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Review of Asiatic Neurogenia Roman, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with description of three new species

In: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie
Authors:
Alexey Reshchikov Department of Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden. Alexey.Reshchikov@nrm.se

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Girish Kumar Girish Kumar, Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata 700 053, India

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Cees van Achterberg Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Postbus 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

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Three species of Neurogenia Roman, 1910 are described as new from Asia: N. auco Reshchikov & van Achterberg sp. n. from Vietnam, N. kamapura Reshchikov sp. n. from India and N. sayama Reshchikov sp. n. from Japan. Group assignment changed for N. gorochovi (Kasparyan, ) comb. n. The other Asiatic species are reviewed and an illustrated, updated diagnosis of the genus and a key to the Asiatic species of Neurogenia are provided.

Introduction

The genus Neurogenia Roman, 1910 belongs to the tribe Perilissini of the subfamily Ctenopelmatinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) and comprises eleven described species. Eight species have been recorded from the Oriental region, including five species from China (Uchida 1932, He 1985, He & Tong 1992, Sheng et al. 2013), two from India (Uchida 1932, Jonathan 1974), one from Vietnam, which has been misplaced in the subfamily Mesochorinae (Kasparyan, 2008). The remaining three species are from the Afrotropics (Yu et al. 2012). Neurogenia can be readily recognized by its unusual wing venation (see diagnosis). Unfortunately nothing is known about biology of this group. However in all likelihood they are koinobiont endoparasitoids of sawfly larvae as all Ctenopelmatinae. The worldwide diversity of the Perilissini is poorly known. Fifty-nine species are recorded from tropical regions (Reshchikov et al. 2012, Yu et al. 2012, Reshchikov 2013, Reshchikov & Achterberg 2014). Recently, we have had the opportunity to study several collections of Oriental Ichneumonidae including material from long term Malaise trap sampling in Vietnam (Achterberg & Long 2010) and from long term collecting by the TIGER project in Thailand (Sharkey & Clutts 2011). Only few specimens of the newly discovered species from Vietnam, India and Japan were found. We consider members of the genus Neurogenia rather rare and hope our work will be taken into account in conservation in Asia.

Material and methods

The morphological terminology follows Gauld (1991) and Karlsson & Ronquist (2012). Images were taken with a Canon Digital Camera 40D and Canon 7D, and combined with Zerene®. Photographs of type specimens of N. kapuri Jonathan, 1974 were taken with a Leica Stereo microscope and processed with LAS 3.6.0®. Images of fine characters (sculpture, claws) were taken with a microscope Olympus SZX12 connected with digital camera Infinity X and combined with Delta Pix®. The type specimens of N. cubitalis (Uchida, 1932) deposited in the Deutsches Entomologisches Institute, Müncheberg (DEI) and N. kapuri Jonathan, 1974 deposited in the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta (NZSI) were examined. Non type specimen of N. tuberculata He, 1985 was examined from Landes Museum in Linz (OLML). Unfortunately the type specimens deposited at the collections of the Zhejiang Agricultural University (China) and Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Science (Russia) were unavailable to us and only original descriptions are referred.

Taxonomy

Genus Neurogenia Roman

Neurogenia Roman, 1910: 179. Type species: Prionopoda testacea Szépligeti, 1908. Original designation.

Silavoga Cameron, 1911: 190. Type species: Silavoga longicornis Cameron, 1911. Synonymized by Townes (1970).

Perilissoides Uchida, 1932: 213. Type species: Perilissoides cubitalis Uchida, 1932. Synonymized by Townes (1970).

Diagnosis

The genus Neurogenia can be distinguished from other genera of Perilissini by combination of the following characters: M + Cu with a strong thickening of a short erect spurious vein distal of its middle; Rs&M decurved somehow and sometimes thickened; occipital carina intercepting hypostomal carina at mandible; glymma deep.

