Synopsis of Cotesia species, biological agents for pest control on vegetables in Vietnam, with description of one new species

In: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie
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  • 1 Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR), VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Ha Noi, Vietnam. khuatdanglong@iebr.ac.vn
  • | 2 Ha Noi Agricultural University, Trau Quy, Gia Lam, Ha Noi, Vietnam

The biology of four allied species of the genus Cotesia Cameron is reviewed. All these species were reared from larvae of pest insects mainly belonging to the families Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Pieridae and Plutellidae. They are larval endoparasitoids and considered as important agents for biological control of pest insects infesting different vegetable crops in Vietnam, such as cabbage, kohlrabi, small colza, cauliflower, peanut, soybeans, and various other legumes. Of those four species, Cotesia clethrogynae Long sp. n., is described as new and illustrated; the biology and distribution of the other three allied species are given, they are illustrated and compared, and a key to four species is provided.

This paper resulted from the identification of a new species of Cotesia reared from limantrid larvae of Clethrogynae turbata Butler and the necessity to compare related species. The host is an important pest infestant on soybean, different beans, peas and peanut in Vietnam.

Abstract

The biology of four allied species of the genus Cotesia Cameron is reviewed. All these species were reared from larvae of pest insects mainly belonging to the families Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Pieridae and Plutellidae. They are larval endoparasitoids and considered as important agents for biological control of pest insects infesting different vegetable crops in Vietnam, such as cabbage, kohlrabi, small colza, cauliflower, peanut, soybeans, and various other legumes. Of those four species, Cotesia clethrogynae Long sp. n., is described as new and illustrated; the biology and distribution of the other three allied species are given, they are illustrated and compared, and a key to four species is provided.

This paper resulted from the identification of a new species of Cotesia reared from limantrid larvae of Clethrogynae turbata Butler and the necessity to compare related species. The host is an important pest infestant on soybean, different beans, peas and peanut in Vietnam.

Introduction

Cotesia Cameron, 1891 is one of the largest genera of the family Microgastrinae and the genus is taxonomically one of the most difficult. Cotesia species occupy a special position among the Microgastrinae because of their economic importance. They are reported to parasitize larvae of lepidopterous species; the range of hosts and distribution of Cotesia species can be found in Yu et al. (2013).

Several species of the genus Cotesia are recorded as highly potential agents for biological control of pest insects infesting agricultural crops in Vietnam. This paper deals only with four Cotesia species of the genus that are closely related and coexist in vegetable fields.

In Vietnam, two Cotesia species, Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) and C. glomerata (L.), have so far been recorded as important parasitoids of serious insect pests on cabbage. The first one is the larval parasitoid of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Plutellidae), and the second one is the common parasotioid of white cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae (L.) and P. canidia (L.) (Pieridae); two further parasitoids were revealed from alternative hosts, namely C. vestalis (Haliday), occasionally reported to parasitize larvae of the budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae), and C. ruficrus (Haliday), which was reared from larvae of several noctuids, such as the leafworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), the budworm H. armigera, several armyworms such as Mythimna loryei (Duponchel), M. separata (Walker), and M. venalba (Moore) and the rice green semilooper Naranga aenescens Moore. Here we describe a new species of the genus Cotesia Cameron, Cotesia clethrogynae Long sp. n., which was reared from larvae of Clethrogynae turbata Butler (Lymantriidae), a serious pest on soybean, different beans, peas and peanut in Vietnam.

Material and methods

In this paper we deal with all specimens of the parasitoid wasps mainly obtained by painstakingly rearing larvae of insects infesting vegetable crops, except for a few parasitoid wasps that either emerged from cocoons collected from vegetables or were collected by sweep nets and Malaise traps set in fields of vegetable crops. A total of 182 lymantriid larvae of different instars collected from soybean were reared and from those 45 parasitic wasps emerged in the laboratory. Based on all the specimens of other parasitic wasps reared from certain hosts, a description of the new species and redescriptions of three already known species were made.

The specimens of the host, Clethrogyna turbata Butler, were identified by comparing with specimens deposited in the collection of insects at National Institute of Plant Protection (Ha Noi, Vietnam), where this species was stored under Orgyia turbata.

