Some Thoughts about Non-Discrimination and Access to the Public Service

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  • 1 Dr. jur., Visiting Research Associate at the European Centre for Minority Issues.

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  • 1 The text of the Framework Agreement can be found at the United States Institute of Peace website at'library/pa/index/pa_jnaccdonia.htmi. A comprehensive background analysis is given in Farimah Daftary, "ConBict Resolution in FYR Macedonia: Power-Sharing or the 'Civic Approach'?" 12 Helsinki Monitor (2001 ). 29I; see also Ulrich Schneckener, "Developing and Applying EU Crisis Management, Test Case Macedonia", ECMI Working Paper No. 14 (January 2002), 24 et seq., at 2 Section 1.3 of the Framework Agreement. 3 The amendments of the Laws on the Civil Service and the Public Administration should have been adopted by the end of 2001. At the time of writing, the Assembly had not yet commenced the drafting process. 4 Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in the Republic of Macedonia, Report on Minority Rights in the Republic of Macedonia, September 1999. 5 For relevant provisions of the Peace Agreement, see the annex to this article. 6 Law on Civil Servants, Skopje, July 2000.

  • 7 The term 'public service' is broader than the term 'civil service', which is used particularly in England, see Elmar Stelzer, "Der Civil Service in England", Zeitschrift far Beamtenrecht (hereinafter "ZBR") (1980), 76. The term 'public service' also comprises members of the police and the judiciary. 8 Other terms for affirmative action are: positive action, preferential policies, reservations, compensatory or distributive justice and preferential treatment. See Marc Bossuyt, "The Concept and Practice of Affirmative Action: Progress Report Submitted in Accordance with Sub-Commission Resolution 1998/5", UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/15, 26 June 2001, para. 6. 9 See e.g. Stanislaw Nowotny, "Der Entwurf eines Gesetzes uber den Zivilstaatsdienst in der Republik Polen", ZBR (1994), 261; Jurij Starilow, "Die Reform des offentlichen Dienstes in RuBland: Ursachen, Probleme und Hauptrichtungen", ZBR (1995), 260; and Hubert Miinz, "Zur Vorbereitung eines Beamtengesetzes fur die Republik Bulgarien", ZBR (1996), 41. '° Tony Verheijen, "Public Administration Reform: A Mixed Picture", in Anna-Maria Biro and Petra Kovac (eds.), Diversity in Action, Local Public Management of Multi-Ethnic Communities in Central and Eastern Europe (Budapest, 2001), 19, 26. " Peter Radler, Verfahrensmodelle zum Schutz vor Rassendiskriminierung: Rechtsvergleichende Untersuchung zum Verfassungsauftrag in Art.3 3 Abs. 3 GG (Berlin, 1999), 53 et seq. the outstanding issues in the transformation process in South Africa are discussed in: South African Ministry for Public Service and Administration, Green Paper on a New Employment Policy for a New Public Service (May 1997); regarding the admissibility of affirmative action under South African

  • law, see Jan Lodewyk, "Constitutional Standards for Affirmative Action in South Africa: A Comparative Overview", 61 ZaoRV (2001), 403. " See e.g. Thomas Buergenthal and Dinah Shelton. Protecting Human Rights in the .4rnericas: Cases and Materials (Kehl, Strasbourg, Arfington, 4th ed. 1995), 18 et seq. " International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI). 999 U.N.T.S. 171; see Manfred Nowak. L A 0-Pa�r uber burgerliche und politische Rechte und Fakultatiiproiokoll - CCPR- Kommentar (Kehl, Strasbourg, Arlington, 1989), Art. 25, 469, MN 5. `5 Nowak, UNO-Pakt .... 483, MN 32. 16 See ibid., 485 et seq., MN 36. " Ibid., 483, MN 32. 'e Ibid., 483, MN 33.

  • 19 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, G.A. res. 2106 (XX), 660 U.NT.S. 195. zo UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), Non-Discriminatory imple- mentation of rights and freedoms (Art. 5), General Recommendation XX, Forty-eighth Session, 1996. 21 ILO Convention No. Ill: Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention. 22 See Henrik Karl Nielsen, "The Concept of Discrimination in ILO Convention No. 111", 43 ICLQ ( 1994), 827 et seq. 23 see the ILO website at EN. 2' Nielsen, "The Concept of Discrimination ...", 829. zs See ILO, Report of the Commission of Inquiry Appointed under Article 26 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization to Examine the Observance by Romania of the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111), Romanian Minority Case, para. 25 et seq. and 587 et seq.