Description

Body length 7–12 mm. Clypeus elliptic, weakly separated from face, coarsely punctate, its apical margin with gears-like concavities. Face with bulge, its profile flat, its apical margin rather thick, arcuate. Head not narrowed behind eyes. Tentorial pits large and elongate, with narrow, distinctly impressed groove from lateral margin of pit to base of mandible. Mandible distinctly elongate. Its outer face flattened basally, curved apically with apical portion somewhat reflected so that the dorsal margin is angled towards the head relative to the ventral margin. Lower tooth about twice length of upper tooth, both well-developed. Malar space variable, short, sometimes almost absent. When malar space present, malar sulcus absent. Ocelli variable in size. Occipital carina medially complete, intercepting hypostomal carina at mandible. In profile, lower gena and occipital carina angled outward relative to upper gena; hypostomal carina appears widely separated from occipital carina at base of mandible, but actually curves along base of head capsule to join occipital carina at base of mandible. Antenna with more than 40 flagellomeres. Flagellomeres distinctly longer than wide. First flagellomere 1.20–1.35× of second one, with distinct patch of tyloids at extreme base on outer side. Frons weakly depressed medially between bases of antennae and median ocellus, without median projections.

Mesosoma matt. Pronotum dorsally with broad, transverse groove. Pronotal collar constricted mid-dorsally due to strongly protruding, triangle shaped anterior margin of mesoscutum. Pronotum laterally with anterior margin thin, sharp, and straight or nearly so, not obviously sinuate. Epomia present, short, not extending in either direction much beyond vertical groove. Notauli weakly impressed or absent. Scutellum only anteriorly margined by a carina. Mesopleuron matt, deeply and finely punctate, with groove extending from scrobe to dorsal end of epicnemial carina. Subtegular ridge thin, sharp throughout, protruding at a right angle from mesopleuron. Upper end of epicnemial carina separated from anterior margin of mesopleuron. Posterior margin of mesopleuron crenulate above and below scrobe. Legs slender. Hind tibial spurs unequal, longest spur slender. Apex of hind tibia posteriorly with dense comb of setae. Apex of mid tibia lacking distinct tooth characteristic of anterior tibia. Tarsus with apical article not enlaged. Claws pectinate (Figs 5, 13, 30). Wing venation of fore wing very strongly modified. Fore wing with areolet petiolate. M + Cu with a strong thickening of a short erect spurious vein distal of its middle. Rs&M decurved or approximately straight, sometimes thickened. Apex of C1 with one hamulus. Rs intercepting pterostigma before its middle. Pterostigma broadly wedge-shaped. 2m-cu with single bula. 1cu-a postfurcal. Cu-a intercepted above the middle and its hind part strongly reclivous; discoidella and brachiella distinct to wing margin. Propodeum with carinae complete. Latero-median and lateral longitudinal carinae complete from apex to base, though median area basalis sometimes only weakly margined anteriorly by latero-median carinae, median area apicalis often with an additional median carina. Basal and apical transverse carinae distinctly defined, extending between complete pleural carinae. Surface of propodeum varying from rugulose to shining and unsculptured. Trough along anterior margin wide, narrowing slightly but remaining deep and distinct between apices of median and lateral longitudinal carinae. Anterior rim of propodeum thus distinctly separate from posterior rim of metanotum in this area.

First metasomal tergite elongate and narrow, its dorsal profile weakly arched, without dorsal impression, dorsolateral carina absent beyond glymma. Its spiracle at midlength. Sclerotized part of sternum extending to end of deepest portion of glymma but not to spiracle, weakly separated from tergite. Glymma deep, and broad within basal third of petiole, the two sides of the pit separated by a thin, translucent sclerite, glymmal groove tapering anteriorly to base and posteriorly to ventral margin, the posterior groove subtended by a carina terminating about level of spiracle. Basal part of petiole flat, without depression. Dorso-lateral carina absent at spiracle. Thyridium and gastrocoeli absent. Second and third tergites without distinct punctures, their epipleura not separated by distinct creases except of basal half of second tergite. Apical margin of male subgenital sternite simple. Male parameres long, narrow. Apex of aedeagus swollen. Ovipositor sheath 0.7× apical metasomal height. Ovipositor stout basally with shallow notch.

Key to Asiatic species of Neurogenia

The key below is modified from He (1985).