For the terminology used in this paper, see van Achterberg (1993); for diagnosis of Cotesia, see Mason (1981) and of the glomeratus-group of Apanteles, see Nixon (1965, 1974).

All the photographs were made by the first author with a Canon G15 digital camera attached to an Olympus SZ61 binocular microscope; the measurements of wasps were made under an Olympus SZ40 binocular microscope. All type specimens (holotype and paratypes) are kept in the Vietnam National Museum of Nature (VNMN), the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Ha Noi, Vietnam (IEBR) and the Netherlands Center for Biodiversity Naturalis Leiden, the Netherlands (RMNH).

Abbreviations used in the paper are as follows OD: diameter of posterior ocellus; POL: postocellar line; OOL: ocular-ocellar line; MT: Malaise trap; Mic.+number: code number indexing for specimens of the Microgastrinae in the collection; N: Northern; NE: Northeastern; NW: Northwestern; NP: National Park.

Taxonomy

Key to four Cotesia species from Vietnam as potential agents for biocontrol on vegetables

  1. 1.Mesoscutum shiny without area of course rugosity posteriorly, sparsely punctate (Fig. 10); scutellum shiny, nearly smooth; mesopleuron largely smooth, finely and sparsely punctate anteriorly (Fig. 12); first metasomal tergite parallel-sided (Fig. 11) .................. C. glomerata (L.)
  2. Mesoscutum dull, with area of course rugosity posteriorly or largely punctate (Figs 1, 16, 20); scutellum punctate all over; mesopleuron punctate, except smooth medial area (Fig. 2); first metasomal tergite widened apically (Fig. 5, 16, 21) .................. 2
  3. 2.Setae on third metasomal tergite restricted on basal haft (Fig. 16); fore wing with vein r shorter than vein 2-SR, vein 1-CU1 of fore wing distinctly shorter than vein 2-CU1 (Fig. 19); cocoons gregarious .................. C. ruficrus (Haliday)
  4. Sparse setae covered all over third metasomal tergite (Figs 5, 21); fore wing with vein r as long as or a little longer than vein 2-SR, vein 1-CU1 of fore wing slightly shorter than vein 2-CU1 (Figs 9, 23); cocoons solitary .................. 3
  5. 3.Scapus yellow, dark brown subapically; mesoscutum punctate without area of course rugosity medio-posteriorly, scutellum evenly punctate (Fig. 1); hind coxa yellow apically, shiny and punctate dorso-basally (Fig. 8); hind tibial inner spur rather long, 0.55–0.60 times as long as hind basitarsus .................. C. clethrogynae sp. n.
  6. Scapus black or dark brown entirely; mesoscutum dull with area of course rugosity medio-posteriorly, scutellum rugose (Fig. 20); hind coxa black entirely, rugose dorso-basally (Fig. 24); hind tibial inner spur shorter, 0.36–0.46 times as long as hind basitarsus .................. C. vestalis (Haliday)

Comparative morphological characters of four species of the genus Cotesia are given in Table 1.

Table 1.

Comparative morphological characters of four parasitoid species used for biological control of pest insects on vegetables in Vietnam.

Table 1.

Descriptions

Cotesia clethrogynae Long sp. n. (Figs 1–9)

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (VNMN), Mic.1348, N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Gia Lam, ex Clethrogyna turbata on soybean, iv.2012, leg. DT Dzung.

Paratypes

4 females (VNMN, RMNH), Mic.1328, Mic.1346, Mic.1347, 6 males (VNMN, RMNH), Mic.1328a, Mic.1329, Mic.1329a, Mic.1330, Mic.1330a, Mic.1331, Ha Noi, Gia Lam, ex Clethrogyna turbata on soybean, iv.2012, DT Dzung; 6 females (VNMN), Mic.926, Mic.926a, Mic.926b, Mic.926c, Mic.927, Mic.927a, N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Hoai Duc, Van Con, ex Clethrogyna turbata on soybean, 22.vi.2007 KD Long; Mic.931 id. but 7.ix.2005; 4 females (VNMN), Mic.257, N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Thach That, peanut, MT 10–20.iii.2002, KD Long; Mic.752, N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Hoai Duc, Song Phuong, Clethrogyna turbata on green pea, 21.ix.2005, KD Long; Mic.1124, N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Gia Lam, Da Ton, MT 4–14.vi.2001; Mic.1144, NW Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Yen Thuy, garden, MT 20–29.ii.2002, KD Long; Mic.1342, N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Thach That, garden, 21°00′40″N 105°32′13″E 25 m, MT 25–31.iii.2002, KD Long; 3 females (IEBR), Mic.430, NW Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Yen Thuy, forest, 21°23′06″N 105°34′11″E 315 m, MT 10–20.i.2003, KD Long; Mic.1363, N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Quoc Oai, Dong Quang, soybean, 15.v.1997, KD Long; Mic.1364, id. but 01.viii.1996.