  • 26 Adopted by General Assembly resolution 47/153 of 18 December 1992. 27 see Asbjern Eide, "Commentary to the UN-Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National, Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities", UN Doc. E'CN.4jSub.2/AC.5/2001/2, 2 April 2001, para. 4. 28 bid., para. 36. 29 "Report of the Working Group on Minorities", UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1999/21, 24 June 1999, para. 82. 30 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocol No. 11, E.T.S. No. 155. 31 our. Ct. H.R., Vogt v. Germany, judgment of 26 September 1995, Series A, no. 323, para. 43. 3z Ibid. 33 Eur. Ct. H.R., Appl. 42393/98, Dahlab v. Swit�erland, decision on the admissibility of 15 February 2001, Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (hereinafter "NJW') (2001), 2871. 3° Entered into force 18 July 1978, O.A.S.T.S. No. 36, 1. 3s Entered into force 21 October 1986, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5.

  • 36 see Eur. Ct. H.R., Yogt v. Germany, para. 59. 37 council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 Implementing the Principle of Equal Treatment between Persons Irrespective of Racial or Ethnic Origin, Official Journal L 180 (19 July 2000), 22. 38 council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 Establishing a General Framework for Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation, Official Journal L 303 (2 December 2000), 16. '9 Directive 2000/43/EC, Art. 1. 40 Ibid., Art. 3( 1)(a). A detailed overview of the scope of the Directive is given in Gahriel N. Toggenburg, "The Race Directive: A New Dimension in the Fight against Ethnic Discrimination in Europe", in this volume. 41 Ibid., Art. 3(2).

  • 42 Ibid., Art. 7. '3 Ibid., Art. 16. " Directive 2000/78/EC, Art. 1. 45 Ibid., Art. 2. 46 Ibid., Art. 3. 47 Ibid., Art. 3(2). 48 Ibid., Art. 3 ( 3 ). 49 Ibid., Art. 3(4). 50 Ibid., Art. 4. 51 Ibid., Art. 9. 52 Ibid., Art. 18. 53 For the outstanding changes in German law beyond the scope of this article, see Rainer Nickel, "Handlungsauftrage zur Bekampfung von ethnischen Diskriminierungen in der neuen Gleichbehandlungsrichtlinie 2000/43", 54 Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (2001), 2668; and Jobst- Hubertus Bauer, "Europaische Anti-Diskriminierungsrichtlinien und ihr Ein6uss auf das deutsche Arbeitsrecht", 54 Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (2001), 2672. s' Sebastian Krebber in Christian Callies and Matthias Ruffert (eds.), Kommentar des Vertrages iiber die Europaische Union und des Vertrages zur Grandung der Europ6ischen Gemeinschaft (Neuwied, 1999). Art. 141, 1438, MN 76. 55 council Directive 76/207/EEC of 9 February 1976 on the Implementation of the Principle of Equal Treatment for Men and Women as Regards Access to Employment, Vocational Training and Promotion, and Working Conditions, Official Journal L 39 (14 February 1976), 40.

  • 56 on 7 June 2000, the European Commission proposed an amendment of Directive 76/207/EEC. The purpose of the proposal is to bring the Directive into line with European Court of Justice (ECJ) judgments and the Amsterdam Treaty, particularly Article 13 and Articles 141 (3) and (4) TEC. See Commission of the European Communities, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 76/207/EEC, Brussels, COM(2000) 334 final, 7 June 2000. At the time of writing, the inter-institutional procedure for the adoption of the amended Directive 76/207/EEC has not been completed. 57 see ECJ, C-66/85, Lawrie Blum v. Land Baden-Wurttem6erg, judgment of 3 July 1986, [1986] ECR 2121. se ECJ, C-149/79, Commission v. Belgium, judgment of 17 December 1980, [1980] ECR 3881. 1. s9 Bossuyt, "The Concept and Practice of Affirmative Action ...", para. 7.