  1. 1. Fore wing M + Cu with a short erect spurious vein beyond middle; Rs&M almost straight (Fig. 23); clypeus smooth (Fig. 24); area basalis, area superomedia and area petiolaris of propodeum subequal in length. Uttar Pradesh (India) .................. N. kapuri
  2. Fore wing M + Cu with a strong thickening, sometimes tuberculate beyond middle; Rs&M strongly decurved and thickened (Figs 2, 10, 12, 26); junction of Rs&M, M + Cu and 1cu-a knotted; clypeus punctate (Figs 7, 8, 14, 29); areas of propodeum different proportions (Figs 4, 9, 15) .................. 2
  3. 2. Fore wing M + Cu with a strong thickening but not tuberculate beyond middle (Fig. 10); body reddish yellow (Figs 8–11). Taiwan, India .................. N. cubitalis
  4. Fore wing M + Cu with a strong thickening and tuberculate beyond middle (Fig. 2, 26); body mostly dark coloured (Figs 6, 16, 31) .................. 3
  5. 3. Area petiolaris without medial longitudinal carina .................. 4
  6. Area petiolaris with medial longitudinal carina .................. 7
  7. 4. Propodeum yellowish. Ovipositor slightly curved up .................. 5
  8. Propodeum mostly dark coloured. Ovipositor distinctly curved up .................. 6
  9. 5. Tubercle of M + Cu nearly as long as high. Area superomedia almost as long as wide. Posterior transverse carina straight. Vietnam .................. N. gorochovi
  10. Tubercle of M + Cu about 3× as long as height (Fig. 12). Area superomedia 0.7× as long as wide, posterior transverse carina curved toward area petiolaris (Fig. 15). Assam (India) .................. N. kamapura
  11. 6. Area between posterior half of lateral ocellus and eye striate (Fig. 3). Maximum length of temple 0.7× transverse eye diameter. 2m-cu straight (Fig. 2). Propodeum dark coloured but area around carinae fulvous (Fig. 4). Vietnam .................. N. auco
  12. Area between posterior half of lateral ocellus and eye punctate (Fig. 27). Maximum length of temple equal to transverse eye diameter. 2m-cu slightly curved (Fig. 26). Propodeum entirely dark coloured. Japan .................. N. sayama
  13. 7. Tubercle of M + Cu about 3× as long as height; basal end of second discoidal cell gradually narrowed; 2m-cu straight and weakly reclivous. China .................. N. shennongjiaensis He, 1985
  14. Tubercle of M + Cu about 1.5× as long as height; basal end of second discoidal cell normal; 2m-cu curved and its second lower bulla weakly inclivous .................. 8
  15. 8. Propodeum with area superomedia subpentagonal in ♀ hexagonal in ♂; costula emitted from basal 0.45. China .................. N. tuberculata
  16. Propodeum with area superomedia longitudinal hexagonal; costula emitted from basal 0.3. China .................. N. fujianensis He, 1985

Neurogenia auco Reshchikov & van Achterberg sp. n. Figs 2–7

Type material

Holotype, ♀, Vietnam, Dak Lak, Cu Yang Sin N.P., Krong K’Mar, Malaise trap, 12°27′08″N 108°20′15″E, 740–900 m, 2–10.vi.2007, leg. C. v. Achterberg & R. de Vries (RMNH).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A, Type locality of Neurogenia auco Reshchikov & van Achterberg sp. n., Chu Yang Sin National Park in 2007 before inundation. Photo by Kees van Achterberg. B, Forest closed to Digboi, Tinsukia, India, 2011. Photo by Marshall Shoaib.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002039

Figs 2–7.
Figs 2–7.

Neurogenia auco, Holotype female (RMNH). – 2, fore wing; 3, interspace between hind half of lateral ocellus and eye; 4, propodeum; 5, claw; 6, habitus; 7, face.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002039

Diagnosis

This species differs from other species of the genus by the following character states: interspace between hind half of lateral ocellus and eye striated (Fig. 3); 2m-cu straight; propodeum dark coloured but space around carinae fulvous (Fig. 4); roughly punctate face (Fig. 7) and longer section of C + Sc + R between intersection with Rs&M and pterostigma (Fig. 2).

Description

Body length 7 mm. Antenna with 41 flagellomeres. Scape 1.5× as long as wide. Head narrowed behind eyes, shining, sparsely and roughly punctate. Maximum length of temple 0.7× transverse eye diameter; minimum length of temple 0.6× transverse eye diameter. Face as wide as height of eye; in dorsolateral profile convex, with bulge, rather densely and roughly punctate, frons striated-punctate; interspace between hind half of lateral ocellus and eye and vertex completely shining with fine sparse punctures; temple with fine and rather sparse punctures. Clypeus separated by impression; at apex projecting anteriorly; apical margin of clypeus obtuse, with gears-like concavities. Tentorial pits large and elongate. Malar space 0.2× basal mandible width. Lower mandible tooth longer than upper. Occipital carina medially complete.