Figs 1–9.
Figs 1–9.

Cotesia clethrogynae Long sp. n. – 1, mesonotum; 2, mesopleuron; 3, hypopygium and ovipositor (lateral view); 4, female (habitus); 5, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 6, fourth instar larvae of Clethrogyna turbata Butler; 7, Clethrogyna turbata moth; 8, hind coxa (dorsal view); 9, fore wing.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002042

Diagnosis and comments

Cocoons solitary, white. Scapus yellow, dark brown apically; mesoscutum punctate, posterior end of notaulic course nearly rugo-punctate (Fig. 1); scutellum punctate with polished spaces between punctures; mesopleuron smooth medially, punctate anteriorly (Fig. 2); mesosternum punctate; inner side of fore telotarsus without spine; hind coxa evenly punctate dorso-basally, dark brown basally, yellow apically (Fig. 8); hind tibial inner spur slightly longer than half of hind basitarsus. Metacarp rather long, 3.71–4.20 times as long as distance from it to apex of marginal cell; vein r of fore wing arising from middle of pterostigma, longer than vein 2-SR (Fig. 9); length of discal cell of fore wing 1.2 times as long as its height (14:11); parastigma rather long, 2.0 times vein 1-SR (3:1.5); 1-CU1 0.62 times as long as 2-CU1 (Fig. 9); vein M + CU of hind wing as long as vein 1-M. Hind coxa yellow apically, shiny, punctate dorso-basally (Fig. 8); hind tibial inner spur 0.5 times as long as hind basitarsus. First metasomal slightly widened apically, 1.45 times as long as apical width (16:11) (Fig. 5); apical width of first tergite 1.45 times width of basal field of second tergite; second tergite distinctly shorter third medially; third and fourth tergites smooth, sparsely setose; hypopygium short, setose ventrally, in ventral view straight apically.

C. clethrogynae is similar to C. vestalis but differs from the latter by having (a) the first metasomal tergite longer, weakly widened apically and 1.20–1.36 times as long as apical width (the first metasomal tergite of C. vestalis shorter and round broaded apically, 1.00–1.08 times as long as wide); (b) the third tergite smooth basally (third tergite of C. vestalis rugose-punctate subbasally); (c) hind coxa yellow apically, shiny, punctate dorso-basally (in C. vestalis black entirely, rugose dorso-basally); (d) hind tibial inner spur long, 0.55–0.60 times as long as hind basitarsus (0.40–0.47 times in C. vestalis) and (e) metacarp rather long, 3.71–4.20 times as long as distance from it to apex of marginal cell (2.10–2.55 times in C. vestalis).

Description

Holotype, ♀, body length 2.9 mm, fore wing length 2.5 mm, antenna 2.8 mm (Fig. 4).

Head. Ocelli in low triangle, anterior ocellus touching anterior tangent of posterior ocelli, POL:OD:OOL = 5:2:5, distance between anterior ocellus and posterior ocellus as long as OD; width of face 0.8 times as long as length of face and clypeus combined (13:16); distance between tentorial pits 2.7 times as long as distance from pit to eye margin; in dorsal view length of eye 1.8 times as long as temple (9:5); face shiny, punctate.

Mesosoma. Length of mesosoma 1.32 times as long as high (41:31); mesoscutum largely punctate; scutellum punctate with shiny polished interspaces beween punctures (Fig. 1); mesopleuron largely smooth medially; precoxal sulcus rather broad, crenulate medially, largely punctate anteriorly and ventrally (Fig. 2); metapleuron smooth anteriorly, carinate medially, rugose-punctate posteriorly.