  • 60 see Patrick T'hornberry, International Law and the Rights of Minorities (Oaford, 1991 ), 284: and Marc Bossuyt, "The Concept and Practice of Affirmative Action: Preliminary Report Submitted in Accordance with Sub-Commission Resolution 1998i5", UN Doc. E, CN.4 Sub.2/2000/11, 19 June 2000. para. 18-19. 6' See HRC, The Right to Participate in Public Affairs, Voting Rights and the Right of Equal Access to Public Service (Art. 25), General Comment No. 25, adopted by the Committee at its 1510th meeting (fifty-seventh session) on 12 July 1996, para. 23. sz Bossuyt. "Preliminary Report ...", para. 41; Nowak, ICCPR-Kommentar, Art. 25, d84, MN 35; Anne Bayefsky, "The Principle of Equality or Non-Discrimination in International Law", 11 HRLJ ( 1990), 1, 34. 6' Bayefsky, "The Principle of Equality ...", 28. 64 See also Bossuyt, "Preliminary Report ...", para. 19. bs HRC, General Comment No. 25, para. 23.

  • ss Lund Recommendations on the Effective Participation of National Minorities in Public Life, September 1999 and explanatory note. 67 see Hans-Joachim Heintze, "Entwickeln sich allgemcine v6lkerrechtliche Rcgeln zum Minderheitenschutz? Anmerkungen zu den Lund-Empfehlungen eines internationalen Expertenteams uber Mitwirkungsrechte von Minderheiten", 13 Humanitares Volkerrecht (2000), 89, 95. s8 Krebber in Callies and Ruffert, EUV/EGV, Art. 141, 1444, MN 95. However, Krebbeis view (ibid. 1441, MN 82) that the principles which were laid down in the Kalanke and the Marschall judgments are out-dated raises some doubts. In the Badeck judgment, the ECJ does not depart from the findings in the Marschall judgment, ECJ, C-158/97, Georg Badeck and others, [2000] ECR 1875. Thus, in cases of under-representation of women in the public service, a quota arrangement is only compatible with European law if "it does not automatically and unconditionally give priority to women when women and men are equally qualified, and the candidatures are the subject of an objective assessment which takes account of the specific personal situations of all candidates", see ibid., para. 23. 69 Directive 2000/43/EC, Art. 5. 70 Directive 2000/78/EC, Art. 7.

  • " See Constanze Grewe-Leymarie and Dieter C. Umbach, "Der Zugang zum und die Entlassung aus dem 6ffentlichen Dienst in Frankreich", in Ernst Wolfgang Bockeforde, Christian Tomuschat and Dieter Umbach (eds.), Extremisten und 6ffentlicher Dienst: Rechtslage und Praxis des Zugangs zum und der Entlassung aus dem offentlichen Dienst in Westeuropa, USA. Jugoslawien und der EG (Baden- Baden, 1981), 129. low n' 83-634 du 13 juillet 1983 portant droits et obligations des fonctionnaires. Loi dite loi Le Pors (Journal O�ciel du 14 juillet 1983) and Loi W 84-16 du 11 janvier 1984 portant dispositions statutaires relatives a la fonction pubhque de 1'Etat (Journal Officiel du l2 janvier 1984). Access to the public service is open to all French citizens who enjoy all civil rights and fulfil the physical requirements necessary for the relevant position. Art. 5 Loi n' 83-634. Some positions are open for all EU citizens, ibid., Art. 5bis. 73 Art. 16 Loi n' 83-634. For other means of recruitment, see Gustave Peiser, Droit administratif de la fonction publique (Paris, 16th ed. 2000), 43 et seq. '° See Jean Marie Duffau, "Die Ecole Nationale d'Administration", ZBR 1994, 149; Grewe-Leymarie aud Umbach, "Der Zugang ...", 131 et seq.; and Peiser, Droit administratif .... -13 et seq. 75 Peiser, Droit administratif ..., 35.

