The 'Transdniestrian Moldovan Republic': From ConflictDriven State-Building to State-Driven Nation-Buildingt †

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  • 1 Professor of East European Cultural Studies, University of Leipzig, Germany.

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  • t The author thanks \ikolaj V. Babilunga (Tiraspol'), Alena Guboglo (Moscow), Gottfried Hanne (Chisinau) and Alia Skvortova (Chisinau,) for materials, advice and criticism, as well as Sarah Lemmen (Leipzig) for help with the translation. 1 Deutsche Presse-Agentur,'Smimov als Prdsident der Dnjestr-Republik bestatigt', Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 11 December 2001,1. 1. 2 Igor' N. Smimov, Zit' na nasej umle (Ioskva, 2001) 9-11. See also T G. Dejnenko et al., Igor'Nikolaevic Smirnov. Bibliograficeskij uknzatel' (Tiraspof, 2001) 3-4, as well as the 'official' biography of Smimov bv Anna Z. Volkova, Lider (Tiraspol', 2001). An electronic version of this book can be found on the website of the official Transdniestrian news agency Ofvija-Press at http://www.olvia.idknet.com. 3 In this article, the names of places under control ofTMR authorities are given in their Russian form, names of places under control of the Moldovan government in their Moldovan/Romanian format the first men- tioning, the equivalent of the other language is given in parenthesis.

  • 4 Oliver Hoischen,'Transnistrien ist zu einer Grauzone zwischen Ost und West geworden', FrankfurterAllge- meine Zeitung, 28 September 1999,3 ; Matthias Rub,'Das kleine Konigreicli des kleinen Lenin', Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9 January 2001, 6. 5 Walter Mayr,'Stalins letzte Kolonie', Der Spiegel, 2 October 2000,223. 6 R. S. S. Mancurtd in the Moldovan/Romanian original - alluding to CingizT Ajtmatov's Kazakh legend of the Mankurts. See Nicolae Dabija, Moldova de peste Nistru - verhi pamiut strdmoiesc (Chi�inàu, 1990), 4. 7 Scott Pegg, International Security and the De Farto State (Aldershot, 1998); Pal Kolsto, Unrerognized States Vs. Quasi-States in International Relations, unpublished MS, January 2003; and Vladimir Kolossov and John O'Loughlin,'Pseudo-States as Harbingers of a New Geopolitics: The Example of the Transdniestr Moldo- van Republik (TMR)', in David Newman (ed.), Boundaries, Territories and Postmodernity (London, 1999), 151-76. 8 On the TMR see Klemens Buscher, 'Separatismus in Transnistrien. Die 'PMR' zwischen Rumand und Moldova', 46 Osteuropa (1996), 860-75; Frank-Dieter Grimm, 'Transnistrien - ein postsowjetische Relikt mit ungewissen Perspektiven, 5(2) Europa Regional (1997), 23-34; Pal Kolsto and Andrei Malgin, 'The Transnistrian Republic: A Case of Politicized Regionalism', 26 Nationalities Papers (1998), 103-27; Con- stantin Chirosca, 'Ideologia Transnistreand', 10 Arena Politicii (1997), 21-2; Stefan Troebst, 'Separatistischer Regionalismus als Besitzstandswahrungsstrategie (post-)sowjetischer Eliten: Transnistrien 1989-2002', in Philipp Ther and Holm Sundhaussen (eds.), Regionale Bewegungen und Regionalismen in europliisrhen Zwischenraumen seit der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Marburg/L., 2003), 185-214; as well as the collection of documents V. F Gryzlova and M. N. Guboglo (eds.), Neprizuannaja respublika. Ocerki. Dokumeuty. Chrouika, 5 vols. (Moskva, 1997-1999).