Wings. Fore wing: Pterostigma 3.0 times as long as wide (21:7); parastigma 1.75 times as long as vein 1-SR (3.5:2); metacarp 3.43 times as long as distance from it to apex of marginal cell (24:7); vein r of fore wing 1.2 times vein 2-SR (6:5) (Fig. 9); length of discal cell of fore wing 1.08 times as long as its height (14:13); 1-CU1 0.62 times as long as 2-CU1; vein 2-SR + M 0.7 times as long as 2-SR. Vein M + CU of hind wing as long as vein 1-M.

Legs. Hind coxa discretely punctate dorso-basally (Fig. 8), this character differs from other species (largely rugose in C. ruficrus and C. vestalis, and shiny sparsely punctate in C. glomerata); hind tibial inner spur 0.55 times as long as hind basitarsus (10:18).

Metasoma. First tergite 1.45 times as long as apical width (16:11) (Fig. 5); medial length of second tergite 0.64 times than third (7:11); suture between second and third tergites punctate; third tergite 1.25 times as long as fourth (10:8) (Fig. 5); first and median field of second tergite strongly rugose; remainder smooth, third and fourth tergites sparsely setose; hypopygium short, setose (Fig. 3), in ventral view truncate apically.

Colour. Dark brown, antennae brown; scapus yelllow, brownish apically; head and metasoma dark brown; tegula yellow; fore and middle legs yellow; hind leg yellow, except hind coxa basally and tips of hind femur and tibia, hind tarsus apically dark brown; third and fourth tergites and sternites yellow.

Variation

Paratypes: length of body 2.7–2.9 mm, of fore wing 2.4–2.6 mm; antenna 2.5–2.6 mm (females), 3.0–3.2 mm (males). Body length of female slightly longer than fore wing and antenna; but length of body and antenna of male shorter. Mesosoma length 1.25–1.37 times as long as its height; hind tibial inner spur 0.55–0.60 as long as hind basitarsus; length of pterostigma 2.85–3.36 times as long as its width; parastigma 1.80–2.00 times longer than vein 1-SR; vein r of fore wing 1.08–1.27 times longer than vein 2-SR; length of discal cell of fore wing 1.08–1.20 times as long as its height; length of second metasomal tergite 0.63–0.80 times as long as third tergite medially.

Etymology

The new species named after the generic name of its host, Clethrogyna turbata Butler.

Biology

Host: larvae of moth Clethrogyna turbata Butler (Figs 6, 7), mainly a pest of soybean, different beans, peas and peanut in northern Vietnam, such as black and French beans, Chinese and green peas. The biological characteristics of the new species, Cotesia clethrogynae Long sp. n., are given in Table 2.

Table 2.

Life cycle of Cotesia clethrogynae sp. n. feeding on larvae of the soybean moth Clethrogyna turbata.

Table 2.
Table 3.

Host instar larva selectivity of Cotesia clethrogynae females.

Table 3.

The life cycle of parasitoid Cotesia clethrogynae sp. n. feeding on larvae of the moth Clethrogyna turbata is 12.47 ± 2.50 days, the development duration of parasitoid inside and outside host larvae is 6.93 ± 1.86, 4.47 ± 0.62, respectively; the pre-oviposition period of adults lasted 0.53 ± 0.32 days (Table 3). The percentage of parasitoid wasps emerging from cocoons varies from 70 to 80%, the sex ratio (male:female) is about 2:1. The second, third and fourth larval instars of Clethrogyna turbata are accepted for oviposition, the percentage of the second, third and fourth host larvae parasitized by Cotesia clethrogynae is 60, 75 and 20 percent, respectively (Table 3).

Cotesia glomerata (L., 1758) (Figs 10–15)

Ichneumon glomeratus L., 1758: 568.

Figs 10–15.
Figs 10–15.

Cotesia glomerata (L.). – 10, mesonotum; 11, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 12, mesopleuron; 13, fore wing; 14, fourth instar larvae of Pieris canidia; 15, cocoons on cabbage.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002042

Microgater glomeratus: Haliday, 1833: 262.

Apanteles glomeratus: Marshall, 1885: 176; Nixon, 1974: 492.

