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Shimmering Practices in a Kaleidoscope World: Affective, Embodied and Sensorial Modes of Filmmaking

Urban Film-Making

In: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy
Author:
Natalie LeBlancAssistant Professor of Art Education, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada, natalieleblanc@uvic.ca

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Abstract

This article explores a series of non-linear films produced in an undergraduate digital arts course. Drawing on concept of the time-image, the researcher theorizes how filmmaking produces events of duration () for which bodies, living and nonliving, are actively engaged in processes of becoming. She makes connections with what Deborah Bird calls shimmer with practices of immediation () a brilliance that brings us into “the experience of being part of a vibrant and vibrating world” (, p. 53). The researcher argues that filmmaking is a shimmering practice in a kaleidoscope world – capable of generating affective, embodied, and sensorial events – practices-in-the-making. Thus the article aligns with the goal of this special topic: to analyze affective and somatic modes of filmmaking and their potential to create virtual openings in the ubiquitous quality of sensation in the city ().

Abstract

This article explores a series of non-linear films produced in an undergraduate digital arts course. Drawing on Deleuze’s (1989) concept of the time-image, the researcher theorizes how filmmaking produces events of duration (Deleuze, 1991) for which bodies, living and nonliving, are actively engaged in processes of becoming. She makes connections with what Deborah Bird Rose (2017) calls shimmer with practices of immediation (Manning, 2019) a brilliance that brings us into “the experience of being part of a vibrant and vibrating world” (Rose, 2017, p. 53). The researcher argues that filmmaking is a shimmering practice in a kaleidoscope world – capable of generating affective, embodied, and sensorial events – practices-in-the-making. Thus the article aligns with the goal of this special topic: to analyze affective and somatic modes of filmmaking and their potential to create virtual openings in the ubiquitous quality of sensation in the city (Thain, 2019).

FEATURE
FEATURE

Natalie LeBlanc’s article is based on four films, which can be viewed here.

Citation: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 6, 1 (2022) ; 10.1163/23644583-bja10025

  1. This article is part of the special topic ‘Urban Film-making and Pedagogies of Noncompliance: Posthuman Ecologies and the Re-imagining of Urban Life’, edited by David Rousell and Laura Trafi-Prats.

What if we began with the immediate? With affect and relation, pure experience and movement?

stern, 2019, p. 220

The overall result [would be] something like a variable shimmer of patterned intensities involving moves between potentials of feeling and activated feeling

manning, munster & thomsen, 2019, p. 19

1 Introduction

The film Wide Asleep Deep Awake (Drengson, 2019) opens to a close-up of a woman looking directly at us. We watch as her eyes close and she gradually dissolves into a mandala-shaped kaleidoscope transforming into a strange, surreal landscape full of objects, sounds, movement and light (see Figure 1). For just under three minutes, we watch as a series of objects enveloped in motion appear before us – dangling, dancing, and shimmering.

Figure 1
Figure 1

Still from Wide Asleep Deep Awake (Process Reel) by Anna Drengson, focusing on wind (breath), light (shimmering colour) and movement (rhythm)

Citation: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 6, 1 (2022) ; 10.1163/23644583-bja10025

drengson 2019, used with permission

In this article, I explore a series of short films produced in an introductory digital arts course in which undergraduate students were encouraged to approach time-based media with an exploratory disposition – pushing the boundaries between the mundane and the imagined, branching into science fiction, magic realism, and a variety of other hybridized art forms emphasizing the uncanny and the sublime. In these films, the continuity of time, something normally achieved in conventional filmmaking editing processes, is disrupted, modified, and re-arranged. Drawing on Deleuze’s (1989) time-image, I theorize how filmmaking produces events of duration (Deleuze, 1991) for which bodies, living and nonliving, are actively engaged in processes of becoming. I make connections with what Australian ethnographer Deborah Bird Rose (2017) calls shimmer with practices of immediation (Manning, 2019) a brilliance that brings us into “the experience of being part of a vibrant and vibrating world” (Rose, 2017, p. 53). Through the particularities of shots, cuts, transitions, and their careful and creative arrangement in time and space, I argue that filmmaking is a shimmering practice in a kaleidoscope world – capable of generating affective, embodied, and sensorial events – practices-in-the-making. This article aligns with the following goal set forth by the guest editors: To analyze affective and somatic modes of filmmaking and their potential to create virtual openings in the ubiquitous quality of sensation in the city (Thain, 2019).