  • 9 Figure given by TMR 'foreign minister' Valerij A. Lickaj during a meeting in Tiraspol' on 30 October 2001. The TMR census of 1 January 1998 put the number of inhabitants at 670,800, while in 1989 the figures came up to 770,000. Cf. 'Dniester Moldavian Republic', in Dniester Moldavian Republic, Atlas of the Dniester Moldavian Republic' (Tiraspof, 2nd ed. 2000), 3, and Nikolaj V. Babilunga et al., Fenomen PridnestrovJa (Tiraspof, 2000), 122. 10 Of these, about 80,000 fled to neighbouring as well as distant countries, mainly to Germany. See Valerij Mosnjaga [Valeriu Mo,sneaga�, 'Vooruzennyj konflikt v Respublike Moldova i problema peremescennych lic', Moldoscopie. Problemy politiéeskogo analiza. Sbornik statej, vol. VII (Chi�inàu, 1995), 82-126. 11 Vladimir Socor, 'Russia's Fourteenth Army and the Insurgency in Eastern Moldova', 1(36) Radio Free Europr/Radio Liberty Research Report (1992), 41-8. 12 Elfie Siegl, 'Der muhselige Weg der kleinen Moldau-Republik aus der Krise', Frankfurter Allgemeine Zei- tung, 3 December 2001,18. 13 Anatolij Gudym, Evolution of the Transnistrian Economy Critical Appraisal (Chisinau,, 2001), at http://www.cisr-md.org/reports/cont-transn.btml. For an official portrayal of the TMR industry, see A. Palamar' and N. Elagin, Izgotovleno v Pridnestrov'e. Reklamno-informacionnyj spravocnik (Tiraspol', 2000). 14 Michael Wines, 'Trans-Dniester `Nation' Resents Shady Reputation', New York Times, 5 March 2002, 3 at http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations/sovereign/statehood/expment/2002/0305trans.htm.

  • 15 For the conflicting aspects of Moldovan nation-building, see Charles King, The Moldovans. Romania, Russia, and the Politics ofCulture (Stanford, 1999); Id.,'Moldovan Identity and the Politics ofPan-Romanism',53(2) Slavic Review (1994), 345-68, and Claus Neukirch, Die Republik Moldau. Nations- und Staatsbildung in Osteuropa (Miinster,1996). On language issues, see Klaus Heitmann, 'Sprache und Nation in der Republik Moldova', in Wilfried Potthoff (ed.), Kon, ffiktregion Sudosteuropa. Yergangenheit und Perspektiven (Miinchen, 1997), 79-105; Klaus Bochmann, 'Moldauisch' oder 'Rumanisch'. Linguistische, kulturelle und politische Aspekte der Amtssprache', 36(3-4) Der Donauraum (1996), 95-102, and Charles King, Ambivalence of Authenticity, or How the Moldovan Language was Made', 58(1) Slavic Review (1999),117-42. 16 According to the last census in the USSR, in 1989 in Tiraspol'88% of the 196,000 inhabitants were Russians or Ukrainians. 70% of the 138,000 inhabitants of Bendery and 58% of the 700,000 inhabitants ofChisinau were non-Moldovans, i.e. mainly Eastern Slavs. Even the city of Balti with its purely Moldovan surround- ings has an absolute Russian-Ukrainian majority of 64%. See Valerij Mosnjaga et al., Konflikt v Moldove.. Opyt etnopoliticeskogo analiza (Kisinev,1992), 21. 17 Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestrov,Ja,1. 1. 18 King, The Moldovans .... 97.

  • 19 David D. Laitin, Identity in Formation. Tbe Russian-Speaking Populations in the NearAbroad (Ithaca, NY; London,1998), 330. See also Id., 'Secessionist Rebellion in the Former Soviet Union, 34 Comparative Politi- cal Studies (2001), 839-61 and Louk Hagendoorn et aL, Intergroup Relations in States of tbe Former Soviet Union. Tbe Perception of Russians (Philadelphia, PA, 2001), 70-71. 20 Uwe Halbach, 'Die Nationalitatenfrage: Kontinuitat und Explosivität', in Dietrich Geyer (ed.), Die Umwertung der sowjetischen Geschichte (Gottingen,1991), 211. 21 D.E Kondratovic, 'Pridnestrovskaja revoljucija, 1989-1992 gg.', 3 Ezegodnyj istoriceskij al'manach Pridnestrovja (1999), 23-25. 22 William Crowther, '�Ihe Politics of Ethno-National Mobilization: Nationalism and Reform in Soviet Moldavia', 50 Russian Review (1991), 183-203, at 189. See also Jeff Chinn and Steven D. Roper,'Ethnic Mobilization and Reactive Nationalism: The Case of Moldova', 23 Nationalities Papers (1995), 291-324.

