L’Islam saharien précolonial : portrait d’un champ de recherche

In: Studia Islamica
View More View Less
  • 1 IRHT/CNRS, Paris

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

$30.00

Abstract

From the 15th century onwards, a network of Muslim scholarly communities developed in the western and central parts of the Sahara, covering present‐day southern Algeria, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, and Niger. The massive diffusion of Islamic literate culture led to the constitution of a rich tradition of scholarship that materialized in various types of texts: doctrinal treatises, biographical dictionaries, chronicles, commentaries, poetry, and, most important, comprehensive fatwa collections. In the last decades, increasing academic attention has been given to this astonishing cultural heritage of the people of the great desert. This article intends to give a short survey of works and research orientations, focusing on projects of identification and edition of Arabic manuscripts and on the mobilization of Muslim scholarly writing as a source for social and cultural history.

  • Batran, Aziz A, The Qadiryya Brotherhood in West Africa and the Western Sahara: The Life and Times of Shaykh al-Mukhtar al-Kunti, (1729-1811). Rabat, Publications de l’Institut des études africaines, 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brenner, Louis. Controlling Knowledge: Religion Power and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society, Londres, Hurst & Company, 2000.

  • Brigaglia, Andrea, Nobili, Mauro (éds.), The Arts and Crafts of Literacy: Islamic Manuscript Cultures in Sub-Saharan Africa, Berlin, Boston, Walter de Gruyter, 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boubrik, Rahal, Saints et société en Islam : la confrérie ouest-saharienne Fâdiliyya, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 1999.

  • Boubrik, Rahal, Entre Dieu et la tribu : homme de religion et pouvoir politique en Mauritanie, Rabat, Publications de la Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines Université Mohammed v Agdal, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chanfi, Ahmed, West African ‘Ulamā’ and Salafism in Mecca and Medina: The Response of the African, Leiden, Brill, 2015.

  • Cleaveland, Timothy, Becoming Walāta: A History of Saharan Social Formation and Transformation, Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann, 2002.

  • Cleaveland, Timothy, “Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti and his Islamic critique of racial slavery in the Maghrib” in Journal of North African Studies, 2015, 20/1, 42-64.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diagayete, Mohamed, Nobili, Mauro, “The manuscripts that never were: in search for the tarikh al-fattash in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana” in History of Africa, 2017, 44, 309-321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El-Hamel, Chouki, La vie intellectuelle islamique dans le Sahel ouest-africain, XVIe-XIXe siècles : une une étude sociale de l’enseignement islamique en Mauritanie et au nord du Mali, XVIe-XIXe siècles, et trad. annotée de “Fatḥ al-šakūr” d’al-Bartīlī al-Walātī (mort en 1805), Paris, l’Harmattan, 2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ennahid, Said, “Information and communication technologies for the preservation and valorization of manuscript collections” in Krätli, Graziano, Lydon, Ghislaine (éds.), The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Arabic Literacy, Manuscript Culture, and Intellectual History in Islamic Africa, Leyde, Brill, 2011, 265-290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frede, Britta, Die Erneuerung der Tiğānīya in Mauretanien : Popularisierung religiöser Ideen in der Kolonialzeit, Berlin, Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • García Novo, Marta, “Islamic law and slavery in premodern West Africa” in Entremos UPF Journal of World History, 2011, 2, 1-17.

  • Gaudio, Attilio (éd.), Les bibliothèques du désert : recherches et études sur un millénaire d’écrits : actes des Colloques du CIRSS (1995-2000), Paris, l’Harmattan, 2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gellner, Ernest, Saints of the Atlas, Londres, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969.

