on Mus. caused sharp criticism from Moshé Taube and Horace Lunt, both of whom argued that Mus. could not be made in pre-Mongol Rus’;6 and later, Alekseev admitted this fact and dated the protograph back to the 14th century at least, when Ashkenazi Jews went to the East Slavic area.

Alekseev viewed the Ashkenazi (proto-Yiddish, i.e., Middle High German) influence on Mus. in a Germanism virokh ‘fragrance, aroma’ (see verses 4:6 and 4:14) originated from weihrauch, wirouch, weirach, wiroch, weiroch, or ­wihrouch.7 He supposed that this Germanism was borrowed “to the text from the speech of Ashkenazi Jews,” but my own point is that it was not language (“from the speech”) but textual (“from the text”) influence. This text was an Old Yiddish translation of the Song the Songs, which was known in the first printed Megillot in Yiddish – the edition of the Pentateuch, Haftarot, and Megillot prepared by Paulus Aemilius in Augsburg, 1544.8 In 4:14, for Hebrew ləḇônāh ‘frankincense’ (which virokh of Mus. corresponds to) this text has ווייאריך wwyy’ryk (weiarich?) (fol. 120a), another Old Yiddish edition has there ווייעריך wwyy‘rik (weierich?),9 so these Old Yiddish forms seem very similar to Slavic hapax legomenon virokh that is absent in all historical dictionaries of the East and West Slavic languages. This fact indicates a high probability that word virokh was not borrowed from Middle High German into Slavic and was a barbarism in the Slavic text of Mus.

The case of virokh is only one – but the most potent – among many examples of the Old Yiddish translation to be textual source (at least, one of several) for Mus. Recently, Basil Lourié has hypothesized that Mus. “contains a specific recension enrooted in Jewish Second Temple traditions” and that Mus. “has been produced in the earliest period of Slavic writing directly from Syriac rather than from Hebrew.”10 The first point is proved by many textual evidences, but it seems to be a usual fact, because the whole tradition of the Judaic biblical exegesis – both Rabbinic and Karaite – absorbed great number of old interpretations of the Bible including Aramaic targumim. The second point by Lourié should be recognized as highly controversial, since there are no marks of immediate influence of a Syriac text on Mus. in its unique copy.

Just the uniqueness of Mus. brings us back to the problem of its perfect edition. Expressing deep gratitude to Prof. Alekseev for his discovery and editions of Mus., I cannot accept that these editions would be satisfactory for the further research of the early Church Slavonic and Ruthenian translations of the Song of Songs from Jewish sources. I have some important reasons for this opinion. The hardest is that Alekseev did not find in the manuscript a folio of Mus. containing verses 5:15b-6:8a, although the manuscript does have this folio, and I have found it, even if at some distance from the main text (it is fol. 217, while the known text is on the fols. 238v, 241-243, 245-253, and 258, out of order too). The second reason is that Alekseev’s editions are neither diplomatic nor fully normalized. The spelling of these editions does not allow to judge thoroughly orthography and punctuation of the original manuscript. One of the most disappointing features of Alekseev’s editions is that they completely ignore the plentiful accentual signs of the manuscript, whereas an accentual system of a scribe can be the best indicator of his – or his predecessor’s – origin. However, without bothering with evidence, Alekseev declares the whole manuscript to be of Great Russian origin,11 that raises strong doubts. For these two reasons, actually there was not full and scrupulous edition of Mus. yet. The third defect of Alekseev’s editions is scanty description of the manuscript and the textual convoy of Mus. Other features of the old editions prevent comfortable working with Mus.: thus, Alekseev used the Vulgate system for the numbering and division of verses, regardless of the fact that Mus. was translated from a Jewish source and, in this case, the Song of Songs should be divided into verses according to the system of the Masoretic Text scholarly editions. Besides, Alekseev did not mark rubricated letters of the original text, that could be signs for the verse beginnings. Finally, some word-divisions made by him seem to be not exactly reliable; the same problem is in few errors and inaccuracies.

This new edition is based on the manuscript investigated de visu and by the digital copies; it is diplomatic, revised, and full (unfortunately, the journal format does not allow to publish the copies of all leaves of the manuscript with Mus.). Its main purpose is to prepare Mus. for the further textual and linguistic commenting, which is to be proposed for later publication in this journal. Moreover, this edition also contains my attempt to do the literal English translation of Mus.: I think this to be necessary for understanding all specific translation features of the Slavonic text, that can be interesting and helpful for the scholars who study medieval exegesis of Song of Songs, both in Christian and Judaic traditions.

2 Description of the Manuscript

The manuscript miscellany containing Mus. is deposited in the Manuscripts Department of the Russian State Library, Moscow (RSL; in Russian, Rossiyskaya gosudarstvennaya biblioteka, RGB), in the Museum Collection (Muzeynoye sobraniye, in Russian; found 178), No. 8222, in quarto (190×150 mm), 260 fols. In the 19th century (in the second half thereof?) the manuscript was rebound with a lot of new leaves of paper without watermarks and containing hand-drawn illustrations to the main text thereof, the Explained St. John’s Revelation. Because of this, the leaves were messed up, and therefore Mus. got the following sequence of leaves: fols. 238v, 258, 241-242, 247, 243, 246, 249, 245, 248, 217, 251, 253, 252, and 250 (the correct sequence was ascertained by Alekseev, with excluding fol. 217, which he did not find). The text of the Song of Songs in Mus. lacks the whole verse 3:2, the end of 6:7, the end of 7:1, and the middle of 8:9 (numbering according to the Masoretic Text system). After the end of Mus., the text is continued with the beginning of the Song of Songs (verses 1:2 and defective 1:5) from the Explanatory Redaction.12 This Appendix is also published and translated in English in my edition.

The old paper of RSL Mus. 8222 has two varieties of one-type watermark13 “Aper”: 1) close to No. 3647 by Laucevičius (1530), No. 823 by Tromonin (1557) and similar to No. 3292 by Likhachev, Vol. I (1535); 2) a type of Nos. 355 and 354 by Mareș (1533 and 1553-57). Hence, the manuscript was written near 1550s. It is also significant that all the paper was made in Vilna.

The manuscript RSL Mus. 8222 consists of only two non-equivalent works: the shortest is Mus., and the largest, which occupies the bulk of the Museum Miscellany, is the Church Slavonic translation of the Explained St. John’s Revelation. The miscellany is not a convolute, for Mus. is written by the same hand on the verso of the leaf containing the end of the Explained Revelation on its recto. On the whole, there are several similar handwritings of the massive East Slavonic semi-uncial (“poluustav”), with many abbreviations and which have some indications of the Ruthenian type, e.g., some characteristic ligatures, ­specific superscript letters “и” and “р” lying on its side. In more details, the handwriting and orthography of Mus. will be described with the further commentary on it. It is an interesting fact that the scribe of Mus. did not use such plentiful accentuation in the Explained Revelation as in the text of Mus. As examples of the handwriting of Mus. and as evidence of the verses 5:15b-6:8a existence, there are published three leaves from the Museum Miscellany, 238v (Fig. 1), 217r (Fig. 2), and 217v (Fig. 3). Now, everyone can judge the handwriting at least and principles of this edition.

Figure 1
Figure 1 Museum Miscellany (Russian State Library, Mus. 8222), f. 238v

Citation: Scrinium 15, 1 (2019) ; 10.1163/18177565-00151P08

Figure 2
Figure 2 Museum Miscellany (Russian State Library, Mus. 8222), f. 217r

Citation: Scrinium 15, 1 (2019) ; 10.1163/18177565-00151P08

Figure 3
Figure 3 Museum Miscellany (Russian State Library, Mus. 8222), f. 217v

Citation: Scrinium 15, 1 (2019) ; 10.1163/18177565-00151P08

Regarding the Explained Revelation, in the Museum Miscellany a usual East Slavonic redaction of this monument is included, containing the commentaries by St. Andreas of Caesarea (CPG 7478-79) and consisting of 24 treatises, 72 chapters, and 311 verses.14 This copy of the Explained Revelation has not been analyzed yet with relation to its language, but just the language features would help to localize the manuscript more exactly.

3 Principles of Edition

This edition, as mentioned above, is diplomatic; that is, all the text of Mus. is typed with “civil” Church Slavonic Unicode font containing Cyrillic Ex­tended (Old Standard TT, designed by Alexey Kryukov) word by word, with all superscript characters and abbreviated forms, with original punctuation preserved. Only spaces are arranged by the editor (in the manuscript, there are spaces only around dots). Rubricated letters, including uppercase ones and a few dots, are set in bold type. Line endings are indicated with vertical bars ( | ), page endings with double vertical bars ( ‖ ), and the page numbers (in the format of folio numbers) are in the margins. Within parentheses, there are chapter and verse numbers according to the Masoretic text. Illegible letters are enclosed in square brackets. Words struck out by the scribe are shown as strikethrough text. All corrections made by the scribe are also reproduced in the edition in footnotes; the corrected letters are italicized. All erroneous spellings are preserved; they will be commented upon in the further paper on Mus., but the semantic errors, which appeared due to graphic mixing, are taken into account in the English translation.