  • 23 Stefan Troebst, "We Are Transnistrians!' Post-Soviet Identity Management in the Dniester Valley', 4(1) Ab Imperio (2003), 437-66. 24 V Ja. Grosul et al., Istorija Pridnestrovskoj Moldavskoj Respubliki v dvuch tomacb, vol. 1 (Tiraspol', 2000), 5. 25 Mark Bassin, 'Russia and Asia', in Nicholas Rzhevsky (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Russian Culture (Cambridge,1998), 57-84. See also Caroline Humphrey, "Eurasia', Ideology and the Political Imagination in Provincial Russia', in Christopher M. Hann (ed.), Postsocialism. Ideals, Ideologies and Practices in Eurasia (London; New York, NY, 2002), 258-76, and Marlene Laruelle, L'ideologie eurasiste russe ou comment peuser I'empire (Paris, Montreal, 1999). 26 Grosul et al., Istorija, 51-54. 27 N. V. Babilunga and B. G. Bomesko, Stranicy rodnoj istorii. Ujebnoe posobie po istorii dlj 5 klassa srednej fkoly (Tiraspol', 1997), inside cover. For the context, see also Stefan Troebst,'Wie ein skythischer Bogen. Transnistrien als slawisches Bollwerk zwischen dem Orient und Europa', FrankfurterAllgemeine Zeitung, 7 October 2002, 8, and on mental mapping in Eastern Europe in general,ld., "Intermarium'und' Vermahlung mit dem Meer': Kognitive Karten und Geschichtspolitik in Ostmitteleuropa', 28(3) Geschichte und Gesell- schaft (2002), 435-69.

  • 28 See the map 'Geopolitical Position in Dniester Moldavian Republic (ed.),Atlas..., 7. 29 For the term �t!31 1. Smimov, 'Pridnestrov'e - casticka velikogo rossijskogo gosudarstva', Dnestrovskaja pr-avda, 23 September 1995. 32 Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestrov�a, 245. See also Nicholas Dima, Moldova and the Transdnestr Republic. Russia's Geopolitia toward the Balkans (Boulder, CO; New York, NY, 2001).

  • 33 Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestrovja, 6. For a'forerunner' of this book see Nikolaj V. Babilunga and Boris G. Bomesko, Pridnestrovsk� konflikt.- Istoriceskie, demografifeskie i politiceskie aspekty (Tiraspol', 1998), and for an 'enlarged version' Grosul et al., Istor�a, 34 Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestrov�a, 6. 35 Ibid., 7. On the coining of the expression Moldavsk� Rur see ibid., 108. 36 David J. Meyer, `Why Have Donbas Russians Not Ethnically Mobilized Like Crimean Russians Have? An Institutional/Demographic Approach', in John S. Micgiel (ed.), State and Nation Building in East Central Europe: Contemporary Perspectives (New York, NY,1996), 317-30, at 328.

  • 37 King, The Moldovans .... 51-7. 38 Wim van Meurs, 'Carving a Moldovan Identity Out of History', 26 Nationalities Papers (1998), 39-56; Charles King, 'Ethnicity and Institutional Reform: The Dynamics of 1ndigenization' in the Moldovan ASSR', 26 Nationalities Papers (1998), 57-Tl; Id, `The Moldovan ASSR on the Eve of the War: Cultural Policy in 1930s Transnistfia, in Kurt W Treptow (ed.), Romania and World War 11 (lasi, 1996), 9-36. 39 Oleg Galuscenko, NaselenieMoldavskojASSR (1924-1940gg.J (Kišinev, 2001), 45. 40 Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestravja, 48.

  • 41 On the Gagauzes, a Turkic-speaking Christian-Orthodox group, see Paula Thompson, 'The Gagauz in Moldova and Their Road to Autonomy', in Magda Opalski (ed.), Managing Diversity in Plural Societies. Minorities, Migration and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Europe (Nepean, Ontario, 1998), 128-47; Jeff Chinn, Steven D. Roper, 'Territorial Autonomy in Gagauzia', 26(1) Nationalities Papers (1998), 87-101; Stefan Troebst, 'Von 'Gagauz HaJk¡' zu 'Gagauz Yeri': Die Autonomiebewegung der Gagausen in Moldova 1988-1998', 7(1) Ethos -Nation (1999), 41-54; on the Bulgarians of the Bugeac, Id.,'Die bulgarische Min- derheit Moldovas zwischen nationalstaatlichem Zentralismus, gagausischem Autonomismus und transnis- trischem Separatismus (1991-1995)', 44(9-10) Siidosteuropa (1995), 560-84.