2 Starting …

Anna:

When we were first given this assignment, I had a vision of what I wanted to create. I was super inspired and went home and shot tons of footage using my iphone5. I also combed through older files on my phone and gathered some relevant clips. All together I captured over 70 pieces of footage. I did not realize at the time that this number of files would be the beginning to a very trying few sessions in the computer lab. I took a lot of time exploring every video transition I could find and spent countless hours experimenting with the duration of effects. I had such a clear vision of what I wanted to produce; my main problem was developing a skillset to match. I really enjoyed cutting up footage and rearranging them, noting how each change impacted the feel and narrative of my film. Speeding up, slowing down and reversing clips transformed the emotional story, as did the tweaking of colour filters. Something I quickly realized was that time spent working did not necessarily result in actual output – many times my explorations would lead me right back to where I started.

3 … in the Middle

Immediation is a concept gaining momentum in the contemporary landscape of research-creation, a methodology attuned to processes rather than the communication of outputs or products (Loveless, 2019a; 2019b; Manning, 2002; 2019; 2020; Springgay & Truman, 2016; Zaliwska & Springgay, 2015). For Manning (2019), immediation is a politics-in-the-making in which the potential for divergent movement is perpetually on the cusp of taking form. Therefore, immediation is a topological movement, a “withness of time” (p. 1) and a body-in-the-making. Manning, Munster and Thomsen (2019) argue that although we cannot generalize the concept of process, we can generalize how processes birth relations in and of events, which are composed of both force and form. The question, they write, is one of technique

The making of the world is a practice. A practice is built on techniques – a technique for getting to the studio, or getting to the desk, a technique for ending a paragraph, a technique for quieting a process, or enlivening it.

manning, munster & thomsen, 2019, p. 10
Immediation is an experience-driven process that recognizes how humans are not the sole conductors of worldly events. For Stern (2019), immediation enables us “to go beyond the human, human experience, and media, in order to understand an entire ecology of events” (p. 220), moving beyond the human desire to order experience as it unfolds, rather

A more-than human approach would begin elsewhere, proposing that the human is continuously rewilded by experience unfolding, is more a tendency than a formed entity. How we compose in the event is who we are, here, now. Events are mobile. They are choreographed by edgings into determinacy that leave openings for shifts in speed and scale.

stern, 2019, p. 220

Numerous arts-based and art education scholars have explored how experience provokes affective, sensorial, and embodied forms of educational research, emergent and world-making processes (Boulton, 2019; Garoian, 2010; 2013; Irwin, 2013; Manning, 2016; Springgay, 2019; Springgay & Truman, 2016; Triggs, Irwin & Leggo, 2014). Boulton (2019), for example, incorporated practices of filmmaking in which student teachers returned to their high schools and filmed their returns, provoking alternate ways for understanding their experiences of teaching and developing new conceptions of teacher practices. Boulton (2019) ultimately found that student teachers performed as nomads (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987) “a movement process which triggered unique memories in and of place” (p. 3). For Boulton (2019), the process of filming created new insights through lived experience of memory, shifting student teachers’ tacit recollections of experience by living the memory of schooling through artistic explorations of the school space.

In another project, de Freitas (2016) studied the types of bodies assembled through filmmaking and video research in mathematics education by exploring how moving images contributed to understanding the role that the body plays in the learning of mathematics, which led to the creation of a particular philosophical body. de Freitas (2016) found that the temporal and sensorial dimensions of cinema produced flows of intensity that contracted into “a body that [was] constantly assembling, dissembling, and reassembling” (p. 568), challenging theoretical assumptions about the role that the moving image plays in social science research.

For both Boulton (2019) and de Freitas (2016) Deleuze’s (1991) philosophy of time, informed by Henri Bergson’s notion of duration, enabled a mapping of new ontologies of the social, educational, ethical, and political through radical practices of filmmaking that rendered the body as a zone of indiscernibility. Disrupting with human-centric practices that situate materiality and embodiment within a sensory-motor schematic, generating more nuanced perceptions of the body in posthuman terms.