Cotesia glomerata: Mason, 1981: 112 (transferred from Apanteles s.l.); Papp, 1989: 191.

Diagnosis and comments

Cocoons gregarious and white or occationally yellowish-white (Fig. 15). Body length, 1.8–2.1, fore wing length 1.9–2.0 mm and antenna 2.0–2.1 mm (female) and 2.3–2.4 mm (male). Mesosoma length 1.23–1.29 times as long as its height; scapus yellow, brownish apically; mesoscutum convex, shiny on the whole because of smooth interspaces between discrete punctures (Fig. 10); scutellum very shiny with sparse fine punctures; mesopleuron shiny, largely smooth (Fig. 12); metapleuron with oblique crenulate groove divided into an anterior smooth area and a posterior rugose part, that distinctly differs from the other three species; mesosternum smooth; first metasomal tergite parallel-sided (Fig. 11). The wing venation of C. glomerata is similar to the venation of C. ruficrus and C. vestalis, but the length of the pterostigma is 2.66–3.42 times as long as its width; parastigma 1.60–2.00 times as long as vein 1-SR; metacarp 2.80–3.71 times as long as distance from it to apex of marginal cell; vein r 1.10–1.15 times as long as vein 2-SR (Fig. 13); length of second discal cell 1.21–1.37 times as long as its height; 1-CU1 0.85 times as long as 2-CU1 (Fig. 13). Hind wing rather broad, M + CU about 0.9 times as long as vein 1-M, first tergite gradually widened from base to apex but slightly narrowed apically. Hind coxa shiny, sparsely punctate; hind inner spur 0.39–0.44 times as long as hind basitarsus. Length of first tergite 1.11–1.20 times as long as apical width; length of second tergite 0.73–0.83 times than third medially; first and second metasomal tergites shiny, apical half of first tergite and second tergite finely rugo-punctate, third tergite largely smooth, sparsely setose apically (Fig. 11); hypopygium very short, sparsely setose, in ventral view concave apically.

Biology

Hosts: larvae of white cabbage butterflies Pieris canidia (L.) and P. rapae (L.) (Pieridae) mainly infesting cabbage (Fig. 14). Sex ratio (male:female) is 1:3.2; the first and second instar larvae of white cabbage butterflies were recorded as the preferable hosts of wasps.

Distribution

NW Vietnam: Lao Cai, Hoa Binh; NE Vietnam: Vinh Phuc, Tam Dao NP; Red River Delta: Ha Noi.

Recently, mostly C. glomerata is observed on cabbage in high mountainous areas in northern Vietnam, occasionally in winter this species appears in lowland areas.

Specimens checked

6 females (VNMN), Mic.688, Mic.685, Mic.686, Mic.688, Mic.689, Mic.691, Mic.932, 2 males (VNMN), Mic.687, Mic.690, NW Vietnam: Lao Cai, Sa Pa, 10.vi.2004, ex Pieris spp. on cabbage, gregarious cocoon; 1 female (VNMN), N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Thach That, Hoa Lac, MT tea garden, 15–25.iv.2002, KD Long; 6 females (VNMN), Mic.1167, Mic.1167a, Mic.1168, Mic.1168a, Mic.1169, Mic.1169a; 3 males (IEBR), Mic.1167b, Mic.1168b, Mic.1169b (VNMN), N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Quoc Oai, soybean field, gregarious cocoon, 16.v.1996, KD Long; 1 female (VNMN), Mic.1482, NE Vietnam: Vinh Phuc, Tam Dao NP, sweeping, 10.v.1990.

Cotesia ruficrus (Haliday, 1834) (Figs 16–19)

Microgaster ruficrus Haliday, 1834: 253.

Figs 16–19.
Figs 16–19.

Cotesia ruficrus (Haliday). – 16, mesonotum; 17, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 18, hypopygium and ovipositor (lateral view); 19, fore wing.

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002042

Apanteles ruficrus: Reinhard, 1880: 368; Wilkinson, 1932: 309.

Apanteles antipoda Ashmead, 1900: 355. Synonymised by Wilkinson, 1932: 309.

Apanteles manilae Ashmead, 1904: 19. Synonymised by Wilkinson, 1932: 309.