  • 42 Accordingly, only 32.8% of all leading positions in the industry of the MSSR in 1989 were held by members of the titular nation. See Vladimir Solonari and Vladimir Bruter, 'Russians in Moldova', in Vladimir Shla- pentokh et al. (eds.), The New Russian Diaspora. Russian Minorities in the Former Soviet Republics (Armonk, NY; London,1994), 72-90, at 77. 43 Tat jana Mlecko, "Bereg levyj, bereg pravyj ...' Russkie v Moldavii', 5 Ross�skaja Federac�a (1997), 51-2, at 51. 44 Nu vrem sa fzm rom6ni.� See Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestrov'ja, 152. 45 Cemodan - vokzal - Ross�a! See I. F. Selivanova, 'Pridnestrovskij konflikt i problemy ego uregulirovanija', Ernopoliticeskie konflikty v postkommunisticeskom mire, vol. 2 (Moskva,1996), 3-25, at 4. 46 Cf. Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestrov'ja, 152. 47 For basic information, see Airat R. Aklaev, 'Dynamics of the Moldova-Trans-Drriester Ethnic Conflict (late 1980s to early 1990s)', in Kumar Rupesinghe and Valery A. Tishkov (eds.), Ethnicity and Power in the Contemporary World (Tokyo, 1996), 83-115 and Pal Kolsto et al., 'The Dniester Conflict. Between Irreden- tism and Separatism', 45 Europe Asia Studies (1993), 973-1000. From the Moldovan national point of view, see Conflictul din Transnistria: adev6rul a;a cum a fost el. Materialele conferin,tei stiintifico-practice 1nterese/e

  • de stat si rolul organelor de interne in asigurare ordinii constitutionale ji libertatilor omului in raionele de est ale Republicii Moldova' (Chisinau, 1996); Anatol Taranu, 'Pridnestrovskij konflikt v Respublike Moldova: protivostojanie identicnostej?', in Valeriu Mosneaga (ed.), Moldova intre Est si Vest. Identitatea nafionald si orientarea europeana (Chisinau, 2001), 255-73; Gheorghe E. Cojocaru, Separatismul in slujba Imperiului (Chisinau, 2000). For the Moldovan russophone point of view, see Petr M. Sornikov, Pokusenie na status. Etnopolitičeskie processy v Moldavii v gody krizisa 1988-1996 (Kisinev, 1997). The Transnistrian viewpoint is represented by Andrej Safonov,' 'Vzaimootnošenija Moldovy i Pridnestrov'Ja: Istorija problemy i perspektivy (osnovnye aspekty)', in Valeriu Mosneaga (ed.), Statul national ii societatea polietnica: Moldova in anii 90. Materiale 1 simpozion moldo-german (Cbi;in6u, 13-18 octombrie 1996) (Chisinau, 1997), 149-59, and Valerij A. Lickaj, 'Status i garantii', in Valeriu Mosneaga (ed.), Ot �no�o/!7<&�o�o konflikta k mežnacional'nomu sogla- s�u v Moldove. Materialy naučno-praktičeskogo seminara (Flensburg Germany, i B'erremark, Dan�a, 12-17 sentjabrja 1997) (Kisinev, 1998), 18-25. 48 See 'Postanovlenie Vtorogo Crezvycajnogo s-ezda narodnych deputatov vsech urovnej Pridnestrovskogo regiona, 2 sentjabrja 1990 g.', and 'Deklaracija ob obrazovanii Pridnestrovskoj Moldavskoj Sovetskoj Socialisticeskoj Respubliki', in Vasilij N. Jakovlev et al. (eds.), Bessarabskij vopros i obrazovanie Pridnestrov- skoj Moldavskoj Respubliki. Sbornik ofzcial'nycb dokumentov (Tiraspol', 1993), 82-4 and 85-90. See also Alek- sandr A. Karaman,'O samoprovozglasenii i priznanii Pridnestrovskoj Moldavskoj Respubliki', 4 Ezegodnyj istoričeskij al'manacb Pridnestrovya (2000), 4-12, and Vasilij N. Jakovlev, Ternistyj put' k spravedlivosti (Tira- spol', 1993), as well as Id., Tloleiz javlenie naroda vsesil'no i neotmenno (Tiraspol', 1995). 49 Klemens Buscher, 'Die `Staatlichkeit' Transnistriens - ein Unfall der Geschichte?', paper presented at the international conference 'Die 'zweite nationale Wiedergeburt'. Nationalismus, nationale Bewegungen und Nationalstaatsbildungen in der spat- und postkommunistischen Gesellschaft' at the University of Mannheim, Germany, 20-22 February 1998,16.