Within the theoretical approach of immediation, inciting students to think with art is important because it activates experiences that forge a re-thinking and a re-making of philosophical concepts. As Manning (2019) reminds us, acts of immediation, are a “writing from within the narrative to allow a bodying to unfold” (p. 9). Intentions guiding this project are framed from the desire to explore processes and potentials that, for Manning, Munster & Thomsen (2019), “come alive in middling, an acting ecology or ecology of practices that orient” (p. 10). For these authors, “techniques for immediation do not simply generate new things or objects. Instead they find and enact different ways to live in and with the world, different ways to world” (p. 12). Therefore, in this article, I ask, in which ways does the time-image orient? In which ways does it enact different ways to live in and with the world? Different ways to world? In the section that follows, films made by three students – Anna, Vanessa, and Jenna1 –invite viewers into a complex web of relations (Braidotti, 2018), human and nonhuman. These films have been selected for their evocative abilities for creating a rich tableau of Victoria,2 located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada, the city in which they were made.

4 Relational Movement of Bodies-Becoming

Deleuze’s (1986; 1989) cinema books present us with a taxonomy of images for which we encounter the time-image with a unique ability for producing optical and sound situations that extend into “movement of world” (Deleuze, 1989, p. 59, italics in original). The time-image is directly linked with the virtual, creating a body – not in a phenomenological sense – but as a zone of indiscernibility and an indeterminate potential (de Freitas, 2016).

The time-image can be seen in contemporary, experimental approaches to filmmaking by artists such as Christian Marclay who, with the help of multiple assistants, spent three years searching for and collecting thousands of clips from film and also television that depicted clocks or made reference to time in a direct manner (Cunningham, 2021). Marclay edited these clips together to form a 24-hour time loop entitled The Clock, unfolding in real-time and creating a story in which time became the narrative. Anna’s film, Wide Asleep Deep Awake, was greatly inspired by Marclay’s filmmaking practices for which a chiming, pendulum-swinging clock, gradually morphs from – and returns to – a body – wide asleep/deep awake.

Vanessa’s film, Sigh land (2019), invites viewers into total “states of reverie, [a] waking dream, of strangeness [and] enchantment” (Deleuze, 1989, p. 58–59). Shots are superimposed in which the intensities of light, colour and movement are seen emanating from inside and outside of a moving bus. At times, it is as if the cityscape – it’s houses, roofs, windows, streets, trees, branches, and leaves – are bleeding into one another making it difficult, if not impossible, to tease out the singularities of what we are seeing on screen (see Figure 2). Both Vanessa and Anna’s films play with the ambiguity between the dream world and the real world for which long and multiple exposures, juxtapositions, and dissolves, along with the careful synchronization of image and sound, give rise to new forms of life.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Sequence of stills from Sigh land by Vanessa Funk

Citation: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 6, 1 (2022) ; 10.1163/23644583-bja10025

funk 2019, used with permission

These films, in the words of Manning (2009), are concerned with movement’s virtual becoming, “movement [that] is felt not in a pose but in its experiential taking form across time and space … the feeling of movement moving” (p. 114). Through a steady rhythm of metamorphosis, movement is perceived through sound just as much as it is perceived visually. Anna’s film, In and Out, for example, moves to a driving baseline with a haunted melody. An original score for which Anna co-wrote and played the cello. Wide Asleep Deep Awake, on the other hand, begins in silence as a chorus of city sounds bleed in from the background forming a crescendo – a car motor, birds, wind and a variety of noises that one can only describe as outside.

Anna’s films are an entangling of rhythmic patterns of the human body and Victoria’s shoreline, creating rich landscapes sleeping/standing, dancing/floating, breathing/smoking. This is a relational movement of bodies-becoming (Manning, 2009), something equally captured in Vanessa’s film, for which movements of the bus weave with/in the sound of a long-drawn-out sigh. Sound contorts and mutates as a pulsing beat transforms into an underwater submarine accentuating feelings of dissociation that Sigh land, as a daydream, provokes (see Figure 3).

Vanessa writes,

I wanted my narrative to reflect the dual emotions of hypnotic dissociation and daydreaming that I feel when I look outside the bus windows. Often, I feel resentful of the long ride but it forces me to slow down and accept the process.