The English translation, following the Slavonic text, is not interlinear, there are no glosses and grammatical marks. I have tried to produce a literal translation, which could be read like a plain English text, but at the same time reflecting all errors, anomalies, and obscurities of the Slavonic text, that was translated often inaccurately and with misunderstanding of the original, on the one hand, and on the other hand, based on available exegetic interpretations of the Bible, including different biblical translations made into Jewish languages of Eastern Europe. In my translation, I have added into brackets the words, which are absent in the Slavonic text but required by English grammar. In the brackets too, there are remarks concerning the right comprehension of the errors in the Slavonic text. While translating, I have been guided by the wording of existing English translations of course, including the King James Bible, the New American Standard Bible, and the New Revised Standard Version; however, Mus. has forced me to use quite numerous differences from the customary English wording. Being a native speaker of Russian and well-versed in Church Slavonic, I nevertheless turned to the dictionaries of Church Slavonic, Old Russian, and Ruthenian, and thus my translation seems to be adequate to the Slavonic text.

4 Slavonic Text

(Chap. 1) (1) ШИ́РЬ ГА́ШИⷨ А҆́ШИ́Р̾ | лишло́мо̀. рек̾ше пѣ́снѝ | пѣснеⷨ, и҆же къ́ со́ломонꙋ. | (2) Ло́б̾жи мѧ̀ ѿ лоб̾занїа̀. | ѹ҆сть твоиⷯ. ꙗ҆ко́ бл҃гы̀ | лю́бостѝ твоа̀ пⷱ҇а́ ви́|на̀ (3) бл҃гово́нию̀ з̾ми́р̾нь тво|иⷯ бл҃гыⷯ. и҆з̾ми́р̾на пре|ѡ҆чи́щена и҆мѧ̀ твоѐ. | тѣⷨже двц҃и лю́бѧⷮ҇́ тѧ̏. | (4) Поѝдѹ̀ по тебѣ и҆ поⷠгⷺ́ѹ̀. | приведѝ мѧ̀ цр҃ю къ чръ|тогоⷨ твоиⷨ. въз̾рⷣауеⷨсѧ | и҆ въз̾ве́се̑лиⷨсѧ ѡ҆

те́бѣ. | Въспо́мѧнеⷨ лю́бостѝ ‖ тво́ѧ̀ паⷱ҇ ви́на̀. пра́веⷣныѧ̀ | любѧⷮ҇́ тѧ. (5) Че́рна́а̀ а҆зь | и҆ кра́сна̀ въ дъ́щераⷯ і҆е҆рⷭ҇лиⷨ|скыⷯ. ꙗⷦ҇же шатры̀ по́л̾скыѧ̀. | и҆ ꙗⷦ҇́жѐ за́поны̀ со́ломоновы̀. | (6) Не пⷢ҇о́р̾дѣте мною̀. и҆жѐ а҆з̾ | чер̾на̀. ꙗⷦ҇́ съж̾жѐ мѧ̀ слн҃це. | сн҃ове мт҃ре моӗѧ ѹ҆ничижи|шѝ мѧ̀. поло́жиша́ мѧ̀ | хра́нитѝ ви́но̀грⷣа. и҆ вино|града мое́҇ⷢ не хра́нила е҆смь. | (7) ска́жѝ мн̑ѣ ѐжѐ лю́биⷮ҇́ дш҃а ⷨѧ̀ⷪ. | ка́ко̀ паствишисѧ ка́ко̀ | скытае҆шисѧ̀ въ по́лѹдн҃ѐ. | и҆ се̑ че́мѹ̀ бѫ́дѹ̀ ꙗ҆коⷤ ѹ҆го̀|товлена̀. по́длѣ̀ стⷣа дрѹ́‖говь твоиⷯ. (8) є҆гаⷣ не свѣ́сѝ въ | с̑ебѣ. ꙗⷦ҇́ кра́сна̀ въ женаⷯ. и҆́|зыѝдѝ къ́ мн̑ѣ въ́слⷣѣ ѡ҆вⷰ҇е́. | и҆ па́стви къ́з̾ел̾цѝ твои. на | ѡ҆почиванїѝ пастѹховь. | (9) Ко́неⷨ, и҆ ко́лисни́цаⷨ фара|ѡ҆новыⷨ, ѹ҆поⷣбⷪиⷯ тѧ̏ по|дрѹ́га̀ мо́а̀. (10) Кра́сны̀ ла́ни|тѣ́ твио въ го́р̾лицаⷯ. и҆ выѧ̀ | твоа̀ въ мо́нистоⷯ. (11) Гори̾и|цѣ зла́ты̀ѧ̀ съ́тво́риⷨ те|бѣ. съ́ блещанїеⷨ сребра. | (12) и҆ с̑е ꙗⷦ҇ цр҃ь въ ѡ҆крѹ́женїѝ єⷢ́҇. | и҆ мѹшькⷮ҇а мо́ѝ пѹщаéⷮ҇ | бл҃говоленїѐ є҆го̀. (13) вѧ́зо|кь м̾скѹса́ лю́бо̑вникь

мои ‖ къ́ мн̑ѣ. ме́жѝ пръ́смѝ | мои́мѝ ѡ҆битоваéⷮ҇. (14) Вѣтви | ви́ногра́да̀. лю́бо̑вникь | моѝ къ́ мн̑ѣ. и҆ въ ви́но̀|гра́дѣ моеⷨ ѹ҆́ро́чища̀ нⷭ҇ѣ. | (15) и҆ с̑ѐ ты̏ кра́сна̀ подрѹго̀ | моа̀. и҆ с̑ѐ кра́сны̏ ꙫ҆чѝ твои | го̀лѹбинѣ. (16) И҆́ се̏ ты̏ кра́|сныѝ лю́б̑овникь моѝ. па́|кы̀ кра́сныѝ. па́кы̏ по́сте|лѧ на́ша̀ гѹ́ста̀. (17) тѣ́ны̀ | до́мовь на́шиⷯ кедровы̀. | ла́ты̀ на́шѣ ни́к̾сѹсовы̀. |

 (Chap. 2) (1) а҆зь ле́лѣѧ̀ по́л̾скаа̀. а҆ ро́жа̀ | б̑олонскаа̀. (2) Ꙗ҆́кожа̀ межи | ро́жа̀ ме́жѝ тръ́нїеⷨ. та́ко̀ ‖ по́дрѹго̀ моа̀ ме́жи дъщер̾|мѝ. (3) ꙗ҆́коже ꙗ҆́бло́нь въ дре́|вⷯѣ лѣ́са̀. та̀ко̀ лю́бовниⷦ҇ | моѝ ме́жѝ сн҃ьмѝ. въ стⷩ҇ѣ́ | е҆го̀ жа́дала̀ е҆смь. и҆ сѣ́да|ла̀ е҆смь. и҆ ѡ҅во́щь е҆го̀ сла́дóⷦ҇ | го́р̾танѝ мѹмѹ̀. (4) при́вⷧ҇е́ | мѧ̀ къ́ домѹ ви́на̀.15 и҆ хо́рѹ|го̀вь е҆го̀ на́ мѧ̀ лю́бима̀. | (5) скрѹ́жил̾ мѧ̀ въ́ цол̾таⷯ и҆ | ѡ҆́б̑осла́л̾ мѧ ꙗ҆бло́кы̀. ꙗⷦ҇́ | б̑олѣз̾ньна̀ лю́бовїю̀ а҆зь. | (6) Дв҃ца е҆го̀ поⷣ гла́вою̀ мо́ӗю̀. | и҆ де́сни́ца е҆го̀ ѡ҆бьꙗ҆ла мѧ̀ |

(7) Закли́наю̀ вⷭ҇а́ дъ́ще́р̾мѝ | ı҆е҆рⷭⷭ҇ли́сⷨкымѝ. в се́р̾наⷯ. и҆лѝ ‖ въ́ ѡ҆ленеⷯ по́лѧ̀. є҆́га̀ въз̾|бѫ́ди́тесѧ̀. є҆да̀ ѡ҆́сва́ри|тесѧ за лю́бовь. до́н̾деⷤ́ | бѫ́деⷮ҇́ и҆зво́лена. (8) влⷭⷭ҇а́ лю́бов̾|ни́ка мое҆го̀. и҆ нн҃ѣ сеи при́|шⷧ҇е́ ска́чéⷮ҇ на́ го̀ры̀. и҆ пре́ска|чéⷮ҇ на хол̾мѝ. (9) ѹ҆пⷣоⷪбисѧ̀ лю́|бовниче мои се́р̾нѹ̀ и҆лѝ ла́нїѝ | ѡ҆ле́невь. и҆ се̏ ти̏ сеѝ стои́ⷮ҇ за́ | стѣ́ною̀ нашею̀. преглѧдаа̀ | ѡ҆ко́н̾цеⷨ. и҆ пре́смотрѣѧ ѿ | раз̾сѣлинь. (10) ѿвѣщеваль | лю́бовникь моѝ. и҆ рекль къ | мн̑ѣ. въ́ста́нѝ къ́ мн̑ѣ по|дрѹ́го́16 мо́а̀. и҆ кра́снице моѧ̀ | поѝдѝ къ́ мн̑ѣ. (11) ꙗ҆́ко́ се̏ ти̏ ‖

