Evolution of hematophagy in “non-biting midges” (Diptera: Chironomidae)

in Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews
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Modern Chironomidae (Nematocera, Culicomorpha) are broadly distributed on all continents. Although almost all recent adults feed on nectar and honeydew, the two living genera Austrochlus and Archaeochlus have well-developed mouthparts. The study of fossil Chironomidae with mandibulate and functional mouthparts is of great interest for the understanding of the history of the evolution of this structure in this group. Hematophagy in insects and its evolution in Chironomidae are discussed, and a hypothesis for the loss of this type of feeding in recent chironomids is given.

Evolution of hematophagy in “non-biting midges” (Diptera: Chironomidae)

in Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews

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Figures

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    Microphotograph of habitus of a male chironomid from Baltic amber.

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    Denticulate mandible of the female Archaeochlus biko Cranston, Edward and Colless, 1987, from Namibia.

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    A and B: Microphotography and drawing of Cretaenne rasnicyni Lukashevich and Przhiboro, 2011, from Late Jurassic of Mongolia (courtesy of Lukashevich). C and D: Microphotograph and drawing of ?Podominus robustus Lukashevich and Przhiboro, 2011, from Late Jurassic of Mongolia (courtesy of Lukashevich).

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    Drawing of head of female of Cretaenne kobeyssii Azar, Veltz and Nel, 2008, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon.

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    Drawing of head of male of Cretaenne kobeyssii Azar, Veltz and Nel, 2008, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon.

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    Microphotograph of habitus of Haematotanypus libanicus Azar, Veltz and Nel, 2008, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon.

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    Drawing of head of Haematotanypus libanicus Azar, Veltz and Nel, 2008, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon, arrow indicates the detail of the denticulate lacinia.

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    Microphotograph of habitus of Libanochlites neocomicus Brundin, 1976, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon.

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    Microphotograph of head of Libanochlites neocomicus Brundin, 1976, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon.

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    Microphotograph of head of Wadelius libanicus Veltz, Azar and Nel, 2007, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon.

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    Microphotograph of mouthparts of head of Haematotanypus libanicus Azar, Veltz and Nel, 2008, from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon, red arrows indicate the teeth on laciniae, the blue ones indicate those on mandibles.

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