  • 76 See Ulrich Battis in Michael Sachs (ed.), Grundgesetz-Kommentar (Munich, 2nd ed., 1999), Art. 33, 1029, MN 19. " Art. 33(3) of the Basic Law. z Battis in Sachs, Grundgesetz-Kommentar, 1030, MN 24; Franz-Joseph Peine and Dieter Heinlein, Beamtenrecht (Heidelberg, 2nd ed. 1999), 1-2. '9 According to Sec. 7( 1 ) of the Act on Federal Public Officials (Bundesbeamtengesetz), obligatory precon- ditions to be appointed as civil servant on the federal level are: - that the public servant has German citizenship or the citizenship of another EU member state; - that it is guaranteed that the public servant supports the free democratic basic order; - and that the person has either the adequate education or acquired the capability through experi- ence of life or professional experience. For positions within the meaning of Art. 39(4) TEC only German citizens are entitled to become a civil servant, ibid., Sec. 7(2). 80 BVerwG NJW 1984, 1248; VGH Mannheim NJW 2001, 2899, 2900. 8' See Sec. 126 (1) of the Framework Law Defining the Scope of Officials' Rights and Duties (Beamtenrechtsrahmengesetz). 82 BVerwG NJW 1984, 1248; VGH Mannheim NJW 2001, 2899, 2900. 83 Ibid.; VGH Mannheim NJW 2001, 2899, 2900; Sachsisches OVG SachsVBl 2001, 123, 125.

  • 8' For a general overview, see Claus-Dieter Classen, "Individual and Collective Equality Rights Including Affirmative Action, German Report", International Association of Constitutional Law, The Fifth World Congress: Constitutionalism, Universalism, Democracy, Rotterdam 12-16 July 1999, at 85 Ibid., at III. 3. See the large number of references in Udo di Fabio, "Die Gleichberechtigung von Mann und Frau", 122 AOR ( 1997), 404, 419. 87 See e.g. Julianne Kokott, "Zur Gleichberechtigung von Mann und Frau - Deutsches Verfassungsrecht und europaisches Gemeinschaftsrecltt", NJW 1995, 1049, 1051. 88 see Albertine G. Veldman, "Preferential Treatment in European Community Law: Current Legal Developments and the Impact on National Practices", in Titia Loenen and Peter R. Rodrigues (eds.), Non Discrimination Law Comparative Perspectives (The Hague, London, Boston, 1999), 279; Oliver Suhr, "Grenzen der Gleichbehandlung: Zur Vereinbarkeit von Frauenquoten mit Gemeinschaftsrecht", 25 EuGRZ (1998), 121; Krebber in Callies and Ruffert, EU17EGV Art. 141, 1441, MN 82; and ECJ, Georg Badeck and others. e9 Law No. 188 of 8 December 1999 Regarding the Status of Public Servants, published in \/omtorut Oficial No. 600 of December 1999. 90 Ibid., Art. 26(2). 91 Ibid., Art. 4(b). 92 Ibid., Art. 4(c). 93 Ibid., Art. 49(1).

  • 94 Ibid., Art. 6(a). See also Art. 16(3) of the 1991 Constitution. Other eligibility criteria listed in Art. 6 are: knowledge of the Romanian language, a minimum age of 18, the entitlement to enjoy all civil rights, a medical certificate, adequate education as regards the relevant position, no previous convic- tions (which would make the person unfit to the exercise of the relevant job), and successful perform- ance in the concours. 95 Art. 49(2) of the Romanian Law Regarding the Status of Public Servants. 96 For antidiscrimination laws on a general level, see Renate Weber, "Legal Analysis of National and European Anti-Discrimination Legislation: A Comparison of the EU Racial Equality Directive and Protocol No. 12 with Anti-Discrimination Legislation in Romania", European Roma Rights Center, Interights, Migration Policy Group (September 2001), 10; regarding access to public service, see Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Opinion on Romania, adopted on 6 April 2001, para. 71. 97 See Sec. 3 of the PSA 1999. 98 Ibid., Sec. 10( 1 )(a). 99 Ibid. 100 See Sec. 10(2) of the PSA 1999, which reads as follows: "For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b), a decision relating to engagement or promotion is based on merit if: (a) an assessment is made of the relative suitability of the candidates for the duties, using a competitive selection process; and (b) the assessment is based on the relationship between the candidates' work-related qualities and the work- related qualities genuinely required for the duties; and (c) the assessment focuses on the relative capacity of the candidates to achieve outcomes related to the duties; and (d) the assessment is the primary consideration in making the decision.". 101 Ibid., Sec. 17.

  • Doz Public Service Act 1999 Advice No. 3, Special Employment Measures. 103 See HRC Third Periodic Report of States Parties: Australia, UN Doc. CCPR'CiAUS/98/3, 22 July 1999, para. 1275. `°' For a critical and comprehensive overview, see Sarah Pritchard, "Approaching its Use-by Date? National Enforcement Mechanism: The Case of Australia", in Titia Loenen and Peter R. Rodrigues (eds.), Non Discrimination Law: Comparative Perspectives (The Hague, London, Boston, 1999), 365. ios Sec. 15(2) of the RDA 1975. '°6 Sec. 8 of the RDA in connection with Art. 1(4) of the CERD.