  • 50 See Z. G. Todorasko, Istorija gosudarstvennych ucrezdenij Pridnestrovskoj Moldavskoj Respubliki. 'fYsšie organy vlasti i upravlenija 1990-1995 (Tiraspol', 1999). 51 On the battle of Dubossary, see Nikolaj P. Rudenko, Dubossary - gorod zošéitnikov PMR (Dubossary, 1995) and Viktor V. Djukarev, Dubossary 1989-1992 gg. Za kulisami politiki (Tiraspol', 2000).

  • 52 For detailed reports on the fighting, see Erika Daley, Human Rights in Maldava. The Turbulent Dniester (New York, NY; Washington, DC,1993), 27-69, Neil V. Lamont, 'Territorial Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict. The Moldovan Case,1991-March 1993', 6(4) Journal of SlavicMilitary Studies (1993), 576-612 and `Doklad pravozascitnogo centra 'Memorial': Massovye i naibolee sereznye narusenija prav celoveka i polozenie v zone vooruzennogo konflikta v g. Bendery za ijun'-ijul' 1992 g.', Nexavisimaja gazeta, 22 September 1992, 4-S.'lhe Romanian point of view is represented by Victor Barsan, Masacrul inocen,tilor. Raxboiul din Moldova, 1 martie - 29 iulie 1992 (Bucuresti, 1993); the Moldovan one in Conflictul din Transnistria... ; the Russian one by Edward Ozhiganov, 'The Republic of Moldova: Transdniester and the 14th Army', in Alexei Arbatov et al. (eds.), Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Russian and American Perspectives, (Cambridge, London, 1997),145-209; the Transnistrian one by Grigorij V. Volovoj, Krovavoe leto v Benderach. Chronika London, 1997), 145-209; the Transnistrian one by Grigorij V. Volovoj, �?'o'Mfof /�o f �n�rafA. C�ron� pridnestrovskoj tragedii (Bendery, 1993); Nikolaj V. Babilunga and Boris G. Bomesko, Bendery: rasstrel'annye nepakorennye (Tiraspol', 1993); and Id., Kniga pamjati zašéÏtnikov Pridnestrovja (Tiraspol', 1995).

  • 53 JeffChinn,'The Case ofTransdniester (Moldova)',in Lena Jonson and Clive.-lrcher (eds.),Peacekeepingand the Role of Russia in Eurasia (Boulder, CO; Oxford 1996),103-120, and Gerald B.H. Solomon, Peacekeeping in the Transdniester Region. The Test Case for the CSCE. Report of tbe Political Committee of the North Atlantic Assembly. (Brussels,1994). 54 Concerning the negotiation process and the mediating role of the CSCE/OSCE see Gottfried Hanne's contribution to the present volume 'The Role and Activities of the OSCE Mission to Moldova in the Pro- cess of the Transdniestrian Conflict Resolution. 55 Kolsto, �'Ialgin,'The Transnistrian Republic...', 103-4.