зи́ма̀ пре́минѹла̀ и҆ дъжьⷣ | и҆з̾мѣ́нил̾сѧ̀. и҆ ѿи҆де к се́бѣ. | (12) Ццвѣ́ты̀ ви́дѣны̏ въ́ зеⷨлѝ. | и҆ го́дина̀ сла́виⷨ достигла́. и҆́ | глⷭ҇а́ го́р̾лица̀ слы́шⷩ҇а въ зеⷨлѝ | на́шеѝ. (13) и҆ смо́к̾ва̀ проц̾ви|те цвѣты̀ ӗѧ. и҆ ви́но̀гра́|ды̀ з̾рⷣѣю҆ще пѹ́щаѫⷮ҇́ бл҃го|ꙗ҆ханїѐ. въста́ни къ́ мн̑ѣ | подрѹ́го̀ моѧ и҆ кра́снице моа | поѝдѝ къ мн̑ѣ. (14) го́лѹбице | моа̀ в раз̾сѣлинаⷯ стѣ́ны̀. | вѣ за́стѣнїѝ вѣсхоⷣ. пока́|жѝ мѝ зра́кь твоѝ. и҆ ѡ҆́гла́|си́ мѧ̀ гла́соⷨ твоиⷨ. ꙗ҆́ко̀ глⷭ҇а́ | твоѝ

сла́докь. и ѡ҆́бра́зь ‖ твоѝ кра́сень. (15) и҆зьи҆ма́ша̀ | наⷨ ли́сицѣ. и҆ ли́сицѣ ма́лы̀. | затворѧюⷮ҇́ виногра́ды̀. а҆ ви́|но́гра́ды̀ на́ша̀ не зрⷣѣша̀. | (16) лю́бовникь моѝ къ́ мн̑ѣ. и҆́ | а҆зь къ́ немѹ̀. и҆жѐ па́ствѝтѧ̏ | в ро́жаⷯ (17) до́н̾дежѐ съгрѣеⷮ҇́сѧ | дн҃ь. и҆ побѣгнѹⷮ҇́ стѣнѝ | ѡ҆крѹ́жисѧ̀ и҆ ѹ҆поⷣбⷪлѧѝ|сѧ в се́бѣ лю́бов̾ниче моѝ | к̾ се́р̾нѣ. и҆лѝ к ланїѝ ѡ҆ле́невь. | на го́раⷯ разлиⷱ҇ныⷯ.

 (Chap. 3) (1) на́ ложи | моеⷨ в [но]щеⷯ. въ́зыскаⷯ єⷤ лю́|биⷮ҇́ дш҃а моѧ.

въ́зы́скаⷯ е҆го̀ | и҆ не ѡбрѣ́тоⷯ е҆го̀. (3) ѡ҆́брѣтоⷲ҇́ | мене стра́жѝ. и҆же ходѧⷮ҇́ ‖ въ гра́дѣ. є҆жѐ лю́биⷮ҇́ дш҃а | моа̀. ви́дѣсте лѝ. (4) ꙗⷦ҇́же ма́|ло̀ пре́минѹⷯ ѿ ниⷯ. до́н̾деⷤ ⷷ | ѡ҆́брѣ́тоⷯ е҆го̀. е҆же́ лю́биⷮ҇́ дш҃а | моѧ̀. и҆ ꙗⷯ е҆го̀. и҆ не ѡ҆сла́бѣⷯ | е҆мѹ. до́н̾дежѐ приведоⷯ е҆го̀ | во доⷨ мт҃ре моӗѧ. и҆ въ че́ртоⷢ҇́ | прадѣⷯ моиⷯ. (5) За́клинаю̀ вⷭ҇а́ | дъ́щер̾мѝ і҆е҆рлⷭ҇и́сⷨкымѝ. в се́|р̾ноⷯ. и҆лѝ в ланѧⷯ па́лѧ̀. є҆да̀ | въ́з̾бѹ́дитесѧ. є҆да̀ ѡ҆|сваритесѧ̀. за любовь. | до́н̾днежѐ бѫ́деⷮ҇́ и҆зво́лена. | (6) кт̑о сеѝ и҆схо́ди ѿ пѹ́сты|н̑ѧ. ꙗ҆коже стлъ́пь ды́|мныѝ. ка́дилоⷨ

м̾скѹ́са̀. ‖ те́мїа҆ноⷨ бѣлыⷨ. ѿ все́го̀ | пра́хѹ̀ по́мен̾тника̀. (7) и҆́ се̏ | постелѧ̀ е҆го̀. и҆жѐ къ со́лоⷨ ⷪ|мѹ̀ ,ѯ҃, хра́брыⷯ. ѡ҆́крⷭ҇ть ӗѧ. | ѿ храбрⷯы і҆и҆́л҃ѧ. (8) всѝ ѡ҆нѝ де|р̾жахѫ ме́чѝ. и҆ наѹ҆́чени к̾ во|и҆нѣ. и҆ кое҆гожⷣо ме́чь єⷢ҇́ на́ | колѣнѣ е҆го̀. ѿ стра́ха в но́|щеⷯ. (9) въсхо́ды̀ сътворⷧ҇и къ | немѹ̀ ц҃рь соломонь. ѿ дре́|ва лѣ́снаго̀. (10) стлъ́пы е҆го̀ | сътворⷧ҇и сре́брьны̀. и҆ по́сте|лѧ̀ е҆го̀ зла́та́. и҆ ко́лесница̀ | е҆го̀ ба́грова̀. и҆ послⷣѣ е ҆ѧ̆ | бле́щащѝ за

лю́бовь дъще|реѝ і҆е҆рлⷭ҇иⷨскыⷯ. (11) и҆зьи҆дѣтѐ ‖ и҆ ѹ҆́зри̏те въ́ дъ́щерѧⷯ сиѡ҆|нь. въ црк҃ви̑ со́ломонѣ. | въ вѣ́н̾цѝ и҆жѐ вѣн̾аала̀ мт҃и | е҆го̀. въ́ дн҃ь брⷦаⷶ е҆го̀. и҆ въ́ | дн҃ь веⷭ҇́лїа̀ срцⷣа е҆го̀

 (Chap. 4) (1) . и҆ се̏ ты̏ | кра́сна̀ по́дрѹго̀ моѧ̀. и҆ | кра́сны̀ ꙫ҆чѝ твоѝ гѹ ⷧ҇|бинѣ. ѿ ты́лѹ̀ къ завою̀ | твое҆мѹ̀. и҆ вла́сѝ твоѝ | ꙗ҆коже стⷣаⷶ ко́зь. и҆же и҆|схо́дѧⷮ҇ ѿ горы̀ ге́лаⷣ (2) . зѫ́бы̀ | твоѧ̀ ꙗ҆кⷤоⷷ ста̀да ѡ҆вⷰ҇е́ иⷤ҇ ́| и҆схо́дⷮ҇ѧ́ ѡ҆тоѝ и҆з̾мы́ва|нїа̀. и҆ всѝ тїѝ ѡ҆́ны̀ плъ́ны̀. | и҆ и҆з̾връ́жено́ѐ нⷭ҇ѣ́ в ниⷯ.

(3) ꙗ҆́ко|же ниⷮ҇ че́р̾в̾чата̀ ѹ҆ста твоа̀ ‖ гл҃анїѐ твоѐ кра́сно̀. ꙗ҆́ко|жѐ поло́вины̀ ма́р̾гра́ма | ко́сицѝ твоѧ̀. ѿ ты́лѹ | к̾ за́вою̀ твое҆мѹ̀. (4) ꙗ҆́коⷤ ⷷ | вежа двⷣа. вы́а̀ твоѧ̀ съ́|тво́рена къ зѹбоⷨ. ҂а҃́ щи́|товь повѣшена́ на не́ѝ. | и҆ всѝ ѡ҆рѫжїа̀ хра́брыⷯ. | (5) двѣ̏ пръ́си̏ тво́ѧ. ꙗ҆́кожѐ | два̏ мло́дыⷯ л̾во́вича̀. близ̾|н̾цѝ се́р̾ны̀ и҆жѐ па́ствⷮ҇ѧ́|сѧ̀ в рожаⷯ. (6) Дон̾деже и҆|жѐ про́сѝа҆еⷮ҇́ дн҃ы. и҆ побѣ́|гнѹⷮ҇́ стѣ́нѝ. по́и҆дѝ къ | мн̑ѣ къ́ го́рѣ м̾скѹ́са. и҆́ | къ хлъ́мѹ̀