Apanteles (Protanpanteles) narangae Viereck, 1913: 642. Synonymised by Wilkinson, 1932: 309.

Apanteles ruficrus (Haliday): Nixon, 1974: 494.

Cotesia ruficrus: Mason, 1981: 113 (transferred from Apanteles s.l.); Papp, 1989: 197.

Diagnosis and comments

Cocoons gregarious and white. Body length 1.9–2.4 mm, fore wing length 1.8–2.1 mm, antenna 2.2–2.3 mm (female) and 2.3–2.4 mm (male). Scapus yellow, brown apically. Mesosoma length 1.43–1.44 times as long as its height; mesoscutum densely punctate without smooth interspaces between punctures (Fig. 16); scutellum punctate as mesoscutum; mesopleuron smooth medially, punctate anteriorly and dorsally; mesosternum punctate. Length of pterostigma 3.00–3.20 times as long as its width; parastigma 2.00–2.50 times as long as vein 1-SR; metacarp 2.71–3.20 times as long as distance from it to apex of marginal cell; vein r of fore wing arising after middle of pterostigma (Fig. 19), 0.75–0.80 times shorter than vein 2-SR; length of discal cell of fore wing 1.20–1.22 times as long as its height; parastigma 2.6 times vein 1-SR; 1-CU1 0.66 times as long as 2-CU1 (Fig. 19). Vein M + CU of hind wing as long as vein 1-M. Hind coxa dark brown, yellow apically, largely rugose dorso-basally; hind tibial inner spur 0.36–0.46 times as long as hind basitarsus. First metasomal round, widened apically, 1.1–1.2 times as long as apical width (Fig. 17); apical width of first tergite 0.8–0.9 times width of basal field of second tergite; length of second tergite 0.75–0.87 times than third medially; third tergite finely punctate basally, smooth apically; hypopygium very short, sparsely setose, in lateral view more or less sharp (Fig. 18), in ventral view straight.

Biology

Hosts: larvae of Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae), on different vegetable crops. Sex ratio (male:female) is 1:2.2. Cotesia ruficrus is also frequently reared from larvae of the rice green semilooper Naranga aenescensi and the armyworm complex, viz. Mythimna loreyi, M. separata and M. venalba, infesting rice and maize. The parasitoid females attack mostly first and second instars, but rarely the third instar larva is used.

Distribution

This species was found throughout Vietnam.

Specimens checked

2 females (IEBR), Mic.1459, Mic.1460, N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Tu Liem, rice field, gregarious cocon ex Spodoptera mauritia, 5.v.1983, TC Phong; 5 females (IEBR), Mic.1461, Mic.1462, Mic.1501, Mic.1502, Mic.1503, N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Ha Dong, 11 km E Ha Noi, ex Spodoptera mauritia, 01.x.1996, KD Long; 3 females (IEBR), Mic.1341, Mic.1343, Mic.1344, N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Gia Lam, ex Mythimna separata on maize, 26.iii.1997, KD LONG; 2 females (VNMN), Mic.814, Mic.815, ibid. but 30.iii.2006, KD LONG; 2 females (VNMN), N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Gia Lam, ex Mythimna separata on maize + beans, 13.iv.2006; 1 female (VNMN), ibid. but 20.v.2008, KD LONG.

Cotesia vestalis (Haliday, 1834) (Figs 20–24)

Apanteles plutellae Kudjumov, 1912: 226; Wilkinson, 1939: 80; Nixon, 1974: 495.

Figs 20–24.
Figs 20–24.

Cotesia vestalis (Haliday). – 20, mesonotum; 21, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 22, hypopygium and ovipositor (lateral view); 23, fore wing; 24, hind coxa (dorsal view).

Citation: Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 157, 2-3 (2014) ; 10.1163/22119434-00002042

Cotesia plutellae: Mason, 1981: 113 (transferred from Apanteles s.l.); Papp, 1989: 196.

Cotesia vestalis: Shaw, 2003: 188.