Mesosoma shining. Notauli vestigial. Mesopleuron shining, with rough and moderately dense punctures, large speculum, median 0.3 of mesopleuron and its hind part below the mesopleural pit shining and impunctate. Tarsus with apical article not enlaged. Claws pectinate (Fig. 5). Fore wing with areolet petiolate (Fig. 2). Section of C + Sc + R between intersection with Rs&M and pterostigma 0.6× of length of pterostigma. Rs intercepting pterostigma before its middle. M + Cu in fore wing with a strong thickening and tuberculate beyond the middle. 2m-cu straight (Fig. 2). Hind wing with cu-a intercepted above middle. Metapleuron with distinct fine and rather dense punctures. Propodeum shining, with carinae complete, very fine indistinct punctures, area superomedia elongate (Fig. 4). Body with fine moderately dense setae.

Metasoma dimly shining, evenly covered with moderately short dense setae. First metasomal tergite 5.6× as long as apically wide; without shallow median longitudinal impression; not bordered by lateral longitudinal carinae; dorsal longitudinal carinae absent. Second metasomal tergite elongate. Ovipositor stout basally, curved up, as long as metasomal height.

Body mostly black (Fig. 6). Flagellum reddish brown, scape and pedicel yellowish. Head black; upper margin of antennal sockets, malar space, mandible fulvous. Mesosoma black with sutures and margins of prothorax, tegulae, subtegular ridge, apex of mesepimeron, and space around propodeal carinae are pale fulvous. Scutellum completely and apex of postscutellum pale yellow. Pterostigma and veins blackish brown. Basal part of C + Sc + R pale yellow. Fore and mid legs whitish yellow with hind leg rufous with coxa predominantly whitish yellow. Metasoma pale reddish rufous.

Distribution

Vietnam. The holotype was collected with a Malaise trap at Chu Yang Sin National Park in disturbed primary forest, now underwater in the waterpower reservoir (Fig. 1A).

Etymology

The species epithet refers to , mountain fairy, honoured as the mother of Vietnamese in Vietnamese mythology.

Neurogenia cubitalis (Uchida) Figs 8–11

Perilissoides cubitalis Uchida, 1932: 213. Holotype male: China, Taiwan, Taihorin, leg. H. Sauter, 1911 (DEI) [examined].

Diagnosis

This species differs from other members of this genus by M + Cu in fore wing with a strong thickening but not tuberculate beyond the middle (Fig. 10) and reddish yellow body (Figs 8–11).

Description

Body length 7 mm. Scape 1.8 as long as wide (Fig. 8). Head narrowed behind eyes, shining, sparsely and finely punctate. Maximum length of temple 0.7× transverse eye diameter; minimum length of temple 0.4× transverse eye diameter. Face width 0.9× height of eye (Fig. 8); in dorso-lateral profile convex, with bulge, rather densely and roughly punctate, frons striated-punctate; interspace between hind half of lateral ocellus and eye and vertex completely shining with fine sparse punctures; temple with fine and rather sparse punctures. Clypeus separated by rather shallow impression; at apex projecting anteriorly; apical margin of clypeus obtuse, with gear-like concavities. Tentorial pits large and elongate. Malar space 0.3× basal mandible width. Lower mandible tooth longer than upper. Occipital carina medially complete.

Mesosoma shining. Notauli absent. Mesopleuron shining, with rough and moderately dense punctures, large speculum, median 0.4 of mesopleuron and its hind part below the mesopleural pit shining and impunctate. Tarsus with apical article not enlarged. Claws pectinate. Fore wing with areolet petiolate (Fig. 10). Section of C + Sc + R between intersection with Rs&M and pterostigma 0.6× of length of pterostigma, Rs intercepting pterostigma at its middle. M + Cu in fore wing with a strong thickening and tuberculate beyond the middle (Fig. 10). 2m-cu straight (Fig. 10). Hind wing with cu-a intercepted above middle. Metapleuron with distinct fine and rather dense punctures. Propodeum shining, with carinae complete, very fine indistinct punctures, area superomedia elongate (Fig. 9). Body with fine moderately and very dense setae.