ви́роха̀. (7) всѧ̀ ‖ ты̏ кра́сна̀ по́дрѹго̀ моа̀. | и҆ порока̀ нⷭ҇ѣ в̾ те́бѣ́. (8) съ | мною̀ ѿ лѣ́са̀ невѣ́сто̀. съ | мно́ю̀ ѿ лѣ́са̀ прїѝде́шѝ. | посмо́трѝ ѿ връ́хѹ̀ а҆мана̀. | и҆ ѿ връ́хѹ̀ сни́рь. и҆ хе́р̾мⷩ҇о́. | ѿ жи́лища̀ лю́тыⷯ. и҆ ѿ гⷬ҇о́ | па́р̾дѹсовь. (9) ѡ́҆сер̾дичѝ | мѧ̀ с̑естро моѧ̀ невѣ́сто̀ | ѡ҆се́р̾дила̀ мѧ̀ въ е҆диноⷨ ꙫ҆́|чїю̀ твое꙼ю̀. въ е҆ди́ноѝ гриⷡ҇́|нѣ ѿ вы̀ѧ̀ тво́е꙼ѧ̀. (10) кт̑о | красе́нь лю́б̑овни́кь твои | се́с̾тро́ мо́ѧ невѣ́ст̑о. | чт̑о бл҃гы̀ лю́бовникы̀ | тво́ѧ̀ паⷱ҇́

ви́на̀. и҆ бл҃гово́‖нїѐ ма́стеѝ твоиⷯ. ѿ всⷯѣ | и҆з̾ми́р̾нь. (11) сла́дость ка|плюⷮ҇́ ѹ҆ста̀ твоѧ̀. меⷣ и҆ мле́|ко̀ поⷣ ꙗ҆зыкоⷨ твоиⷨ. и҆ во́|нѧ̀17 ри́зь твоиⷯ, ꙗ҆коже | во́нѧ̀ лѣ́са̀. (12) ѡ҆́граⷣ заклю́|ченыѝ с̾т҃ро̀ моѧ̀ не́вѣ́сто̀. | и҆ вра́та́ за́клю́чена́а̀. по|то́кь за́печатлѣн̾ныѝ. | (13) сла́дость ѡ҆гра́довь и҆ ма́|р̾грамовь. ꙗ҆кожѐ кафрѝ | с мѹшкаты̀ и҆ съ ѡ҆во́щи́ | слⷣакымѝ. (14) мѹ́шкⷮ҇а́. и҆́ | ша́фрⷩ҇а́. и҆ тро́стка̀. и҆ | ко́рица̀. съ всѣ́мѝ дре́вы̀ | ви́роха̀.

м̾скѹсь. и҆ про́чїѝ ‖ зе́лїа̀. и҆ съ всѣ́мѝ връхы̀ бла́|го̀вон̾нымѝ. (15) по́токь ѡ҆гра́|дныѝ. кла́дѧзь воⷣ живыⷯ. | и҆ текѹⷮ҇́ ѿ лѣса. (16) възбѫ́|дисѧ въ́ пол̾нощи. и҆ прїи҆|дѝ въ по́л̾дн҃е. дъхнⷮ҇е́ ви́но̀|грⷣа моѝ. и҆ потекѹⷮ҇́ и҆змⷬ҇и́|ны̀ е҆го̀. прїѝдѝ лю́бовни|че моѝ къ ѡ҆гра́дѹ мое҆мꙋ. | и҆ снѣ́жь ѡ҆вощь сладостѝ | е҆го̀.

 (Chap. 5) (1) прїѝдоⷯ къ ѡ҆́гра́дѹ | мое҆мѹ̀. сестро моѧ невѣ́|сто̀. и҆ събираⷯ и҆з̾ми́р̾нѹ̀ | мою̀ съ́ бл҃гоꙗ҆хан̾мѝ мои҆|ми и҆ ꙗ҆́доⷯ тро́сткѹ̀ мою̀, | с

ме́доⷨ моиⷨ. и҆ пиⷯ ви́но моѐ ‖ съ мле́коⷨ моиⷨ. ꙗ҆до́ша дрѹ́|ѕи́ и҆ пи́ша̀, и҆ ѹ҆́пишасѧ̀. | лю́бовницѝ. (2) а҆зь сплю̀. и҆́ | срцⷣе моѐ чѹеⷮ҇́. и҆ глⷭ҇а лю́вни|ка̀ мое҆го̀ тол̾чеⷮ҇́. ѿвръ́зѝ | мн̑ѣ. сестро̀ моѧ̀, и҆ по|дрѹ́го̀ моѧ̀. го́лѹбице | моѧ̀. пол̾наа̀ моѧ̀ ꙗ҆ко гла́|ва̀ моѧ̀ наплъ́нисѧ̀ ро́сы̀. | и҆ вла́сы̀ моѧ̀ кра́плѧмѝ но̀|щнымѝ. (3) Съвле́коⷯ сра́чицꙋ | мою̀. и҆ ка́ко̀ ѡ҆бле́кѹсѧ. | и҆з̾мыⷯ но́гы̀ моѧ̀. и҆ ка́ко̀18 | ѡ҆сквръ́ню́ иⷯ (4) . лю́бовникь | моѝ про́стерь

рѫ́кѹ̀ е҆го̀ | ѿ дѣ́ры̀. и҆ чре́ва̀ моѧ̀ раз̾‖го̀рѣшасѧ̀ въ́ мн̑ѣ. (5) въста́|ла а҆зь ѿвръ́стѝ лю́бовни|кѹ мое҆мѹ. и҆ рѫ́цѣ моѝ | ѡ҆блїа̀нѣѝ зми́рною̀. и҆ пръ́|сты̀ моѧ̀ м̾скѹ́соⷨ про́мѣ|неныⷯ на́ лав̾каⷯ заⷨка. (6) ѿвръ|зоⷯ а҆зь лю́бовникѹ́ мое҆мꙋ̀. | и҆ лю́б̑овниⷦ҇  ́моѝ потаѝвь|сѧ про́минѹⷧ҇́. дш҃а маѧ̀ и҆|зыѝде въ гл҃анїѝ е҆го̀. и҆ въ́|зы̀скаⷯ е҆го̀ и҆ не ѡ҆́брѣтоⷯ єⷢ҇́. | възы̀скⷯа го̀. и҆ не ѿвѣ́ща|ваше мн̑ѣ. (7) и҆зьѡ҆́брѣ́то|ша̀ мѧ̀ стра́жеве, и҆же ѡ҆́|б̾хо́дѧⷮ҇ въ

гра́дѣ́. и҆ биша̀ | мѧ. и҆ щи́паша́ мѧ̀. и҆ ѿ‖нѧ́ша̀ гри́вны̀ моѧ̀ ѿ ме́нѐ, | стра́жеве грⷣастїѝ. (8) за́кли|наю̀ вⷭ҇а дъ́щерѧ̀ і҆е҆рⷭ҇лиⷨскы̀ѧ̀. | є҆да̀ и҆зьѡ҆брѣ́щете лю́бов̾|ника́ мое̑го. чт̑о повⷣѣ̏тѐ | къ немѹ̀. чт̑о бо́лезна лю́|бовїю̀ а҆зь. (9) чт̑о лю́бовниⷦ твои | ѿ лю́вовника̀. чт̑о кра́с̾ни|це въ женаⷯ. чт̑о лю́бовнⷦ҇и́ | твоѝ ѿ лю́бовника̀. чт̑о | тако̀ за́клинае҆шѝ нⷭ҇а. (10) лю́|бовьникь моѝ чи́сть и҆ чер̾|лень ѡ҆стѧ́жень т̾мамѝ. | (11) гла́ва̀ е҆го̀ ѿ чистаго̀ зла́та̀. | вла́сы̀ е҆го̀ кѹ́дрѧвы̀. черь|ны̀ ꙗ҆ко̀ врань.

(12) ꙫ҆чи е҆го̀ ꙗ҆ко̀ | голѹби|нѣ. ‖ на́ сил̾ныⷯ водаⷯ, ѹ҆́мываеⷮ҇́сѧ̀ | на млецѣ. сидиⷮ҇́ на́ наплъ́|ненїѝ. (13) ла́нитѣ е҆го̀ ꙗ҆кожѐ | рѧ́ды̀, хи́тра̀ и҆змѝр̾ника | ртогѝ и҆зми́р̾никовь ѹ҆́|ста̀ е҆го̀ ро́жамѝ каплⷮ҇ю́. | м̾скѹ́сь проминѹеⷮ҇́. (14) рѫ́цѣ | е҆го̀ перевиваны̀ зла́тоⷨ. | по́л̾ны ꙗ҆коже́ дра́гыѝ ка́|мень. чрево е҆го̀, то́л̾ща̀ | сло́нова̀. перевивано ꙗ҆́|хо́и҆ты̀. (15) Го́ленї е҆го̀ сто́|лпы̀ дра́гаго̀ ка́менѝ. ѹ҆е҆|динены̀ на́ пен̾коⷯ чи́стаго̀ | зла́та̀. зракь

е҆го̀ ꙗ҆ко|же̑ лѣ́сь. изо́брань ꙗ҆коⷤ҇ ⷷ ‖ ке́дрь. (16) го́р̾тань е҆го̀ слⷣаⷪкь. | и҆ вⷭ҇е ѡ҆нь в̾же́лѣне́нь. се̏ лю́|бовникь моѝ. и҆ се̏ дрѹⷢ҇ ́моѝ. | д̾щерѧ19 і҆е҆рⷭ҇лиⷨскыѧ̀.