  • Ghali, Noureddine, Inventaire de la bibliothèque ʿUmarienne de Ségou conservée à la Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Paris, Éd. du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graf, Gunhild, Kitāb al-Aʿdād: al-musammā Sullam al-ʿilm wa l-ādāb wa-miʿrāǧ al-ḥikma wa-faṣl al-ḫiṭāb, Teile 1-6 : eine maurische Enzyklopädie des islamischen Wissens aus dem 20. Jahrhundert von Aḥmad b. Aḥbaiyib herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Gunhild Graf, Wiesbaden, Harrasowitz, 2012, 2 vols.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gratien, Chris, “Race, slavery and Islamic law in the early modern Atlantic: Ahmad Baba al-Tinbukti’s treatise on enslavement” in Journal of North African Studies, 2013, 18/3, 454-468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, Bruce, A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600-1900, Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011.

  • Hall, Bruce, “Saharan commerce and Islamic law: the question of usury (ribā) in the nawāzil literature of Mali and Mauritania, 1700-1929” in African Economic History, 2013, 41, 1-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, Bruce, Stewart, Charles, “The Historic “Core Curriculum” And The Book Market In Islamic West Africa” in Krätli, Graziano, Lydon, Ghislaine (éds.), The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Arabic Literacy, Manuscript Culture, and Intellectual History in Islamic Africa, Leyde, Brill, 201, 109-179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ḥamādī, Muḥammad, Mawrītāniyā khilāl al-qarn al-tāsiʿ ʿashara 1785-1908 : dirāsa wa taḥqīq manḥ al-rabb al-ghafūr fī dhikr mā ahmalahu ṣāḥib fatḥ al-shakūr li-muʾallifhi Abī Bakr b. Aḥmad al-Muṣṭafā (māt 1335/1917), Lyon, ENS Éditions, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamet, Ismael, Chroniques de la Mauritanie sénégalaise. Nacer Eddine : texte arabe, traduction et notice. Paris, E. Leroux, 2011.

  • Sean Hanretta, Islam and Social Change in French West Africa: History of an Emancipatory Community, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunwick, John, “Islamic law and polemics over race and slavery in North and West Africa, 16th-19th century” in Shaun, Elizabeth Marmon (éd.), Slavery in the Islamic Middle East, Princeton, N.J., M. Wiener, 1995, 43-68.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunwick, John, “Timbuktu: a bibliography” in Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources, 2001, 12, 115-129.

  • Hunwick, John, The Arabic Literature of Africa, Volume 4 The Writings of Western Sudanic Africa Leyde, Brill, 2003.

  • Jeppie, Shamil (éd.), The Meanings of Timbuktu, Cape Town, HSRC, 2008.

  • Kane, Ousmane, Beyond Timbuktu: An Intellectual History of Muslim West Africa, Cambridge (Mass), Harvard University Press, 2016.

  • Krätli, Graziano, Lydon, Ghislaine (éds.), The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Arabic Literacy, Manuscript Culture, and Intellectual History in Islamic Africa, Leyde, Brill, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lydon, Ghislaine, “Inkwells of the Sahara: reflections on the production of Islamic knowledge in Bilād Shinqīṭ” in Reese, Scott, (éd.), The Transmission of Learning in Islamic Africa, Leyde, Brill, 2004, 39-71.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lydon, Ghislaine, “Islamic legal culture and slave-ownership contests in nineteenth-century Sahara”, in The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 2007, 40, 391-439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lydon, Ghislaine, On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks, and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western Africa, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDougall, James, Scheele, Judith (éds.), Saharan Frontiers: Space and Mobility in Northwest Africa, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mumin, Meikal, Versteegh, Kees, (éds), The Arabic Script in Africa: Studies in the Use of a Writing System, Brill, Leyde, 2014.

  • Naffé, Baouba Ould Mohamed (1999). « Un chantier à finir : « l’Encyclopédie » de Mokhtar Ould Hamidoun » in Annuaire de l’Afrique du Nord, 1999, 38, 321-330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nobili, Mauro, Catalogue des manuscrits arabes du fonds de Gironcourt (Afrique de l’Ouest) de l’Institut de France, Rome, Istituto per l’oriente C.A. Nallino, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norris, Harry T., “Sanhaja scholars in Timbuctoo” in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1967, 30, 365-374.

  • Norris, Harry T., Sh̲inqītī folk literature and song, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

  • Norris, Harry T., Saharan Myth and Saga. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.