Figure 3
Figure 3

Still from Sigh land by Vanessa Funk

Citation: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 6, 1 (2022) ; 10.1163/23644583-bja10025

funk 2019, used with permission

Differing in style, tone, and rhythm from the previous films, Jenna’s film, entitled An Exploration of Annihilation (2019), invites viewers into a time loop, encountering the deconstruction/reconstruction of a small house (see Figure 4). It opens with an excavator arm as it mechanically punches holes into the roof, clawing through floors, and knocking down walls. Through a short series of disjointed clips and jarring cuts, we watch as entire sections of the house are pummelled to the ground banging together, clanging, and smashing.

Figure 4
Figure 4

Stills from An Exploration of Annihilation by Jenna Swett

Citation: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 6, 1 (2022) ; 10.1163/23644583-bja10025

swett 2019, used with permission

Through a rewinding of events, Jenna’s film transitions, and we are invited inside the house as it stands. We walk up its stairs and enter its grounds – bearing witness of what remains in its remains. Windows and doors sit open to other worlds – to nature, trees, and forms of life – surrounding it … and bleeding into it. At first, the scene feels like a sequence of stills, however, micromovements and pans prolong the scene, stretching time out. A spider, hanging on a web, pulses towards us, re-appearing again with difference (see Figure 5). There is a change in tone and atmosphere. We feel the stillness of place, its once-was and not-yet, amplified.

Figure 5
Figure 5

Sequence of stills from An Exploration of Annihilation by Jenna Swett

Citation: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 6, 1 (2022) ; 10.1163/23644583-bja10025

swett 2019, used with permission

5 Webs of Time-Felt

Drawing from Henri Bergson’s notion of duration, Deleuze (1991) rejects the notion that time is an external force built on a linear sequencing of events. Rather, through duration, time is capable of bringing a multiplicity of times, experiences, memories, ideas, and desires together into the living present (Boulton, 2019). The films explored in this article are a direct confrontation with conventional perceptions of time that, rather than being linear or homogenized, they break with causality, becoming fragmented, forking and splitting into a dense web of space-times. For Manning (2019), time, like movement is perpendicular and transversal, without beginning or end. It is topological, “a fold rather than a line” (p. 3). This is the power of the time-image for which Deleuze (1989) argues, “a whole new sense of subjectivity appears” (p. 47).

Anna, Vanessa, and Jenna’s films morph from being metronymic in character to being predicated by the body, by relationships between the body and the land, and by technological manipulations made during filmmaking. Jenna’s film, for example, asks the viewer to slow down and feel the abandoned house’s texture, not as an object, but as a lived relation. This is also true for Vanessa’s film, for which we are called to move with the bus and to feel its variations in speed, particularly its accelerations and deaccelerations from starting, stopping, and starting again.

Drawing on Deleuze’s abstract machine, Feminist scholar Barbara Kennedy (2000) argues that film functions through a multiplicity of components – time, space, bodies, and matter – that unlike a semiotic sign, it does not function as representation, but as a completely different reality capable of producing feelings, relations, connections, and flows, moving between, across, and within human and non-human bodies. Kennedy (2000) uses a kaleidoscope as a model of vision to help speak of film’s capacity for breaking down and blurring boundaries between bodies and world, offering a fragmented and machinic alternative for understanding filmic experiences. This lens counters Cartesian binaries between mind and body and re-focuses on the sensations and feelings that film provokes.

The surreal juxtapositions of In and Out and Wide Asleep Deep Awake, the chromatic range in colour and also movement in Sigh land, and the uncanniness of witnessing a bulldozer re-build a house in An Exploration of Annihilation make time and place perceptively felt. The superimposition of multiple shots and the play of light emanating in and diffracted through such layering, produce affective and durational events. Kennedy (2000), refers to the aesthetic modulations, rhythms, energies, durations and intensities that film sets forth as an event of pure movement. As a force, it sets off vibrations that are felt at a nervous or molecular level. Kennedy writes, “film energises, it mobilises, it works as matter, in assemblage with other bodies of matter. It connects in amorphous ways outside the merely scopic and psychical” (p. 7).