  • 56 Stuart J. Kaufman and Stephen R. Bowers, 'Transnational Dimensions of the Transnistrian Conflict', 26 Nationalities Papers (1998),129-46. See also Stuart J. Kaufman, 'Spiraling to Ethnic War. Elites, Masses, and Moscow in Moldova's Civil War', 21 International Security (1996),108-38. 57 Gottfried Hanne, Der Transnishien-Konflikt: Ursachen, Entwicklungsbedingungen und Perspektiven einer Regulierung (Koln,1998), 3. 58 Andrew Williams, 'The Conflict in Transnistria: Its Dynamics and Possible Solutions', MS, Brussels, Ebenhausen 1998 (= Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik - Conflict Prevention Network Briefing Paper, 9 November 1998), 5. See the same in Leilah Bruton (ed.), 7he Republic of Moldova. Time for a New EU Strategy (Brussels, Ebenhausen, 1999), 45-56 (= Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik - Conflict Prevention Network Selected Contributions Nr. 5, and at http://www.swp-berlin.org/cpn/main/moldovsc.pdf). 59 Stefan Troebst, 'Der Transnistrienkonflikt und seine Bearbeitung durch die OSZE', in Giinter Baechler and Arno Truger (eds.), Friedensbericht 1998: llfrikanische Perspektiven: 7heorie und Praxis ziviler Konfliktbearbei- tung (Chur, Zilrich, 1998),347-79, at 358. 60 John O'Loughlin et al., 'National Construction, Territorial Separatism, and Post-Soviet Geopolitics in the Transdniester Moldovan Republic', 39 Post-Soviet Geography and Economics (1998), 332-58, at 332, and at http://www.colorado.edu/IBS/PEC/johno/pub/PsgeTMR.doc. 61 Ibid , 352.

  • 62 Valeriu Mosneaga and Alexei Tulbure, 'Some Aspects of the Trans-Dniestrian Problem', in Hans-Georg Ehrhart and Oliver Thranert (eds.), European Conflicts and International Institutions: Cooperating with Ukraine (Baden-Baden, 1998),135-144, at 136. 63 Mihai Gribincea, Trupele ruse in Republica Moldova: Factor stabilizator sau sursd de pericol2 (Chi�inau, 1998). 64 Babilunga and Bomesko, Pridnestrovskij konflikt ..., 3. 65 Ibid , 28 and 39. 66 Bijscher,'Die 'Staatlichkeit'Transnistriens ...', 2. 67 Ibid. 68 Ibid.,17.

  • 69 See, for example, Andrew Williams, 'Conflict Resolution After the Cold War: The Case of Moldova, 25 Review of International Studies (1999), 71-87; Stuart J. Kaufman, Modern Hatreds. The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War (Ithaca, NY; London, 2001), 129-63 and 241-47; Anatol Caranu, 'K voprosu o genezise pridnestrovskogo konflikta v Respublike Moldova', in Valeriu Mosneaga (ed.), Mežétniéeskie ornosenija v postkommunisticeskich gosudarstvach (Chisinau, 2002), 102-29; Gheorghe Balan, 'Cauzele conflictului transnistrean', in Valeriu Mosneaga (ed.), Minoritk,tile na,tionale;i relaliile interetnice - traditia europeana fi experienta noilor democratii pentru Moldova (la�i, 2002), vol.1,15-28. 70 Claus Neukirch, Konfliktmanagement und Konfliktpriivention im Rahmen von OSZE-Langxeitmissionen. Eine Analyse der Missionen in Moldau und Estland (Baden-Baden, 2003), and Klemens Buscher, Trans- nationale Bexiebungen der Russen in Moldova und der Ukraine. Ethnische Diaspora zwischen Residenz- und Referenzstaat (Frankfurt/M., forthcoming). 71 Alia Skvortsova, 'The Cultural and Social Makeup of Moldova: A Bipolar or Dispersed Society?', in Pal Kolst0 (ed.), National Integration and Violent Conflicts in Post-Soviet Societies. The Cases of Estonia and Moldova (Lanbam etc., 2002), 159-96; Igor Munteanu, 'Social Multipolarity and Political Violence', ibid., 197-231; and Claus Neukirch, 'Russia and the OSCE: The Influence of Interested Third and Disinterested Fourth Parties on the Conflicts in Estonia and Moldova, ibid., 233-48. 72 Pal Kolsto, 'Conclusion', ibid., 271.

  • 73 Ronald J. Hill, Soviet Political Elites. The Case ofTiraspol (London,1977),173. 74 Ibid. 75 Ibid,174. 76 Solonar, Bruter, 'Russians in Moldova', 76.