Metasoma shining, evenly covered with moderately short setae. First metasomal tergite 6.0× as long as apically wide; without shallow median longitudinal impression; not bordered by lateral longitudinal carinae; dorsal longitudinal carinae absent. Second metasomal tergite elongate.

Body reddish yellow (Fig. 11).

Distribution

China (including Taiwan), India.

Neurogenia gorochovi (Kasparyan) comb. n.

Incurvarioni gorochovi Kasparyan, 2008: 85–87. Holotype male, Vietnam, Gia Lai Province, 20 km N Kan Nack, Buon-Loi, (ZIN) [not examined].

Diagnosis

This species differs from the other members of this genus by the following character states: tubercle of M + Cu closely as long as high; area superomedia almost as long as wide; transverse carina between area superomedia and area apicalis straight; area apicalis without medial longitudinal carina; yellowish propodeum.

Comments

This species was misplaced in Mesochorinae in the monotypic genus Incurvarion (Kasparyan, 2008). From original description it is clear that the species belongs to Neurogenia. Venation of fore wing very strongly modified. Elongate, Mesochorinae-like parameres occur also in some groups of Ctenopelmatinae (Reshchikov 2010).

Distribution

Vietnam.

Neurogenia kamapura Reshchikov sp. n. Figs 12–16

Type material

Holotype ♀, India, Assam, Tinsukia district, 3mi NE Digboi (app. 27°26′N 95°34′E), 17.x.1943, D.E. Hardy leg. (USNM).

Figs 8–11.
Figs 8–11.

Neurogenia cubitalis, Holotype female (DEI). – 8, face; 9, propodeum; 10, fore wing; 11 habitus.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002039

Figs 12–16.
Figs 12–16.

Neurogenia kamapura, Holotype female (USNM). – 12, tuberculate of M + Cu in fore wing; 13, claw; 14, face; 15, propodeum; 16, habitus.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002039

Diagnosis

This species differs from other species of the genus by the following character states: tubercle of M + Cu about 3× as long as high (Fig. 12); area superomedia 0.7× as long as wide (Fig. 15); transverse carina between area superomedia and area petiolaris curved toward last one (Fig. 15); propodeum yellowish (Fig. 15).

Description

Body length 5 mm. Antenna with 41 flagellomeres. Scape 1.6× as long as wide. Head narrowed behind eyes, shining, sparsely and distinctly punctate. Maximum length of temple 0.65× transverse eye diameter; minimum length of temple 0.4× transverse eye diameter. Face 1.15× as wide as height of eye; in dorso-lateral profile convex, with bulge, rather densely and roughly punctate, frons punctate; interspace between hind half of lateral ocellus and eye and vertex completely shining with fine sparse punctures; temple with fine and rather sparse punctures. Clypeus separated by very shallow impression; at apex projecting anteriorly; apical margin of clypeus obtuse, with gears-like concavities. Tentorial pits large and elongate. Malar space 0.5× basal mandible width. Lower mandible tooth longer than upper. Occipital carina medially complete.

Figs 17–25.
Figs 17–25.

Neurogenia kapuri, Holotype female (NZSI). – 17, first metasomal tergite; 18, face; 19, scapus; 20, temple; 21, labels; 22, propodeum; 23, fore wing; 24, clypeus; 25, habitus.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002039

Mesosoma shining. Notauli absent. Mesopleuron shining, with rough and moderately dense punctures, large speculum, median 0.35 of mesopleuron and its hind part below the mesopleural pit shining and impunctate. Tarsus with apical article not enlaged. Claws pectinate (Fig. 13). Fore wing with areolet petiolate (Fig. 16). Section of C + Sc + R between intersection with Rs&M and pterostigma 0.25× of length of pterostigma. Rs intercepting pterostigma before its middle. M + Cu in fore wing with a strong thickening and tuberculate beyond the middle; tubercle of M + Cu about 3× as long as height (Fig. 12). 2m-cu straight. Hind wing with cu-a intercepted above middle. Metapleuron with distinct fine and rather dense punctures. Propodeum shining, with carinae complete, very fine indistinct punctures, area superomedia elongate (Fig. 15). Body with fine moderately dense setae.

Metasoma shining, evenly covered with moderately short dense setae. First metasomal tergite 5.9× as long as apically wide; without shallow median longitudinal impression; not bordered by lateral longitudinal carinae; dorsal longitudinal carinae absent. Second metasomal tergite elongate. Ovipositor stout basally, slightly curved up, as long as metasomal height.