For Manning (2009), what is expressed in moving images is “the virtual node of the in-between … – brimming over with microperceptions [and] microexpressions never quite actualized” (p. 95) – an affective tone that calls on bodies of viewers to feel the durational interval between the virtual and the actual. Manning (2009) argues, “perception lures feeling, coalescing visual experience into a force of feeling. Affectively, feeling works on the body, bringing to the fore the experiential force of the quasi chaos of the not-quite-seen” (p. 95). Anna, Vanessa, and Jenna’s films invite viewers to linger with the affects and sensations provoked in being-with the house, the bus, and the land, creating new movements and rhythms, perpetually on the verge of appearing and disappearing. They set forth a multiplicity of modulations, intensities and processes that exceed their final form. In a footnote, Manning (2009) speaks to this revelation in Deleuzian terms in which the time-image “make[s] time felt, foregrounding movement’s durational force” (p. 237). For Manning (2020), this is the art of time or in other words, art-as-way which emphasizes the capacity of art to foreground, “to compose worlds that activate a kind of geological event-time—a layered, composite time-felt” (p. 22).

Returning to the questions that I asked at the beginning of this article, in which ways does the time-image orient? In which ways does it enact different ways to live in and with the world? Different ways to world? Drawing from Whitehead’s concept of a creative advance, Manning (2020) argues that the art of time has little to do with the creation of an art object, rather, “it is a way of speaking of the lure for feeling alive in the interval … to make felt what is too often overlooked … the ungraspable interval of the more than” (p. 28). For Manning, (2020), “this untimely activity shimmers with creativity” (p. 28, italics added for emphasis). In the next section, I attend to what this ungraspable interval of the more-than can do, as a proposition for research-creation.

6 Enmeshed, Entangled and More-Than

Deborah Bird Rose (2017) argues that shimmer, an Australian Aboriginal term for the ancestral power of life, helps us better notice and care for those around us, human and nonhuman, who are in peril. Shimmering practices are practices of care, for humans and nonhumans, and also relations between humans, nonhumans, and the land. For Rose (2017), shimmer occurs as an ecological pulse, a temporal pattern that fluctuates “from dull to brilliant and then back to dull, and then back to brilliant” (p. 54). As potential, shimmer is an ephemeral movement that lures, surprises, captures, and evokes feelings and response.

Rose spent her life’s work studying the relationship between angiosperms and the flying fox, exploring the brilliant shimmer of the biosphere among the wreckage of the Anthropocene, developing a deep respect for aesthetics that both entices and offers rewards. The Yolngu word bir’yun is a brilliance that does not distinguish between domains of nature and culture but one that is multifaceted, comprising of multispecies felt through the molecular vibrations in everything that is living on earth. In shimmer there is a connotation of the possibility of becoming, as something constantly in flux and with the potential of change.

I propose that we think of immediation as an aspect of shimmer, a worlding that creates the potential for experience by remaining open to the world, when we, as Marks (2018) proposes, “try seeing the world as an open, ever-changing whole, a matrix of motile relations from which all kinds of entities take shape, differentiate and create new relations” (p. 119).

Anna, Vanessa, and Jenna’s films orient us to life’s rhythm, bringing forth new motions, patterns, and sensations. For Deleuze (2002), the power of Rhythm “is more profound than vision, hearing, etc” (p. 37). He continues: “it is a diastole-systole: the world that seizes me by closing in around me, the self that opens to the world and opens the world itself” (p. 37). As these films demonstrate, the time-image opens an alternative encounter with time and also place, producing variations in sensations – forces enlivened through different, multiple, and indeterminate stories and vibrant sensibilities that Jane Bennett (2001) calls “an orchestrated arrangement of affections” (p. 156). They invite enchantment and wonder, enlivening “a feeling of being connected in an affirmative way to existence” (Bennett, 2001, p. 156). As Rose (2008) points out, we have to become more ontologically inventive, we have to develop and cultivate practices that bring forth ways of storying that provide a space for the flourishing of as many different forms of life as possible, arguing that in order to do so, we must

lift our eyes from the page and turn them to the living world … to think about pattern rather than space, and this means thinking about time, rhythms, organization, and the interplay of difference and similarity.

rose, 2008, p. 110

Jenna writes,

There was an abandoned house next to mine which stood empty for one year. The windows and doors were removed over the summer. Two days after I took the videos for this project, it was torn down. This was unplanned… Playing with and reversing the videos of it being torn down was like destroying and reconstructing a different time in my life.