  • Norris, Harry T., The Tuaregs: Their Islamic Legacy and Its Diffusion in the Sahel, Warminster: Witts, 1975.

  • Ould Bah, Mohamed, La littérature juridique et l’évolution du malikisme en Mauritanie, Tunis, Université de Tunis, 1981.

  • Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud, Nomadisme, Islam et pouvoir dans la société maure précoloniale (XIe siècle-XIXe siècle) : essai sur quelques aspects du tribalisme, Paris, Thèse : université Paris Descartes, Paris, 1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud, Saison, Bernard, « Vie(s) et mort(s) de Al-Imām al-Hadrāmi : autour de la postérité saharienne du mouvement almoravide (11e-17e s.) » in Arabica, 1987, 34/1, 48-79.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud, Éléments d’histoire de la Mauritanie, Nouakchott, Institut Mauritanien de Recherche Scientifique, 1991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud, « La tribu comme volonté et comme représentation : le facteur religieux dans l’organisation d’une tribu mautre : les Awlâd Abyayri » in Bonte, Pierre, Conte, Édouard, Hamès, Constant, Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud (éds.), Al-Ansâb: la quête des origines anthropologie historique de la société tribale arabe, Paris : Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1991, 201-238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud, « La généalogie et les capitaux flottants: al-Shaykh Sîd al-Mukhtâr (c. 1750-1811) et les Kunta » in Bonte, Pierre, Conte, Édouard, Dresch, Paul (éds.), Émirs et présidents : figures de la parenté et du politique dans le monde arabe, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2000, 137-162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud, “A man of letters in Timbuktu: al-Shaykh Sidi Muhammad al-Kunti” in Jeppie, Shamil (éd.), The Meanings of Timbuktu, Cape Town, HSRC, 2009, 231-248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ould Cheikh, Abdel Wedoud, « Théologie du désordre. Islam, ordre et désordre au Sahara » in L’année du Maghreb, 2017, 61-77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ould el-Bara, Yahya, Fiqh, société et pouvoir : étude des soucis et préoccupations socio-politiques des théologiens-légistes maures (fuqahâ) à partir de leurs consultations juridiques (fatâwa), du XVIIe au XXe siècle, Thèse : Anthropologie sociale : Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales Paris : 2000.

  • Osswald, Rainer, Die Handelsstädte der Westsahara: die Entwicklung der arabisch-maurischen Kultur von Šinqīṭ, Wādān, Tīšīt und Walāta, Berlin, D. Reimer, 1986.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osswald, Rainer, Schichtengesellschaft und islamisches Recht : die Zawāyā und Krieger der Westsahara im Spiegel von Rechtsgutachten des 16.-19. Jahrhunderts, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 1993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osswald, Rainer, Sklavenhandel und Sklavenleben zwischen Senegal und Atlas, Würzburg, Ergon, 2016.

  • Powers, David S., Law, Society and Culture in the Maghrib: 1300-1500, Londres, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

  • Rebstock, Ulrich, Sammlung arabischer Handschriften aus Mauretanien: Kurzbeschreibung von 2239 Handschrifteneinheiten mit Indices. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rebstock, Ulrich, “Arabic mathematical manuscripts in Mauretania” in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1990, 53, 429-441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rebstock, Ulrich, Maurische Literaturgeschichte, Würzburg: Ergon, 2001, 3 vols.

  • Reichmuth, Stefan, “Murtaḍā al-Zabīdī (1732-1791) and the Africans: Islamic discourse and scholarly networks in the late eighteenth century” in Reese, Scott S. (éd.), The Transmission of Learning in Islamic Africa, Leyde, Brill, 2004, 121-153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruf, Urs Peter, Ending Slavery: Hierarchy, Dependency, and Gender in Central Mauritania, Bielefeld, Transcript Verlag, 1999.