Diagnosis and comments

Cocoons solitary, white or yellowish-white. Body length 2.6–2.7 mm, fore wing length 2.3–2.5 mm, antenna 2.4–2.6 mm. Scapus black or dark brown entirely; mesosoma length 1.20–1.30 times as long as its height; mesoscutum rugose posteriorly, posterior end of notaulic course nearly foveolate (Fig. 20); scutellum rugose-punctate; mesopleuron smooth medially, punctate anteriorly and dorsally; mesosternum punctate; hind coxa black, rugose dorso-basally (Fig. 24). Length of pterostigma 2.63–2.85 times as long as its width; parastigma 2.50–2.70 times as long as vein 1-SR; metacarp 2.10–2.55 times as long as distance from its to apex of marginal cell; vein r of fore wing arising from middle of pterostigma (Fig. 23), 1.15–1.25 times longer than vein 2-SR vein r and 2-SR weakly angled (Fig. 23); length of discal cell of fore wing 1.20–1.30 times as long as its height; 1-CU1 0.75 times as long as 2-CU1 (Fig. 23). Vein M + CU of hind wing 0.85 times as long as 1-M. Hind coxa black, largely rugose dorso-basally; hind tibial inner spur 0.40–0.47 times as long as hind basitarsus. The first metasomal tergite 1.00–1.08 times as long as apical width (Fig. 21); apical width of first tergite 0.8–0.9 times width of basal field of second tergite; length of second tergite 0.89–1.00 times third medially; first and basal field of second tergite strongly rugose; third tergite punctate subbasally, smooth apically; hypopygium short, in ventral view straight apically; ovipositor sheath short (Fig. 22).

Cotesia vestalis differs from Cotesia clethrogynae sp. n. by having an entirely black or dark brown scapus (largely yellow, brown subapically in C. clethrogynae); inner hind tibial spur distinctly shorter than half of hind basitarsus; hind coxa rugose dorso-basally, dark brown to black entirely; first metasomal tergite 1.00–1.08 times as long as apical width; second metasomal tergite slightly shorter than or subequal to third tergite medially.

Biology

Host: larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Plutellidae) mainly on cabbage, occasionally reared from larvae of the bud worm Helicoverpa armigera infesting several kinds of beans and peas, peanut. Sex ratio (male:female) is about 1.0:1.1. On cabbage, the parasitoid wasps were found attacking first, second and third larvae of P. xylostella.

Distribution

NW Vietnam: Lao Cai, Hoa Binh; NE: Bac Ninh; Red River Delta: Ha Noi, Hung Yen; South Vietnam: Lam Dong (Da Lat).

Specimens checked

1 female (VNMN), Mic.735, 2 males (VNMN), Mic.736, Mic.737, N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Hoai Duc, Van Con, cabbage, ex Plutella xylostella, 10.v.2004, KD Long; 1 female (VNMN), Mic.892c, N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Hoai Duc, Van Con, peanut field, 25.v.2005, KD Long; 5 females (VNMN), N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Hoai Duc, Song Phuong, ex Plutella xylostella on cabbage + beans, 26.iv.2005; 2 females (VNMN), Mic.1397, Mic.1398, NW Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Ky Son, cabbage, ex Plutella xylostella, 01.iii.2003, KD Long; 3 females (IEBR), Mic.1448, Mic.1449, Mic.1450, N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Gia Lam, Long Bien, ex Plutella xylostella, 10.xii.1992, KD Long; 2 females (IEBR), Mic.813, ibid. but 30.iii.2006, KD Long and Mic.1451 (IEBR), ibid. but 25.xii.1991, KDLong; 2 females (IEBR), Mic.1106a, Mic.1107, ibid. but 7.ix.2007, KD Long; 1 female (VNMN), Mic.1452 (IEBR), N Vietnam: Ha Tay, Thuong Tin, kohlarabi, single cocoon, 16.x.1997, KD Long; 1 female (VNMN), Mic.1453, S Vietnam: Lam Dong, Da Lat, cabbage, 27.vii.2002, KD Long; 4 females (IEBR), Mic.1454, Mic.1455, Mic.1456, Mic.1456a, N Vietnam: Ha Noi, Tu Liem, Mai Dich, cabbage, ex Plutella xylostella, 05.x.1990, KD Long.

Acknowledgements

This paper has been funded by the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 106.15-2012.62. The authors would like to express their thanks to Dr James M. Carpenter from the American Museum of Natural History (New York) and Dr Gavin R. Broad, from the Natural History Museum (London, UK) for providing the inaccessible literature; the authors also express their deep gratitude to Dr Cees van Achterberg from the Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Leiden) and two reviewers for critical comments.

