Effect of Human Body Position on the Swimming Behavior of Bull Sharks, Carcharhinus leucas

in Society & Animals
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

This study tested whether human body orientation can influence the behavior of bull sharks by examining sharks’ approach distances from a person positioned vertically or horizontally in the water. Results showed that bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, kept a significantly greater distance when the test subject was standing in chest-deep water with his head above water versus lying on the ocean floor. Furthermore, larger bull sharks in the immediate area withdrew when the subject entered the water.

Effect of Human Body Position on the Swimming Behavior of Bull Sharks, Carcharhinus leucas

in Society & Animals

Sections

References

  • T. B.Allen Shark attacks: Their causes and avoidance 2001 Gilford, CT The Lyons Press

  • BraithwaiteV. A.BoulcottP. Pain perception, aversion and fear in fish Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 2007 75 131 138

  • ChandrooK. P.DuncanI. J. H.MocciaR. D. Can fish suffer?: Perspectives on sentience, pain, fear and stress Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2004 86 3 225 250

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CooperW. E.FrederickW. G. Optimal flight initiation distance Journal of Theoretical Biology 2007 244 1 59 67

  • FridA.DillL. Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of predation risk Conservation Ecology 2002 6 1 11 http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss1/art11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HuntingfordF. A.AdamsC.BraithwaiteV. A.KadriS.PottingerT. G.SandøeP.TurnbullJ. F. Current issues in fish welfare Journal of Fish Biology 2006 68 332 372

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HyggeS.ÖhmannA. Modeling processes in the acquisition of fears: Vicarious electrodermal conditioning to fear-relevant stimuli Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1978 36 3 271 279

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KaltenbornB. P.BjerkeT.NyahongoJ. Living with problem animals: Self-reported fear of potentially dangerous species in the Serengeti Region, Tanzania Human Dimensions of Wildlife 2006 11 6 397 409

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KellertS. R. The value of life 1996 Washington, D.C. Island Press

  • KropH.KrauseS. The elimination of a shark phobia by self-administering systematic desensitization: A case study Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1976 7 3 293 294

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MartinR. A. A review of shark agonistic displays: Comparison of display features and implications for shark-human interactions Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 2007 40 1 3 34

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MayN.WillisC. Shark: Stories of life and death from the world’s most dangerous waters 2002 Cambridge, MA Da Capo Press

  • MyrbergA. A.BannerA.RichardJ. D. Shark attraction using video-acoustic system Marine Biology 1969 2 3 264 276

  • MyrbergA. A.HaS. J.WalewskiS.BanburyJ. C. Effectiveness of acoustic signals in attracting epipelagic sharks to an underwater sound source Bulletin of Marine Science 1972 22 4 926 949

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NelsonD. R.GruberS. H. Sharks: Attraction by low-frequency sounds Science 1963 142 3594 975 977

  • PangleW. M.HolekampK. E. Functions of vigilance in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta Animal Behaviour 2010 80 2 257 267

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RitterE. K. BekoffM. Sharks: Mistaken identity? Encyclopedia of animal behavior 2004 Westport, CT Greenwood Press 963 964

  • RitterE. K. Understanding sharks: The fascinating behavior of a threatened hunter 2006 Malabar, FL Krieger Publishing Company

  • RitterE. K.LevineM. Use of forensic analysis to better understand shark attack behaviour Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology 2004 22 2 40 46

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RitterE. K.LevineM. Bite motivation of sharks reflected by the wound structure on humans Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 2005 26 2 136 140

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RitterE.LutzK.LevineM. OlssonF. When humans and sharks meet New developments in the psychology of motivation 2008 New York Nova Biomedical Books 45 52

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SeligmanM. Phobias and preparedness Behavior Therapy 1971 2 3 307 320

  • SeligmanM. RachmanS.MaserJ. D. Competing theories of panic Panic: Psychological perspectives 1988 Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 321 320

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SheltonM. L.RogersR. W. Fear-arousing and empathy-arousing appeals to help: The pathos of persuasion Journal of Applied Social Psychology 2006 11 4 366 378

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SkomalG.BernalD. CarrierJ. C.MusickJ. A.HeithausM. R. Physiological responses to stress in sharks Sharks and their relatives II 2010 Boca Raton, FL CRC Press 459 490

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StankowichT.BlumsteinD. T. Fear in animals: A meta-analysis and review of risk management Proceedings of the Royal Society 2005 272 1581 2627 2634

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TougiasT. When man is the prey 2007 New York St. Martin’s Griffin

  • TrevesA. Theory and method in studies of vigilance and aggregation Animal Behaviour 2002 60 6 711 722

  • TricasT. C.McCoskerJ. E. Predatory behavior of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), with notes on its biology Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 1984 43 221 238

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UlrichR. S. KellertS. R.WilsonE. O. Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes The biophilia hypothesis 1993 Washington, D.C. Island Press 73 137

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 86 85 0
Full Text Views 39 39 0
PDF Downloads 16 16 0
EPUB Downloads 15 15 0