  • Saad, Elias, Social History of Timbuktu: The Role of Muslim Scholars and Notables, 1400-1900, Londres, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salvaing, Bernard, « À propos d’un projet en cours d’édition de manuscrits arabes de Tombouctou et d’ailleurs », Afriques [En ligne], Sources, mis en ligne le 25 décembre 2015, consulté le 08 septembre 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org.inshs.bib.cnrs.fr/afriques/1804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scheele, Judith, “Councils without customs, qadis without states: property and community in the Algerian Touat” in Islamic Law and Society, 2010, 17/3, 350-374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scheele, Judith, “Coming to terms with tradition: manuscripts conservation in contemporary Algeria” in Krätli, Graziano, Lydon, Ghislaine (éds.), The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Arabic Literacy, Manuscript Culture, and Intellectual History in Islamic Africa, Leyde, Brill, 2011, 291-318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scheele, Judith, Smugglers and Saints of the Sahara: Regional Connectivity in the Twentieth Century, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seesemann, Rüdiger, The Divine Flood: Ibrahim Niasse and the Roots of a Twentieth-Century Sufi Revival, Oxford; New York, Oxford University Press, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheldon, Pollock, “A new philology: from norm-bound practice to practice-bound norm in Kannada intellectual history” in Chevillard, Jean-Luc (éd.), South-Indian Horizons: Felicitation Volume for François Gros, Pondichéry, Institut français de Pondichéry/École française d’Extrême-Orient, 2004, 389-406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, Charles, Islam and Social Order in Mauritania: A Case Study from the 19th Century, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1973.

  • Stewart, Charles, “Southern Saharan scholarship and the bilād al-sūdān” in Journal of African History, 1976, 15/1, 73-93.

  • Stewart, Charles, Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts among the Ahl al-Shaykh Sidiyya, Boutlimit, Mauritania: Libraries of Harun b. Baba b. Sidi Muhammad b. Sidiyya al-Ntishaiʼi, Ismaʿil b. Baba, Yaʿqub b. Muhammad b. Baba, Urbana, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, Charles, The Arabic Literature of Africa, Volume 5 The Writings of Mauretania and the Western Sahara Leyde, Brill, 2016.

  • Touati, Houari, & Belabid, Aicha, « En Islam malien : Shaykh Bāy al-Kuntī (m. 1347/1929) et ses Nawāzil » in Cahiers d’études africaines 4, no 224, 2016, pp. 775-798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Touati, Houari & Belabid, Aicha (éd.), Nawāzil Shaykh Bāy al-Kuntī, Oran, Éditions Zaytūn (à paraître en 2019).

  • Van Dalen, Dorrit, Doubt, Scholarship and Society in the 17th Century Central Sudanic Africa, Leyde, Brill, 2016.

  • Villasante – De Beauvais, Marielle (éd.), Groupes serviles au Sahara : approche comparative à partir du cas des arabophones de Mauritanie, Paris, Ed. du CNRS, 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warscheid, Ismail, “The persisting spectre of cultural decline: historiographical approaches to Muslim scholarship in the early modern Maghrib” in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 2016, 60/1-2, 142-173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warscheid, Ismail, Droit musulman et société au Sahara prémoderne : la justice islamique dans les oasis du Grand Touat (Algérie) aux XVIIe-XIXe siècles, Leyde, Brill, 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wuld al-Barāʾ, Yaḥyā, Al-majmūʿat al-kubrā: al-shāmilat li-fatāwā wa nawāzil wa aḥkām ahl gharb wa janūb gharb al-Ṣaḥrāʾ, Nouakchott, al-Sharīf Mawlāy al-Ḥasan bin al-Ḥasan, 2009, 13 vol.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wuld Ḥāmidun, Mukhtār, Ḥayāt Mawrītāniyā, Rabat, 2009.

  • Wuld Saʿd, Muḥammad, al-Fatāwā wa’l-tāʾrīkh: dirāsa li-maẓāhir al-ḥayāt al-iqtiṣādiyya wa’l-ijtimaʿiyya fī Mawritāniyā min khilāl fiqh al-nawāzil, Beyrouth, Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 151 78 2
Full Text Views 30 12 0
PDF Downloads 24 10 0