Body mostly black (Fig. 16). Flagellum reddish brown, scape and pedicel yellowish. Head black; margin of antennal sockets, margin of malar space, mandible fulvous. Mesosoma black with sutures and margins of prothorax, tegulae, subtegular ridge, apex of mesepimeron, hind eadge of mesopleuron, mesepimeron, and propodeum entirely yellowish. Scutellum completely and apex of postscutellum, hind margin of metanotum pale yellow. Pterostigma and veins blackish brown. Basal part of C + Sc + R pale yellow. Legs and metasoma yellowish.

Distribution

Assam (India). The holotype was collected close to Digboi (Fig. 1B) about 30 km NE from Dihing Patkai wildlife sanctuary which is one of the last remaining lowland tropical wet evergreen forests of Assam.

Etymology

The species epithet refers to Kamapura, the first historical kingdom of Assam.

Neurogenia kapuri Jonathan Figs 17–25

Neurogenia kapuri Jonathan, 1974: 177–179. Holotype female. India, Uttar Pradesh, Birahi in Garhwal Himalaya, 1160 m, 16.vii.1958, B.S. Lamba leg. (NZSI).

Diagnosis

This species differs from other members of this genus by M + Cu in fore wing with a short erect spurious vein beyond the middle (Fig. 23); Rs&M almost straight; clypeus smooth (Fig. 24); area basalis, area superomedia and area petiolaris of propodeum subequal in length (22).

Description

Body length 13 mm. Antenna with 42 flagellomeres. Scape 1.73 as long as wide (Fig. 19). Head narrowed behind eyes, shining, sparsely and finely punctate (Figs 18, 20). Maximum length of temple almost equal transverse eye diameter; minimum length of temple 0.74× transverse eye diameter (Fig. 20). Face width 0.9× height of eye (Fig. 18); in dorsolateral profile slightly convex, with bulge, with undefined punctures, frons dull and granulose; ocellus large; interspace between hind half of lateral ocellus and eye and vertex completely shining with fine sparse punctures; temple shining, with fine and rather sparse punctures (Fig. 20). Clypeus separated by defined impression; at apex projecting anteriorly; apical margin of clypeus obtuse, with gears-like concavities (Fig. 24). Tentorial pits large and elongate (Fig. 24). Malar space 0.3× basal mandible width. Lower mandible tooth longer than upper. Mandible in the middle with long stout bristles. Occipital carina medially complete.

Figs 26–31.
Figs 26–31.

Neurogenia sayama Reshchikov sp. n., Holotype female (CNC). – 26, wings; 27, interspace between hind half of lateral occelus and eye; 28, ovipositor; 29, face; 30, claw; 31, habitus.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002039

Mesosoma shining (Fig. 25). Pronotum shining, upper margin with close shallow punctures Notauli not defined. Mesopleuron shining, sparsely and shallowly punctate. Tarsus with apical article not enlarged. Claws pectinate. Fore wing with areolet petiolate (Fig. 23). Section of C + Sc + R between intersection with Rs&M and pterostigma 0.17× of length of pterostigma Rs intercepting pterostigma before its middle (Fig. 23). M + Cu in fore wing with a strong thickening and tuberculate beyond the middle (Fig. 23). 2m-cu straight (Fig. 23). Hind wing with cu-a intercepted above middle. Metapleuron shallowly punctate. Propodeum shining, with carinae complete, very fine indistinct punctures, area superomedia elongate (Fig. 22). Body with fine moderately and very dense setae (Figs 17–25).

Metasoma matt, without distinct punctuation, evenly covered with moderately short setae. First metasomal tergite 5.4× as long as apically wide (Fig. 17); without shallow median longitudinal impression; not bordered by lateral longitudinal carinae; dorsal longitudinal carinae absent. Second metasomal tergite elongate (Fig. 25). Ovipositor stout basally, straight, as long as metasomal height.

Body yellowish brown (Fig. 20). Vertex up to the eye margin (except the ocellar triangle, black), tip of mandible, mesoscutum largely except along the lateral margins, and all the abdominal tergites dorsally, dark-brown.

Distribution

Uttar Pradesh (India).

