Bernhard von Clairvaux, Robert von Melun und die Anfänge des mittelalterlichen Voluntarismus

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Two distinguishing marks of voluntaristic conceptions of human action can be found already in the 12th century, not only in the work of Bonaventura’s successors: 1. the will is free to act against reasons’s dictates; 2. moral responsibility depends on this conception of the will’s freedom. A number of theologians from the 1130s to the 1170s accepted those claims, which have been originally formulated by Bernard of Clairvaux. Robert of Melun elaborated them in a systematical way and coined the terminological distinctions which were controversely discussed in the following centuries. The paper edits and interprets some of his texts about voluntary action. Furthermore, it shows that Bernard’s and Robert’s ideas have been transported by their intellectualist critics in the 13th century.

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    KentVirtues of the Will101-104.

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    MüllerWillensschwäche in Antike und Mittelalter483.

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    LottinPsychologie et morale 1 11-127.

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    Matthias Perkams“Synderesis, Wille und Vernunft im 12. Jahrhundert. Die Entfaltung moralpsychologischer Grundbegriffe bei Anselm von Laon, Peter Abaelard und Robert von Melun” in Radix totius libertatis. Zum Verhältnis von Willen und Vernunft in der mittelalterlichen Philosophieed. G. Mensching Würzburg 2011 19-42.

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    LottinPsychologie et morale 1 218.

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    LottinPsychologie et morale 1 36-38.

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