 (Chap. 6) (1) Где̏ шⷧ҇е́ | лю́бю́вникь твоѝ. чт̑о | кра́сницѐ въ́ же́наⷯ. и҆ где̏ | въз̾вра́тил̾сѧ̀ лю́бовникь | твоѝ. възы́щеⷨ е҆го̀ с тобою̀. | (2) лю́бовникь моѝ и҆зыѝде къ | ѡ҆гра́дѹ е҆го̀. и҆ къ рѧ́доⷨ и҆з̾ми́|р̾новь. и҆ къ виденїю̀ въ гра́|дѣⷯ. и҆ съ́би́ранїю̀ рожеѝ. (3) а҆зь | къ лю́бовнѝкѹ мое҆мѹ̀. и҆ лю́|бовникь моѝ къ́ мн̑ѣ. и҆жѐ | па́стⷮ҇в́исѧ̀ в рожаⷯ. (4) кра́сна̀20 | ты̏

по́дрѹго́ моѧ̀. и҆ лю́бовна̀. ‖ лѣ́па въ і҆е҆рлⷭ҇и́мѣ. страш̾|на ꙗ҆́кожѐ хо́рѹг̾вѝ. (5) ѡ҆крѹ́|жиша̀ мѧ̀ ꙫ҆чѝ твоѝ проти|вѹ̀ ме́не. и҆же ѡ҆́нѝ по́го́р̾дѣ|ша̀ мною̀. вла́сы̀ твоѧ̀ ꙗ҆́ко|жѐ ста́да ко́зь. и҆же сходⷮ҇ѧ́ | ѿ ге́лаⷣ.21 (6) Зѹбы̀ тво́ѧ̀ ꙗ҆ко | ста́да̀ козловь. и҆же схо́|дѧⷮ҇ ѿ ѹ҆мы́ванїа̀. всѝ ѡ҆́|нѝ плъ́ны̀ и҆ и҆звръ́женоѐ | нⷭ҇ѣ в ниⷯ. (7) ꙗ҆кожѐ поло́ви|ны̀ ма́р̾к̾гра́ма̀ ко́сицѝ твоа̀ | (8) ѯ҃́ ѡ҆́ни цр҃цѝ. и҆́ п҃́ ѡ҆́нѝ ме́н̾|шицѝ. и҆ дв҃ць нⷭ҇ѣ́ числа. | (9) є҆ди́на̀ ѡ҆́на̀ го́лѹбице моѧ̀ | по́л̾наа̀ моа̀ є҆ди́на̀ ѡ҆на̀ ко ‖

мт҃рѝ ӗѧ̀. чиста̀ ѡ҆на̀ къ́ | ро́дител̾ницѝ ӗѧ. ви́дѣ|ша ю҆̀ дъ́щерѝ. и҆ хвалиша ю҆̑. | и҆ цр҃ци и҆ мен̾шицѝ. похва́|лиша ю҆̑. (10) Кт̑о сїа̀ зрⷮ҇исѧ | ꙗ҆́кожѐ зо́рѧ̀. и҆ кра́снаѧ̀ | ѡ҆на ꙗ҆́кожѐ лѹ́на̀. и҆ чиста̀ | ꙗ҆́кожѐ сл҃нце. стра́ш̾на̀ ꙗ҆́коⷤ҇ ́ | хо́рѹг̾вѝ. (11) къ́ ѡ҆́гра́дѹ̀ ѡ҆́|рѣ́ховомѹ̀ възыѝдоⷯ. ви́|дѣтѝ мо́кротѹ̀ потока̀. | и҆ ви́дѣтѝ е҆да̀ про́цвите | ви́но̀грⷣа. и҆ а҆ще ѡ҆цви́тоша̀ | ма́р̾грамы̀. (12) Не вѣ́дѧⷯ дш҃и | моӗѧ. и҆жѐ поло́жиша мѧ̀ | въ ко̀лесницѝ. люⷣ ̏ и҆ кнѣ́ѕѧ̀. ||

 (Chap. 7) (1) Навра́тисѧ̀, навра́тисѧ̀. | по́л̾наа̀. и҆ навратисѧ. и҆ на|вра́тисѧ̀. и҆ прїѝмеⷨсѧ̀ въ пⷧ҇о́|ноѝ. (2) чт̑о кра́сны̀ стѹ́пе|нѝ твоѧ в сапозѣⷯ д̾щерь | цр҃ева̀. при́виванїѐ колѣнь | твоиⷯ ꙗ҆коже ретезѝ. дѣ́|ла̀ рѫ́кь мастера̀. (3) Пѹпокь | твоѝ лоханѧ̀ чистаа̀. и҆ не22 | ѹ҆́ма́лиⷮ҇сѧ̀ наливⷱ҇а́ чре́ва тво|е҆го̀. и҆ враⷯ п̾шеници ѡ҆гра́|жень в ро́жаⷯ. (4) Дв̏ѣ пръси твои. | ꙗ҆коже два̀ мла́дыⷯ е҆леничѝ. | бли́з̾н̾цѝ с̑ер̾ны. (5) Выѧ̀ твоѧ̀ |

ꙗ҆кожѐ ве́жа̀ сло́на̀. и҆ ꙫ҆́чѝ твио | ста́вы̀ въ хеж̾бонѣ̀. на вра́‖тⷯѣ мно́гыⷯ. и҆ нозриⷣ твоѝ, | ꙗ҆кожѐ ве́жа лѣсна. посмо́|трѧю҆щи на лице дамасекь. | (6) сла́ва твоѧ̀ на тебѣ ꙗ҆́ко̀ гаѝ. | и҆ про́борь главы твое҄̀ѧ. ꙗ҆коⷤ ⷷ | всѣкыѧ̀ цвѣты̏. цвѣты | цр҃ь свѧ́зань въ коритⷯѣ. (7) чт̑о | красныѝ. и҆ чт̑о лѣпыѝ. лю́|бовнице, в нѣ́го̀ванїиⷯ.23 (8) Се̏ | по́ставь твоѝ пⷣоⷪбень са́дѹ̀. | и҆ пръ́сѝ твоѝ вѣ́твеⷨ. (9) рекоⷯ | възыи́дѹ̀ въ саⷣ. и҆ прїиⷨ ⷹ за при|сады̀ е҆го̀. и҆ бѹдѹⷮ҇ нн҃ѣ пръ́сѝ | твоѝ въ вѣтвеⷯ ви́но̀гра́да̀. | и҆ бл҃говонїѐ ноз̾дреѝ

твоиⷯ. | ꙗ҆коже ꙗ҆бло́ка̀. (10) Го́р̾тань ‖ твоѝ ꙗ҆кожѐ ви́но бл҃гоѐ. хо́|дѧщѝ къ любовникѹ̀ моє҆мѹ̀. | и҆скре́ниⷨ. въ дви́женїѝ ѹ҆́сть | спѧ́щиⷯ (11) . а҆́зь къ лю́бовни́|кѹ̀ мое҆мѹ̀. и҆ къ мн̑ѣ хо́те|нїѐ е҆го̀ (12) . Ходиⷨ любовниче мои. | и҆ и҆́зыѝдеⷨ на́ поле. и҆ ѡ҆́бїтѹⷨе҆24 | ме́жѝ селы̀. (13) ра́но̀ и҆зыѝдеⷨ ко ви́|но̀градоⷨ, и҆ ѹ҆́зриⷨ а҆ще про́цви|те ви́но̀грⷣа. и҆ а҆ще ѡ҆твори|шасѧ̀ го́лен̾кѝ. и҆ а҆ще ѡ҆́цви́то|ша̀ ма́р̾грамы̀. та́мо̀ даⷨ лю́бо|в̾нѝче моѝ те́бѣ. (14) а҆́фиѡ҆лы̀ пѹ́|щаѫⷮ҇́ бл҃гово́нїѐ. и҆ на̀ двереⷯ на|шиⷯ в̾сѝ сла́достѝ но́выѝ. и҆ па́|кꙑ́ вⷮ҇е́хыѝ лю́бов̾нѝче моѝ съхра‖ниⷯ те́бѣ.