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Export Citation
  • Long K.D., 2007. Three new species of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Vietnam. – Tạp Chí Sinh Học 29(3): 2531.

    • Search Google Scholar
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
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    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu D.S., van Achterberg C., Horstmann K., 2013. Ichneumonoidea 2012 (Biological and taxonomical information). – Taxapad Interactive Catalogue, Ottawa, ON.

  • Austin A.D., Dangerfield P.C., 1992. Synopsis of Australasian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a key to genera and description of new taxa. – Invertebrate Taxonomy 6: 176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhatnagar S.P., 1948. Studies on Apanteles Foerster (Vipionidae: Parasitic Hymenoptera) from India. – The India Journal of Entomology 10: 134203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Long K.D., 2007. Three new species of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Vietnam. – Tạp Chí Sinh Học 29(3): 2531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Long K.D., 2010. Five new species of the genus Apanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Vietnam. – Tạp Chí Sinh Học 32(4): 6979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Long K.D., Belokobylskij S.A., 2003. A preliminary list of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera) of Vietnam. – Russian Entomological Journal 12: 385398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh P.M., 1979. The braconid (Hymenoptera) parasites of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae). – Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72: 794810.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason W.R.M., 1981. The polyphyletic nature of Apanteles Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): A phylogeny and reclassification of Microgastrinae. – Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 115: 1147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nixon G.E.J., 1965. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). – Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology Supplement 2: 1284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nixon G.E.J., 1974. A revision of the north-westerm European species of the glomeratus-group of Apanteles Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). – Bulletin of Entomological Research 64: 453524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papp J., 1989. A survey of the European species of Apanteles Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Microgastrinae) XII Supplement to the key of the glomeratus-group. – Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 81: 159203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rao S.N., 1961. Key to the Oriental species of Apanteles Foester (Hymenoptera). – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India (B) 31: 3246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw M.R., 2003: Revised synonymy in the genus Cotesia Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae: The identity of Microgaster vestalis Haliday, 1834, as a senior synonym of Apanteles plutellae Kurdjumov, 1912. – Entomologist’s Gazette 543: 187189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Achterberg C., 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). – Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 283: 1189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Achterberg C., 1997. Revision of the Haliday collection of Braconidae (Hymenoptera). – Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 314: 1115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You L., Xiong S., 1983. Two new species of Apanteles Foerster from China (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgasterinae). – Entomotaxonomia 5: 225229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You L., Zhou Z., 1988. A new species of Apanteles from reed field in Shandong, China. – Acta Entomologica Sinica 13: 305307.

  • You L., Zhou Z., 1989. A new species of Paddy Field Apanteles Foerster from Hunan, China (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). – Entomotaxonomia 11: 307309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You L., Wang Z., Zhou Z., 1989. New species and new records of Apanteles Foerster from China (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgasterinae). – Acta Entomologica Sinica 33: 237242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu D.S., van Achterberg C., Horstmann K., 2013. Ichneumonoidea 2012 (Biological and taxonomical information). – Taxapad Interactive Catalogue, Ottawa, ON.

  • View in gallery

    Cotesia clethrogynae Long sp. n. – 1, mesonotum; 2, mesopleuron; 3, hypopygium and ovipositor (lateral view); 4, female (habitus); 5, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 6, fourth instar larvae of Clethrogyna turbata Butler; 7, Clethrogyna turbata moth; 8, hind coxa (dorsal view); 9, fore wing.

  • View in gallery

    Cotesia glomerata (L.). – 10, mesonotum; 11, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 12, mesopleuron; 13, fore wing; 14, fourth instar larvae of Pieris canidia; 15, cocoons on cabbage.

  • View in gallery

    Cotesia ruficrus (Haliday). – 16, mesonotum; 17, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 18, hypopygium and ovipositor (lateral view); 19, fore wing.

  • View in gallery

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday). – 20, mesonotum; 21, metasomal tergites 1 + 2 + 3; 22, hypopygium and ovipositor (lateral view); 23, fore wing; 24, hind coxa (dorsal view).

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