Van Dooren and Bird Rose (2012) argue that “places are relationally constituted,” (p. 2) that “stories and meanings are not just layered over a pre-existing landscape … [but] emerge from and impact upon the way in which places come to be” (p. 2). Anna, Vanessa and Jenna’s films, speak to a threshold of bodies and things becoming together through affective happenings as “a mutual becoming with the world” (Trafí-Prats, 2018, p. 202). They attest to the vibrant power of the time-image forging connections with a complex ecology of things, objects, bodies, times, spaces and places by drawing us into their depth as an entangled relation (see Figure 6).

Figure 6
Figure 6

Montage of stills from In and Out by Anna Drengson

Citation: Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 6, 1 (2022) ; 10.1163/23644583-bja10025

anna drengson 2019b, used with permission

Springgay (2019) posits that situating practices of research-creation within the posthuman enacts worlds different from those produced by European imperialism and settler colonialism. It is a turning-away from dogmatic images of thought and a turning-towards unpredictability, multi-sensory and affective events that actively re-orient space-times. Anna, Vanessa, and Jenna’s films create a rich tableau of the city of Victoria showcasing distinctive elements of its landscape – neighbourhoods, houses, streets, beaches, forests – and through particular framings and shadings, challenging normative ways of seeing and perceiving them. They also orient us to the work that still needs doing especially as it pertains to disrupting and dismantling colonial perspectives that are currently being upheld, especially those that enact violence. As Manning (2019) asserts, “we must be careful not to situate politics in the realm of those very categories that exclude us” (p. 10), but “create movements of thought, modes of knowing, that depart from a place that is infested with the legacy of colonialism and the barren imagination it leaves behind” (p. 10). Shimmering practices are practices of care, for humans, nonhumans, and relations with the land, a brilliance that brings us into “the experience of being part of a vibrant and vibrating world” (Rose, 2017, p. 53). This is a thinking-making-doing (Springgay, 2019) that coincides with the critical posthumanities and Haraway’s (2016) position that by “shaping response-abilities, things and living beings can be inside and outside human bodies, at different scales of time and space” (p. 16). This is an invitation to come together. A becoming-with each other that can create new patterns of life. As Haraway (2016) reminds us, this is a time in which biologies, arts, and politics need each other so that we can live in a more liveable world. We need to learn “how to become less deadly, more response-able” (p. 98).

In the words of Rose,

We breathe in, we breathe out. In this world of connectivity, we live to celebrate another day and to experience life’s shimmer as it comes forth in our lives with all manner of tears, happiness, grief, commitment, love, exuberance, and celebration.

rose, 2017, pp. 60–61

Anna, Vanessa, and Jenna’s films focus on some of Victoria’s everyday textures that poetically echo the landscape from which they enfold. As such, they are an infolding potential, creating new forms of relation with human and nonhuman others, timely shimmers calling on us to imagine things differently.

7 Conclusion

In this article, films made by three undergraduate students were brought together as a time-image (Deleuze, 1989), forming a rich topology of events. Daily events such as walking, commuting, rising, sleeping, dreaming, and breathing – routine accounts of the city – are reconfigured and re-imagined provoking atmospheres more akin to memory, fantasy, poetry, dreams, and travel. Each film produces a fleeting glimpse of the city of Victoria, the city in which it was made, and through the particularity of images, cuts, transitions, and their careful and creative arrangement in time and space, orient us to multiple agents, and their temporal and spatial subjectivities as they actively and relationally engage in processes of becoming. Shimmering practices of immediation are political practices-in-the-making, potentials for divergent movement perpetually on the cusp of taking form.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Anna Drengson, Vanessa Funk, and Jenna Swett for their creative and artistic insight and their non-linear films that contributed substantively to the writing of this article. My sincere gratitude extends to David Roussell and Laura Trafi-Prats for their insightful and detailed feedback on the initial draft.

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1

All names are real. Student participants wished to be cited and named in this study.

2

I would like to acknowledge with respect the lək̓ʷəŋən peoples on whose traditional territory the city of Victoria stands and the Songhees, Esquimalt and w̱sáneć peoples whose historical relationships with the land continue to this day.

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