 (Chap. 8) (1) Кт̑о бы̏ да̀ль тѧ̏ | ꙗ҆коже брата мн̑ѣ. и҆ съ́сла́|ль бы̏ е҆сѝ пръ́сѝ мт҃ре моӗѧ. | и҆зьѡ҆брѣ́ла быⷯ тѧ̏ въ ѹ҆́ли́цѝ. | и҆ цѣ́ловала̀ быⷯ тѧ̏. да́ па̀́кы̀ | не глѹ́милѝсѧ̀ бы́ша̀ мн̑ѣ. | (2) По́ведѹ тѧ̏ и҆ при́ведѹ въ доⷨ | мт҃ре моӗѧ. и҆ ѹ҆́чишѝ мѧ̀. и҆ на́|пою҆ тѧ̏ ви́ноⷨ бл҃говон̾н̾ыⷨ. и҆ | сла́достѝ ма́р̾гра́мѹ̀ мое҆го̀. | (3) Дѣ́вица е҆го̀ поⷣ гла́вою̀ моӗю. и҆ | десница̀ е҆го̀ ѡ҆бьи҆маеⷮ҇́ мѧ̀. (4) За́|клинаю̀ вⷭ҇а́ дъ́щерѝ і҆е҆́рлⷭ҇и́сⷨкы́ѧ. | чт̑о побѹ́жае҆тесѧ̀. и҆ чт̑о | сва́тесѧ̀ за́ лю́бовь. до́н̾де|же что и҆з̾во́лѧеⷮ҇́. (5) Кт̑о сїа̀

и҆зыи‖дⷮ҇е́ ѿ пѹ́стынѧ̀. и҆ при́дрѹжа|еⷮ҇́сѧ къ люб̑овникѹ̀ ӗѧ. Поⷣ | ꙗ҆блонею̀ въз̾бѫ́диⷯ тѧ̏. и҆ таⷨ | за́ча̀ла̀ тѧ̏ мт҃и твоѧ̀. и҆ таⷨ | поро́дила́ дѣ́тѝ твоѧ̀. (6) По|ло́жи мѧ̀ ꙗ҆ко̀ пе́чаⷮ на́ срцⷣи твоеⷨ | и҆ ꙗ҆ко̀ пе́чⷮ҇а́ на мⷲ҇ы́ци твоӗи. и҆ | и҆жѐ си́л̾на̀ ꙗ҆́ко̀же съ́мр҃ть лю́|бовь. и҆ же́стока̀ в ро́вѹ̀ ре́вно|стѝ. и҆ ѹ҆́глїѐ є̆ѧ. ѹ҆́глїѐ ѡ҆г̾|нѧ̀. пла́мень ӗѧ. ѿ пла́ме си́л̾|на́го̀. (7) во́ды многы̀ не мо́гѹⷮ҇ | ѹ҆́га́сѝти лю́б̾вѝ. и҆ рѣ́кы̀ не | вы́мыюⷮ҇ ӗѧ. є҆да бы̏ даль мѫⷤ ́| ѹ҆́в̾себ̑о в̾сѐ и҆мѣ́нїѐ до́мѹ е҆го за | люб̑овь.

ѡ҆б̾не́вреденїе҆мь. ѡ҆‖невре́дено̀ къ́ немѹ̀. (8) Се̑стра̀ | [н]а́ша̀ ю҆на. и҆ пръ́сеѝ нⷭ҇ѣ́ ѹ҆́ неа̀. | и҆ чт̑о сътво́риⷨ сестрѣ̀ на́шеѝ | въ́ дн҃ь. є҆да въз̾глⷮ҇ю́ ѡ҆ неѝ: | (9) є҆́да̀ стѣ́на ѡ҆́на̀ сътворилѝ | бы́х̾мо̀ на неѝ. и҆ е҆да̀ бы̏ две́рѝ | ѡ҆на̀. сътво́риⷧи бых̾мо̀ на неѝ. | тавлы ке́дровы. (10) Азь е҆смь25 | стѣ́на. и҆ пръ́сѝ моѝ ꙗ҆кожѐ | ве́жѣ̀.26 то́го̀ д̑а быⷯ въ ѡ҆чїѫ̀ єⷢ҇́. | ꙗ҆́кожѐ и҆зьѡ҆́брⷮ҇ѣ́шѝ ми́рь. | (11) Ви́но̀грⷣа быⷧ҇ ́ѹ҆́ со́ломона̀ въ ба́л̾|гамо̀нѣ́. и҆ дⷭ҇а́ тъѝ ви́но̀грⷣа | стра́жеⷨ. мѫ́жь твоѝ при́несѐ | за ѡ҆́во́щь е҆го ты́сѧщѹ сре́бра̀. |

(12) Ви́ногрⷣа моѝ е҆же къ́ мн̑ѣ. прⷣеⷪ ‖ мною̀ ты̀сѧ̀ща̀. к те́бѣ со́ло|монѐ. и҆ двѣ̏стѣ̀ къ ста́жеⷨ. за | ѡ҆́во́щь е҆го̀. (13) и҆́жѐ си́дⷮ҇ѧ́ въ ѡ҆́гра́|дⷯѣ. и҆ дрѹ́зѝ. є҆жѐ ѹ҆́по́ваюⷮ҇̀ | на глⷭ҇а́ твоѝ. д̑а бы̏ ѹ҆́слы́шаль27 | мѧ̀ е҆сѝ. (14) По[бѣг]нѝ лю́бовниче | моѝ. и҆ ѹ҆́подобисѧ̀ въ се́бѣ̀ се́р̾|нѹ̀. и҆лѝ къ ланїѝ28 е҆ле́невь. на́ гораⷯ | и҆зми́р̾новь :⁓:

 ко́нець книгы̀ | пѣ́снѝ пѣ́снеⷨ :⁓:

 и҆ пакы ѿ то|ѧ҆ жѐ кни́гы̀. и҆нѣ́ми сло́вы̀. и҆́|зло́жено̀ сїа стихи :⁓:⁓ |

 (1:2) Ло́б̾жи мѧ̀ ѿ ло́б̾занїа̀ ѹ҆́сть | твоиⷯ. ꙗ҆́ко̀ бл҃га съска̀ твоѧ̀ | пⷱ҇а́ ви́на̀. (1:5) чер̾на̀ е҆мь и҆ до́бра дъ́|щерѝ і҆е҆рлⷭ҄иⷨскыѧ̀. се́ла̀ ки́дрьска̀. ‖

5 Literal Translation into English

(Chap. 1) (1) Širь haš[ir]im ašir lišlomo, that is The Songs of Songs, which is for Solomon. (2) Kiss me from the kiss of your mouth, for your loves are better than wine. (3) For fragrance of your good myrrh; the myrrh most purified is your name, therefore the virgins love you. (4) I will go and run after you. Bring me, O king, into your chambers! We will exult and rejoice in you; we will remember your loves much more than wine; upright persons love you. (5) I am black and beautiful among the daughters of Jerusalem like the steppe tents and like the curtains of Solomon. (6) Do not puff me up because I am dark, for the sun has burned me. My mother’s sons despised me; they made me to keep the vineyards, but my vineyard I have not kept. (7) Tell me, you whom my soul loves, how you pasture yourself, how you wander at noon; and lo, for why will I be like one who is prepared beside the flocks of your companions? (8) If you do not know in yourself that you are beautiful among women, come out to me after the sheep and pasture your kids beside the shepherds’ roost. (9) To the horses and to the chariots of Pharaoh, I compared you, O my she-friend! (10) Your cheeks are beautiful in turtledoves and your neck with chains. (11) We will make you golden turtledoves with the shining of silver. (12) And lo, while the king is on his encirclement, my nutmeg gave forth its benevolence [read fragrance]. (13) My beloved man is for me a bundle of musk [that] dwells between my breasts. (14) My beloved man is for me [like] branches of vineyard/grapes, and in my vineyard there is no landmark. (15) An lo, you are beautiful, O my she-friend; and lo, your columbine eyes are beautiful. (16) An lo, you are beautiful, O my beloved man! Also beautiful! Also our couch is dense. (17) The walls of our houses are of cedar, our rafters are of boxwood.

(Chap. 2) (1) I am a lily of a steppe and a rose of a valley. (2) As a rose among blackthorns, so is my she-friend among daughters. (3) As an apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my he-friend among sons; near his walls I have wish and I have sat, and his fruit is sweet for my throat. (4) [He] brought me to the house of wine, and his banner toward me is loved. (5) [He or you] surrounded me in loafs and sent apples for me, for I am faint with love. (6) His virgin [read left hand] is under my head, and his right hand embraced me. (7) I adjure you with daughters of Jerusalem in the chamoix or in the deer of the field; when you will wake up, when you will be excited for love, until she pleases. (8) The hair [read voice] of my beloved man; and now, this one has become, he is leaping upon the mountains and skipping upon the hills. (9) You became, O my beloved man, like a chamois or a doe of deer; and behold, he is standing behind our wall, looking through the windows and peeping from the clefts. (10) My beloved man responded and said to me: Arise to me, O my she-friend and my beautiful woman, come to me. (11) For behold, the winter is past and the rain is over and gone to itself. (12) The flowers are seen in the land, and the time of nightingale has come, and the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land. (13) The fig tree flowered with its flowers, and the ripening vines give forth the fragrance. Arise to me, O my she-friend and my beautiful woman, come to me. (14) O my dove, in the clefts of the wall, in the shade of the stairs, show me your eye and voice me with your voice, for your voice is sweet, and your image is lovely. (15) [Someone] caught the foxes for us, and the little foxes are closing the vineyards, and our vineyards did not ripe. (16) My beloved man is for me, and I am for him, who pastures in the roses. (17) Until the day warms up and the shadows flee, turn and be similar in yourself, O my beloved man, to a chamois or to a doe of deer on the different mountains.