  • 107 Sec. 31(c) of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986. 108 Ibid., Sec. 31 (b). 109 See 5 U.S.C. 2101. "0 5 U.S.C. 2301 (b)(1). 111 See HRC Initial Reports of States Parties: United States of America, UN Doc. CCPR/C/81/Add.4, 24 August 1994, para. 782.

  • "z As prohibited under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 5 2000e. "3 As prohibited under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, 29 U.S.C. § 631, 633a. 114 As prohibited under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 791. 115 See general HRC, United States of America Report, paras. 789 et seq. "6 Foley v. Connelie, 435 U.S. 291 (1978). 117 Ambach v. Norwick, 441 U.S. 68 (1979). 118 CERD, Reports Submitted by State Parties under Art. 9 of the CERD, Third Periodic Report, United States of America, CERD/C/351/Add.1, 10 October 2000, para. 266. 119 Gerald E. Caiden and Naomi J. Caiden, "The Experience of the United States and United Kingdom in the Area of Diversity", United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Managng Diversity in the Civil Service; UNHQ, New York, 3-4 May 2001, 9. 120 The due process clause in the Fifth Amendment, which applies to cases were the federal government is involved, is interpreted in accordance with the Fourteenth Amendment. See e.g. Buckley f. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1, 93 (1976); United States v. Paradise, 480 U.S. 149, 166, N 16 (1987). 'z' Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. PENA, 515 U.S. 200, 227 (1995).

  • 122 SIGMA, "European Principles for Public Administration", Sigma Papers No. 27, CCNM/ Sigma/PUMA(99)44/REVI, 22. 123 See Christian Tomuschat, "Rechtsvergleichende Analyse: Der 6ffentliche Dienst im Spannungsverhaltnis zwischen politischer Freiheit und Verfassungstreue", in Ernst Wolfgang B6ckef6rde, Christian Tomuschat and Dieter Umbach (eds.), Extremisten und offentlicher Dienst: Rechtslage und Praxis des Zugangs zum und der Entlassung aus dem offentlichen Dienst in Westeuropa, USA, Jugoslawien und der EG (Baden-Baden, 1981), 647, 652; and SIGMA, "European Principles ...", 21 et seq.

  • 124 see e.g. the Lund Recommendations. 125 see Report submitted by Germany pursuant to Art. 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, received on 24 February 2000, Council of Europe, ACFCj SR (2000)1, Art.4, para. 1. act on the Sorbs' Rights in the Free State of Saxony (Gesetz uber die Rechte der Sorben im Freistaat Sachsen - S6chsisches Sorbengesetz), SachsGVBI. 7/1999, 161. 127 See Istvan Horvath and Alexandra Scacco, "From the Unitary to the Pluralistic: Fine-Tuning Minority Policy in Romania", in Anna-Maria Biro and Petra Kovac (eds.), Diversity in Action: Local Public Management of Multi-Ethnic Communities in Central and Eastern Europe ( Budapest, 2001 ), 241, 263-4. 128 However, the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities revealed that there is a discrepancy between official statistics and the actual situation, see Advisory Committee, Opinion on Romania, para. 26. 'z9 Quoted in Weber, "Legal Analysis of National and European Anti-Discrimination Legislation ...", 28-9.

  • '3o CERD, Third Periodic Report: United States of America, para. 276. '31 Caiden and Caiden, "The Experience ...", 10. �az European Stability Initiative (ESI), "The Other Macedonian Conflict", ESI discussion paper supported by the Planungstab des Auswartigen Amtes (German Foreign Ministry), 20 February 2002, 12, at; Daftary, "ConHict Resolution in FYR Macedonia ...", 303. '33 The international donors conference took place on 12 March 2002.

  • 134 SIGMA. "European Principles ...". 21. 135 Currently, only citizens of Macedonia are entitled to be appointed as civil servants, see Art. 9 of the Law on Civil Servants. The relevant paragraph will have to be changed if Macedonia becomes a member of the EU. "6 See ESI. "The Other Macedonian Conflict". 9.

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