Power-Sharing and Ethnic Conflict: The Consociational-Integrative Dichotomy and Beyond

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  • 1 The author is a PhD student in International Relations at the Centre of International Studies, University of Cambridge, UK and a member of Wolfson College, Cambridge. UK.

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  • t An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities (ASN), Columbia University, New York, 4-7 April 2001. 1 Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley, 1985), xi. 2 Bernard Hoffman and Robert Stockwell, "Institutional Design in Plural Societies: Mitigating Ethnic Conflict and Fostering Stable Democracy", paper prepared for the University of Messina Conference on The Political Economy of Institutional Development, 1J-17 September 2000, at http:// www.democuci.edu democ/papersjstock.htm#N_1_

  • 3 George Schopflin, Nations, Identity, Power (London, 2000), 7, 65, 233.

  • 4 See Ruth Lapidoth, Autonomy: Flexible Solutions to Ethnic Conflict (Washington, 1996). See also Hurst Hannum, Autonomy, Souereignty and SeljDetermination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights (Philadelphia, 1996). 5 Patrick Thornberry, "Images of Autonomy and Individual and Collective Rights in International Instruments on the Rights of Minorities", in Markku Suksi (ed.), Autonomy: Applications and Implications (The Hague, 1996), 121-4. 6 Michael G. Smith, "Pluralism, Violence and the Modern State", in Ali Kazancigil (ed.), The State in Global Perspectiue (Paris, 1986); John S. Furnival, "Colonial Policy and Practice", in John Stone (ed.), Race, Ethnicity and Social Change (London, 1977); and John S. Furnival, The Netherlands India: A Study of Plural Economy (Amsterdam, 1986). ). See also Alvin Rabushka and Kenneth Schepsle, "Political Entrepreneurship and Patterns of Democratic Instability in Plural Societies", 12(4) Race (1971), 462, 467, 470; and Rabushka and Schepsle, Politics in Plural Societies: A Theory of Democratic Instability (Columbus, Ohio, 1972).

  • 7 Ian Lustick, "Stability in Deeply Divided Societies: Consociationalism versus Control", 31 World Politics (1979), 325-44. 8 See John Burton, Conflict: Resolution and Provention (New York, 1990); and id., "Unfinished Business in Conflict Resolution", in John Burton and Frank Dukes (eds.), Conflict:: Readings in Management and Resolution (London, 1990), 328-36. 9 See Arend Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration (New Haven, 1977); Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict; and Timothy Sisk, Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflict (New York, 1996). lo The term 'plural society' was originally defined by Harry Eckstein as a society "where political divisions follow very closely, and especially concern lines of objective social differentiation, especially those particularly salient in a society". See Harry Eckstein, Division and Cohesion in Democracy A Study oJ Norway (Princeton, 1966), 34. Building on Eckstein's definition, Lijphart calls such divisions 'segmental cleavages', thus defining a plural society as "a society divided by 'segmental cleavages' ... that may be of a religious, ideological, linguistic, regional, cultural, racial, or ethnic nature". See Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies ..., 3-4. " Horowitz indicates that deeply divided societies are those societies where "ethnic affiliations are powerful, permeative, passionate and pervasive". See Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Confiict, 12. In addition, Sisk argues that "the hallmark of a deeply divided society ... is the presence of separate organisations that permeate and divide every aspect of society on the basis of identity". See Sisk, Power Sharing ..., 15.

  • �z Sisk, Power Sharing ..., 48. 13 Ibid., 3-9.

  • " John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism: On Li6erty and Considerations on Representative Government (London, 1972), 361. 's See Inis L. Claude, National Minorities: An International, Pro6lem (Greenwood, 1969), 1. See also Richard A. Schemerhorn, Comparative Ethnic Relations (Chicago, 1978), 68. 16 Michael Walzer et al., The Politics of Ethnicity (Cambridge, MA, 1982), 6. " For a more detailed analysis of the incompatibility approach, see Stephen Ryan, Ethnic Confiict and International Relations (Aldershot, 1995), 29-43. '8 Furnival, "Colonial Policy and Practice"; Smith, "Pluralism, Violence and the Modern State". 19 Furnival, Netherlands India ..., 450-59.

  • 20 Schõpfun. Sations. Identity. Power, 232-=. 2' See e.g. Denisa Kostovicova. `Albanian Schooling in Kosovo 1992-1998: Liberty Imprisoned-. in K. Drezov, B. Gokay and D. Kostovicova teds.). Myths. Conflict and Bar, Southeast Europe Series (Keele, 1999). 22 Herb Feith and Alan Smith, "Self-Determination in the 1990s: Equipping the 1F\ to Resolve Ethno- National Conflicts", in Kumar Rupensighe led.). Conflict rransformation 1\ew Work. 1995). 153

  • 23 Kenneth D. McRae, "Theories of Power-Sharing and Conflict Management", in Joseph Montville (ed.), Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies (New York, 1991), 93. 24 Gerhard Lembruch, "A Non-Competitive Pattern of Conflict Management in Liberal Democracies: The Case of Switzerland, Austria and Lebanon", in Kenneth D. McRae (ed.), Consociational Democracy (Toronto, 1974), 91. z5 Lijphart, "Consociational Democracy", 21(2) World Politics (1969), 207-11. 26 Lembruch, Non-Competitive Pattern ..., 91.

  • 2 Lijphart, "Consociational Democracy ...", 207-25. 28 Ibid., 216. 29 Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies, 25-52. 3° Ibid.