(Chap. 3) (1) On my bed at night I sought him whom my soul loves; I sought him and did not find him. (2) [lacuna]. (3) The watchmen that go in the city found me. Have you seen him whom my soul loves? (4) As I passed from them a little, until I found him whom my soul loves; and I took him and did not let him go, until I had brought him to my mother’s house and into the chamber of my forefathers. (5) I adjure you with daughters of Jerusalem in the chamoix or in the does of the field; when you will wake up, when you will be excited for love, until she pleases. (6) Who is this that came up from the wilderness, like a column of smoke with censer of musk, with white incense from all powder of the pharmacist [or incense-dealer]. (7) Behold his bed, which is for Solomon; sixty brave (men) around it, of the brave (men) of Israel. (8) All of them held swords, and they are trained for war; and the sword of each one of them is at his knee because of fear in the nights. (9) King Solomon made stairs for himself from the forest wood. (10) He made its pillars of silver, and his bed is golden, and his chariot is crimson; and the rest of it is flashing for the love of the daughters of Jerusalem. (11) Come out and look Zion in the daughters, in the church of [read in King] Solomon at the crown with which his mother crowned him on the day of his wedding and on the day of the gladness of his heart.

(Chap. 4) (1) And behold, you are beautiful, O my she-friend, and your dove eyes are beautiful from the back to your veil, and your hair is like flocks of goats, which are coming out from mount Gilead. (2) Your teeth are like flocks of ewes, which are coming out from washing, and all of them are complete, and there is no ejected in them. (3) Your lips are like a scarlet thread, your talking is beautiful, your tresses are like halves of a pomegranate from the back to your veil. (4) Your neck is like the tower of David, created for teeth; a thousand shields are hung on it, and all arms of mighty (men). (5) Your two breasts are like two young lion’s whelps, twins of chamois, which feed among the roses. (6) Until the day begins to shine and the shadows flee, come to me to the mountain of musk and to the hill of fragrance. (7) You are altogether beautiful, O my she-friend, and there is no blemish in you. (8) With me from the forest, O bride, with me from forest you will come; look from the top of Amana and from the top of Senir, and Hermon, from the dwelling of lions and from the mountains of leopards. (9) You hearted me, O sister, O my bride; you hearted me in a single of your eyes, in a single torc from your neck. (10) Who is beautiful (as) your beloved man? O my sister, bride! How your beloved (persons) are better than wine, and fragrance of your rubbed oils than all of myrrh! (11) With sweetness your lips drip; honey and milk are under your tongue, and the smell of your garments is like the fragrance of the forest. (12) A garden locked is my sister, bride, and gates locked, a stream sealed up. (13) A sweetness of gardens and pomegranates is like camphor with nutmegs and with sweet fruits. (14) A nutmeg and saffron, and calamus and cinnamon, with all the trees of fragrance, musk, and other herbs, and with all the fragrant tops. (15) A garden stream, a well of living waters, and (those) are flowing from the forest. (16) Awake at midnight [or in the north] and come at noon [or in the south]; my vineyard will blow, and its myrrh will flow. Come, O my beloved man, to my garden and eat fruit of its sweetness.

(Chap. 5) (1) I came to my garden, O my sister, bride; I gathered my myrrh with my fragrances and ate my calamus with my honey; and I drank my wine with my milk. The friends ate and drank, and lovers became drunk. (2) I am sleeping, and my heart is listening, and the voice of my beloved man is knocking: Open to me, O my sister and my she-friend, my dove, my complete! For my head has been completed with dew, and my locks with the drops of the night. (3) I have put off my shirt; how shall I put it on again? I have washed my feet; how shall I defile them? (4) My beloved man extended his hand from the hole, and my bowels burned up in me. (5) I arose to open [the door] to my beloved man, and my hands [were] dripped with myrrh, and my fingers with musk of exchanged ones upon the benches of the lock. (6) I opened to my beloved man, and my beloved man concealing passed by. My sole came out in his talking; and I sought him and did not find him; I sought him, and he did not answer me. (7) The watchmen that go in the city found me, and struck me, and pinched me, and city watchmen took away my torcs from me. (8) I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, if you find my beloved man, what will you tell him? That I am sick with love. (9) What is your beloved man from the [another?] beloved man? What is the beautiful woman among the other ones? What is your beloved man from the [another?] beloved man, that thus you adjure us? (10) My beloved man is pure and ruddy, bannered by tens of thousands. (11) His head is of pure gold, his locks are curly, black as a raven. (12) His eyes are like doves upon strong waters, he washes in milk, seats on the fullness. (13) His cheeks are like rows of the skillful perfumer, chambers of the perfumers; his lips drip with roses; the musk passes by. (14) His hands are entwined with gold, full like a precious stone; his belly is an elephant’s thickness entwined with sapphires. (15) His shanks are pillars of precious stone, conciliated on the stump of pure gold; his appearance is like the forest decorated like a cedar. (16) His throat is sweet, and he is entirely desirable. This is my beloved man and this is my he-friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.

(Chap. 6) (1) Where did your beloved man go? O thou beautiful among women! And where did your beloved man come back? We shall seek him with you. (2) My beloved man has gone out to this garden and to the rows of myrrh, and to the vision in the city [read garden], and to gather the roses. (3) I am for my beloved man, and my beloved man is for me, he who pastures among the roses. (4) You are beautiful, O my she-friend, and loving, nice in Jerusalem, terrible as banners. (5) Your eyes encircled me against me, for they scorned me; your hair is like flocks of she-goats, that descend from Gilead. (6) Your teeth are like flocks of he-goats, that descend from the washing; all of them are complete, and there is no ejected in them. (7) Your tresses are like halves of a pomegranate [lacuna]. (8) There are sixty queens and eighty concubines, and virgins without number. (9) She is the only one, my dove, my complete; she is only one for her mother; she is pure for her she-parent; the daughters saw her, and praised her; and the queens and concubines praised her up. (10) Who is she that looks like the dawn, and she is beautiful like the moon, and pure like the sun, terrible like banners. (11) I came up to the nut garden to see the humidity of the stream and to see when the vine [or vineyard] flourishes and whether the pomegranates cease to bloom. (12) I did not know my soul, that put me into the chariots of the people and the prince.

(Chap. 7) (1) Come back, come back, O complete! And come back, and come back, and we shall be taken in complete [woman] … [lacuna]. (2) How beautiful are your feet in boots, O king’s daughter! The curves of your knees are like chains, made by the hands of a master. (3) Your navel is a pure trough, and the bucket of your belly will not decrease, and the heap of wheat is fenced in the roses. (4) Your two breasts are like two young deer, twins of a chamois. (5) Your neck is like a tower of elephant, and your eyes are ponds in Heshbon at many gates; and your nostrils are like the forest towers overlooking toward Damascus. (6) Your glory [read head] on you is like grove, and the parting of your head is like every sort of flowers; the king is bound in the launder. (7) What is beautiful and what is nice, O beloved woman, in delights? (8) Behold, your stature is like a planting, and your breasts [are like] branches. (9) I said: I shall go up to the planting and snatch at its bartons, and now your breasts will be in the branches of the vine, and the fragrance of your nostril like apples. (10) Your throat is like good wine going to my beloved man, to sincere ones in the move of the sleeping lips. (11) I am for my beloved man, and his desire is for me. (12) We walk, O my beloved man, and we shall come out to the field, and we shall dwell among the villages. (13) Early we shall come to the vineyards and see if the vine [or vineyard] flourishes, and whether the buds open, and whether the pomegranate cease to bloom; there I shall give, O my loved man, to you. (14) The violets give a fragrance, and over our doors are all new sweets and also old ones. O my beloved! I saved [them] for you.

(Chap. 8) (1) Who could give you as my brother? And you could exile [read suckle] at the breasts of my mother. I could find you on the street and I could kiss you without being jeered again. (2) I shall lead you and bring you into the house of my mother, and you teach me. And I shall give you fragrant wine and sweetness of my pomegranate to drink. (4) His virgin [read left hand] is under my head, and his right hand is embracing me. (5) I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, what do you stir up for and what do you altercate over love for, until it is allowed? (6) Who is this coming up from the wilderness and leaning friendly on her beloved man? Under the apple tree I awakened you, and there your mother conceived you, and there she bore your children. (6) Put me like a seal over your heart and like a seal on your muscle, and for love is strong as death and cruel in the ditch of jealousy, and its coals are coals of fire, its flame is from strong flame. (7) Many waters cannot quench love, and nor will rivers overflow it. If a man would give all the riches of his house for love, he [would be] despised with despite. (8) Our sister is young, and she has no breasts. And what shall we do for our sister on the day when she is spoken for? (9) If she is a wall, we would make on her [lacuna] … If she would be a door, we would make the tables of cedar on her. (10) I am a wall, and my breasts are like towers; therefore, I became in his eyes as one who found peace. (11) Solomon had a vineyard at Baal-hamon, and he gave that vineyard to watchmen. Your man brought for its fruit a thousand of silver. (12) My vineyard, which is for me, is before me. A thousand is for you, O Solomon, and two hundred are for the watchmen because of its fruit. (13) Those, who seat in the gardens, and the friends, who hope for your voice, for you could hear me. (14) Run, O my beloved man, and be similar in yourself to a chamois or to a doe of deer on the mountains of myrrh!