Neurogenia sayama Reshchikov sp. n. Figs 26–31

Type material

Holotype ♀, Japan, Saitama, Sayama, 29.iv.1960, T. Hayasaka leg. (CNC).

Diagnosis

This species differs from other species of the genus by the following character states: interspace between hind half of lateral ocellus and eye punctate, not striated (Fig. 27); maximum length of temple as long as transverse eye diameter; 2m-cu slightly curved (Fig. 26); propodeum entirely dark coloured (Fig. 31); area petiolaris without medial longitudinal carina.

Description

Body length 7 mm. Head narrowed behind eyes, shining, sparsely and distinctly punctate. Maximum length of temple 1.17× transverse eye diameter; minimum length of temple 0.55× transverse eye diameter. Face as wide as height of eye (Fig. 29); in dorsolateral profile convex, with bulge, rather densely and roughly punctate, frons punctate; area between posterior half of lateral ocellus and eye not striated, completely shining, with rough sparse punctures; temple with rough and dense punctures. Clypeus almost not separated (Fig. 29); at apex projecting anteriorly; apical margin of clypeus obtuse, with gears-like concavities. Tentorial pits large and elongate. Malar space 0.34× basal mandible width. Lower mandible tooth longer than upper. Occipital carina medially complete.

Mesosoma dimly shining. Notauli absent. Mesopleuron shining, with rough and moderately dense punctures, large speculum, median 0.45 of mesopleuron and its hind part below the mesopleural pit shining and impunctate. Tarsus with apical article not enlarged. Claws pectinate (Fig. 30). Fore wing with areolet petiolate (Fig. 26). Section of C + Sc + R between intersection with Rs&M and pterostigma 0.17× of length of pterostigma. Rs intercepting pterostigma before its middle (Fig. 26). M + Cu in fore wing with a strong thickening and tuberculate beyond the middle; tubercle of M + Cu about 3× as long as height (Fig. 26). 2m-cu slightly curved. Hind wing with cu-a intercepted above middle. Metapleuron with distinct fine and rather dense punctures. Propodeum shining, with carinae complete, very fine indistinct punctures, area superomedia elongate. Body with fine moderately dense setae.

Metasoma shining, evenly covered with moderately short dense setae (Fig. 31). First metasomal tergite 5.7× as long as apically wide; without shallow median longitudinal impression; not bordered by lateral longitudinal carinae; dorsal longitudinal carinae absent. Second metasomal tergite elongate. Ovipositor stout basally, curved up, as long as metasomal height (Fig. 28).

Body mostly black (Fig. 31). Head black (Fig. 29); upper margin and spot above antennal socket, spot on side from tentorial pit, malar space, mandible fulvous. Mesosoma black with hind apical edge of prothorax, tegulae, hind edge of mesopleuron are yellowish. Scutellum completely pale yellow. Pterostigma and veins reddish brown. Legs yellowish, hind leg with rufous femur and elongate stripe on coxa. Metasoma reddish brown, with dark brown first tergite.

Distribution

Japan.

Etymology

The species epithet refers to the type locality.

Neurogenia tuberculata He

Neurogenia tuberculata He, 1985: 316–318. Holotype female. China, Zhejiang, (ZAUC), [not examined].

Material examined

♀, China, Taiwan, Yilan Prov., Ssichi, N24°51′ E121°44′, 675 m, 26.v.2012, J. Halada, (OLML).

Distribution

China. Recorded for the first time from Taiwan.

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Frederique Bakker (RMNH), Franci Overdevest (Leiden, Netherlands) and the whole collective of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center (RMNH) for their kind assistance, Dr. Andrew Bennett (CNC), Dr. Robert Kula (USNM), Dr. Andrew Liston (DEI), Dr. Gavin Broad (BMNH) and Dr. Martin Schwarz (Kirchschlag, Austria) for their kind help with material; to Dr. Igor Belousov (Institute of Plant Protection, St. Petersburg, Russia) and Dr. Johannes Bergsten (Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden) for their help with photos of specimens; to Dr. Mao-Ling Sheng (General Station of Forest Pest Management, China) and Elena Burtseva (St. Petersburg State University, Russia) for their consultation on Chinese descriptions; Dr. John Jennings (The University of Adelaide, Australia), Dr. Erik van Nieukerken (RMNH) and reviewers for their critical notes. This study was partly supported by a Martin-fellowship from Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden.

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