  • 31 see Quincy Wright, "The Nature of Conflict", 4 Western Political Quarterly (1951), 192-211; Lijphart, "Consociational Democracy", 219. 'z Nordlinger, Conflict Regulation ..., 32. 33 See Arend Lijphart, "Power Sharing and Group Autonomy in the 1990s and the 21st Century" ( 1999), at http://www.nd.edu/-� kellogg/pdfs/Lijphart.pdf. " Lijphart, "Consociational Democracy", 219. 's See Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies ..., 36-8; Nordlinger, Conflict Regulation ..., 24-6. '6 For a useful critique of Lijphart's methodology and terminological inconsistencies, see also Rudy Andeweg, "Consociational Democracy", Annual Review of Political Science (2000), 509-36; and Ian Lustick, "Lijphart, Lakatos, and Consociationalism", 59 World Politics (1997), 88-177.

  • 37 Arend Lijphart, "Consociational Theory: Problems and Prospects". 13 Comparatire Politics (1981), 355-9. 'e Marcel van Schendelen, "The Views of Arend Lijphart and Collected Criticisms", 19 Acta Politica (1984). 31 (emphasis in the original). '9 Brian Barry, "Review Article: Political Accommodation and Consociational Democracy", 5 British Journal of Political Science (1975), 503. 40 See e.g. Arend Lijphart. The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands (Berkeley, 1975), 129-30. " Nordhnger, Conflict Regulation .... 24-6.

  • 42 Ibid., 73. a3 George Tsebelis, "Elite Interaction and Constitution Building in Consociational Democracies", 2(1) Journal of Theoretical Politics (1990), 5-29. See also Richard Rose, "Northern Ireland: The Irreducible Conflict", in Joseph Montville (ed.), Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies (New York, 1991), 148; Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Confiict, 568-76; id., A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society (Berkeley, 1991), 137-45. 44 Barry, "Review Article ...", 502. 45 Hans Daadler, "The Consociational Democracy Theme", 26 World Politics ( 1974), 604-21.

  • '6 Ibid., 618. °' Brendan O'Leary, The Nature of the Agreement, text to accompany the 9th John Whyte Memorial Lecture, 26 November 1998, at www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/home/publication/conference/ oleary.html. ae prend Lijphart, "The Puzzle of the Indian Democracy: A Consociational Interpretation", 90 American Political Science Review (1996), 258-68. 49 Robert H. Dix, "Consociational Democracy: The Case of Columbia". 12 Comparative Politics (1980), 303-21. so Matthew J. Gabel, "The Endurance of Supranational Governance: A Consociational Interpretation of the European Union", 30 Comparative Politics ( 1998), 463, 475. 51 sure M. Halpern, "The Disorderly Universe of Consociational Democracy", 9 11'ester European Politics ( 1986 ), 182.

  • 52 Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies ..., 238. 53 rid., Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in 21 Countries (New Haven, Conn., 1984). See also id., Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries (New Haven, Conn., 1999). sa Id., "Democratic Political Systems: Types, Cases, Causes, and Consequences", 1 Journal of Theoretical Politics (1989), 41. 55 rid., Patterns of Democracy ..., 275-301. For a more detailed criticism of Lijphart's consensus model, see also Andeweg, "Consociational Democracy", 512-4. ss pndeweg, "Consociational Democracy", 513. 57 Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, 563-684. 58 Ibid., 596.

  • 59Ibid., 291-443. 60 Ibid., 597-680. 61 Ibid., 598. sz Ibid_.602.

  • sa See Pippa Norris, "Designing Democracies: Institutional Arrangements and System Support", paper presented at the Workshop on Confidence in Democratic Institutions in Comparative Perspective, 25-27 August 1997, Washington DC. 64 Dennis Derbyshire and Ian Derbyshire, Political Systems of the World (New York, 1996). ss Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Confiict, 629-50. 66 Sisk, Power Sharing ..., 44. 67 Donald Horowitz, "Ethnic Conflict Management for Policymakers", in Joseph Montville (ed.), Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies (New York, 1991), 116. 68 Sisk, Power Sharing ..., 6.

  • 69 Ibid., 4. 70 Ibid., 77-80. 71 Ibid., 66-8. 72 Ibid., 82-5. '3 Ryan, Ethnic Confiict and International Relations, 49.

  • " See Carmen Kettley, James Sullivan and Jessie Fyfe, "Resolving Self-Determination Disputes Through Complex Power-Sharing Arrangements: A Background Paper for Debate" (Cambridge, 2001), pre- pared for the 1st workshop of the project Resolving Self-Determination Disputes Through Complex Power-Sharing Arrangements. 'S Jurg Steiner, "Research Strategies Beyond Consociational Democracy", 43 Journal of Politics (1981) 1241-50.

  • '6 For a valuable account of the challenges of transition in Central and Eastern Europe, see Pippa Norris, "Ballots not Bullets: Testing Consociational Theories of Ethnic Conflict, Electoral Systems and Democratisation", paper presented at the Institutional Conference of International Design, Conflict Management and Democracy in the Late Twentieth Century, Kellog Institute, University of Notre Dame, 9-11 December 1999. See also Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation (Baltimore/London, 1996), 434-57. " James Mayafl, "Sovereignty and Self-Determination in the New Europe", in Hugh Miall (ed.), Minority Rights in Europe: The Scope for a Transnational Regime (London, 1994), 13.

  • 'e Sisk, Power Sharing ..., 80-1. 79 Hannum, Autonomy. Sovereignty and Self-Determination ..., 73. 80 Louis Henkin, International Law: Politics. Values and Functions, 216(4) Recueil des cours (1989), 251.

  • 81 Sisk, Poxer Sharing ..., 8.

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