The end of the Book Songs of Songs.

And again, from the same book, the following verses are said with other words:

(Appendix) (1:2) Kiss me from the kiss of your mouth, for your [two] nipples are better than wine. (1:5) I am black and good, O daughters of Jerusalem … Villages of Kedar.

Acknowledgements

The author thanks Prof. Dan Shapira (Bar-Ilan University, Israel) for his permanent and invaluable helpful advice, Anastasiya Kobeleva (St. Tikhon’s University for the Humanities, Moscow) for her proofreading of the Slavonic text published in this paper, Tatiana Anisimova (Russian State Library, Moscow) for her assistance in identifying the watermarks of the manuscript, and Ilya Arder for his technical processing of the manuscript’s digital copies.

1

I gave it this name in the list of Slavonic monuments connected directly with the Jewish tradition, see А.И. Грищенко [A.I. Grishchenko], “Языковые и литературные контакты восточных славян и евреев в средние века. Итоги и перспективы изучения [The Linguistic and Literary Contact between East Slavs and Jews in the Middle Ages: Results and Perspectives of the Study],” Studi Slavistici, xv/1 (2018), pp. 29-60, DOI 10.13128/Studi_Slavis-20511, here p. 52.

2

Before known according to the only copy from the 3rd quarter of the 16th century, which was analyzed and published by Sergejus Temčinas, see in Russian: С.Ю. Темчин [Temchin S. Yu.], “Кириллический рукописный учебник древнееврейского языка (XVI в.): публикация и общая характеристика памятника [The Cyrillic 16th Century Manuscript Manual of Hebrew: A General Presentation of the Source’,” in: Naujausi kalbų ir kultūrų tyrimai, eds. J. Jaroslavienė et al., Vilnius, 2012, pp. 137-180, and in English: S.Y. Temchin, “Learning Hebrew in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: An Evidence from a 16th-Century Cyrillic Manuscript,” in: The Knaanites: Jews in the Medieval Slavic World, eds. W. Moskovich, M. Chlenov, A. Torpusman (Jews and Slavs, 24), Moscow, Jerusalem,2014, pp. 261-281.

3

This is the first case of explicit witnessing to medieval translation from reputedly Hebrew into the East Slavic idiom, that was said by a scribe (or a translator) who was undoubtedly an Orthodox Christian: “Having a hope on my Christ, bad as I am, I tried to translate anew from the Jewish books and to write the prophecies on Christ from Numbers” (the Church Slavonic original: “Ѽ Хрістѣ моем упование имѣя, хꙋдыи аз потщахся ѿ евреискых книг вновѣ превести и написати иже ѽ Хрістѣ пророчьствия ѿ Числъ”).

4

M. Altbauer, The Five Biblical Scrolls in a Sixteen-Century Jewish Translation into Belorussian (Vilnius Codex 262), Jerusalem, 1992, pp. 82-95 (text) and 179-190 (notes). The first, who published initial two chapters of Vil. in typed form, was Petr Vladimirov, see an appendix in his book Доктор Франциск Скорина: его переводы, печатные издания и язык [Doctor Francysk Skaryna: His Translations, Printed Editions, and Language], St. Petersburg, 1888, pp. 342-344. About the Vilna Biblical Collection, see also: Fr.J. Thomson, “The Slavonic Translation of the Old Testament,” in: The Interpretation of the Bible: The International Symposium in Slovenia, ed. J. Krašovec (JSOTSup, 289), Ljubljana, Sheffield, 1998, pp. 605-920, here p. 874-881 (Ap­pendix 3).

5

А.А. Алексеев, “Песнь Песней по списку XVI века в переводе с древнееврейского оригинала [The Song of Songs according to a Manuscript of the 16th Century Translated from a Hebrew Original],” Палестинский сборник, 27 (1981), pp. 63-79; Песнь Песней в древней славяно-русской письменности [The Song of Songs in the Ancient Slavo-Russian Writing], St. Petersburg, 2002, pp. 137-154 (this is chapter 5 “Два древнерусских перевода Песни Песней с еврейского оригинала [Two Old Russian Translations of the Song of Songs from the Hebrew Original]” of the book containing study and publication both Mus. and Vil.; the text of Mus. is on pp. 144-148).

6

M. Taube, “On Two Related Slavic Translations of the Song of Songs,” Slavica Hierosolymitana, 7 (1985), pp. 203-209; H.G. Lunt, “The OCS Song of Songs: One translation or Two?” Die Welt der Slaven, XXX/2 (1985), pp. 279-317. Francis J. Thomson agrees with the opinion that the original of Mus. could be “no doubt” made in the 15th century in Ruthenia, see: Thomson, “The Slavonic Translation,” pp. 873-874 (Appendix 2).

7

Алексеев, Песнь песней, p. 142 (with the reference to M. Lexer, Mittelhochdeutsches Handwörterbuch, Bd. 3, Leipzig, 1878, S. 930).

8

Ḥamišah Ḥumšey Torah ‘im Ḥameš Megillot … gam ha-Hafṭorot bi-lešon ’Aškenaz = Die fünff Bücher Mose aus dem Hebraischen von wort zū wort nach der yeztigen Juden art inn die Teütsch Sprach gebracht vñ doch mit Hebraischen būchstaben getruckt … Augusta Vindelicorum, 1544 (the copy under the shelfmark Res/2 A.hebr. 9#Beibd.1 deposited in the digital collection of the Bavarian State Library, see online: <https://www.bsb-muenchen.de/>). About this edition, see the special paper: M.M. Faierstein, “Paulus Aemilius, Convert to Catholicism and Printer of Yiddish Books in Sixteenth Century Augsburg,” Judaica. Beiträge zum Verstehen des Judentums, 71/4 (2015), pp. 349-365.

9

I could look at the second edition of Khumesh-taytsh of Cremona (1560) by Leo Breść (Leyb Bresh), which was reprinted in Basel (1583): Ḥamišah Ḥumšey Torah ‘im qəṣat peruš Raši … (the exemplar of the Russian State Library, Center of the Oriental Literature, Ginz. 4/2582), fol. 149v. About this book, see: J. Baumgarten, Introduction to Old Yiddish Literature, ed. and transl. by J.C. Frakes, Oxford, 2005, pp. 105-108.

10

B. Lourié, “Rewritten Bible in the ‘Museum’ Slavonic Translation of the Song of Songs,” Scrinium, 14 (2018), pp. 257-272, DOI 10.1163/18177565-00141P17.

11

Алексеев, “Песнь Песней,” p. 71: “Сборник Муз. по своему происхождению велико­русский, между тем текст ‘Песни песней’ в нем содержит совершенно очевидный западнорусский элемент в своей лексике (The miscellany Mus. is Great Russian by its origin, whereas the included text of the Song of Songs contains the absolutely obvious Ruthenian (= ‘West Russian’) element in its lexicon)”. No one knows, however, Ruthenian texts rewritten in the Great Russian area without any de-Ruthenization and normalization according to Church Slavonic or Great Russian vernacular usage including specific lexicon.

12

Алексеев, Песнь Песней, p. 142; on the Explanatory Redaction of the Church Slavonic Song of Songs and publication thereof, see also: ibid., p. 40-122.

13

I used the following albums of watermarks: E. Laucevičius, Бумага в Литве в XV-XVIII вв. = Paper on Lithuania in XV-XVIII Centuries, Vilnius, 1967; К.Я. Тромонин, Изъяснения знаков, видимых в писчей бумаге … [The Explanation of Signs Visible in Writing Paper …], Moscow, 1844; Н.П. Лихачев, Палеографическое значение бумажных водяных знаков [The Palaeographical Significance of Paper Watermarks], Vol. I-III, St. Petersburg, 1899; Al. Mareș, Filigranele hîrtiei întrebuinţate în Țările Române în secolul al XVI-lea [The Watermarks of the Paper Used in the Romanian Lands in the 16th Century], București, 1987.

14

About this redaction, see: И. Трифонова [I. Trifonova], “Откровение св. Иоанна Бого­слова среди православных славян и в южнославянской письменности [The Revelation of St. John the Theologian among Orthodox Slavs and in South-Slavonic ­Literature],” Studia Ceranea, 6 (2016), DOI: 10.18778/2084-140X.06.10, pp. 177-204, esp. pp. 180-181.

15

This was erronously corrected by the scribe into домоє҅ви́на̀ which is nonsense.

16

Corrected from по|дрѹ́га́.

17

Corrected from вѧ́|нѧ̀.

18

Corrected from erroneous коко̀.

19

Corrected apparently from д̾щери.

20

Corrected from кра́снѝ.

21

Corrected from ге́леⷣ.

22

Corrected from на.

23

Corrected from нѣ́го̀венїиⷯ.

24

Corrected from ѡ҆́ бїд[?]ѹⷨе҆.

25

Letter с was corrected from letter м.

26

Corrected from ве́жѧ̀.

27

Corrected from ѹ҆́сла́шаль.

28

Corrected from ланеѝ.

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