  • 77 D.F. Kondratovic, 'Predystorija Pridnestrovskoj Moldavskoj Respubliki', 1 Ezegodnyj istoriéeskij al'manach Pridnestrov fa (1997), 57-59, at 57. 78 Dan Ionescu, 'Media in the 'Dniester Moldovan Republic': A Communist Memento', 1(19) Transition (1995),16-20. 79 Troebst, "We Are Transnistrians!", Id. 'Staatlichkeitskult im Pseudostaat. Identitatsmanagement in Transd- nistrien, 53(7) Osteuropa (2003), 963-83, as well as Alia I. Skvortova,'Transnistrian People - an Identity of Its Own?', 1(1) Moldovan llcademic Review (2002) (Special Topic Issue'Dniestria: From Past to Future'), at http://www.iatp.md/academicreview/l/en/article2.htm, and Vladimir Solonari, 'Creating 'a People': a Case Study in Post-Soviet History Writing', 4(2) Kritika (2003), 411-32. 80 Grimm, 'Transnistrien ...'. 81 Dan Ionescu, `Life in the Dniester 'Black Hole", 2(20) Transition (1996),12-14; Julie Mostov, 'Trading Pri- orities: Transdniestria and the Moldovan Economy', 9 analysis of Current Events (1997) 7, 3 and 11;'Sharp Drop in Value ofTransdniester Ruble', 2(54) Radio Free EuropelRadio Liberty Newsline (1998).

  • 82 For example, TZAR Minister of Defence col. Stefan F Kicak during the 1 Mav celebrations of 2002 in Tiraspol' harshlv criticized 'the complaisance of Russia with regard to the advance of NATO to the East'. Russia, he warned, runs the risk that it will 'degenerate into a mere Principality of Muscovy'. See Tatjana Georgiu, 'Pridnestrovcy wstupajut za samostojatel'nost' svoego gosudarstva, Ol'tya-Press. Informacionnoe agentstvo, 1 May 2002, at http://www.olvia.idknet.com/oI03-05-02.htm. 83 Gurij V. Sudakov,'Sest' principov russkosti, ili Kogda v Rossii pojavitsja praznik Datskogo korolevstva?', Rossijskaia gazeta, 17 September 1999, 4. 84 Ibid. 85 Nikolaj V. Babilunga, 'Territorjafnaja identicnost' kak faktor politiceskoj stabil'nosti Pridnestrov�a, in Michail X. Guboglo (ed.), Etniceskaia mobiliwc�a i mežitničeskaja integracijz (A loskva, 1999), 192. 86 Ibid. See also :\lichaiJ \. Guboglo, 'Meznacional'naja naprjazennost v real'nosti i v predstavlenijach grazdan', in Guboglo (ed.), Etnifeskaia mobiliwc�a, 172-8-t; and Nikolaj V. Babilunga, 'Etniceskaja identicnost naselenija Pridnestrov ja', Etnifeskaja mobilizacija i mežitničeskaja integracija: Istorija. Faktory. Gorizonty. Naučno-praktičeskaja konferencija. 29 sentjabrja 1998g. Doklady i soobšèenija (Kišinev, 1999), 30-2. 87 Vladimir Kolossov,'t1 Small State vs. a Self-Proclaimed Republic: Nation-Building, Territorial Identities and Prospects of Conflict Resolution (The Case of Moldova-Transdniestria)', in Stefano Bianchini (ed.). From the Adriatic to the Caucasus. The Dynamics of(De)Stabilization (Ravenna, 2001), 98-104.

  • 88 Ibid.,100-1. 89 Ibid., 101. 90 I. Smirnov,'Dorogie citateli!', in Babilunga et al., Fenomen Pridnestrovya ..., 3. 91 Ibid. 92 That Zenovic was perceived by Smirnov as a serious competitor is demonstrated by the fact that the latter in his capacity as president dismissed Zenovic as mayor of Bendery at the peak of the election campaign. See Aleksandr Isaev,'Ljuboj cenoj uderzat'sja u vlasti. Smescen s dolznosti glavnyj sopernik Smirnova na prezidentskich vyborach v Pridnestrov'e', Nezavisimaia Moldova,1 1 November 2001,1. 1.

  • 93 In an interview on 13 September 1997 in Flensburg. 94 Safonov, `Vzaimootno'seniia Moldovy i Pridnestrov'ja, 153. 95 'Novaja stolica Pridnestrovja (k voprosu ob-edinenija Tiraspolja i Bender)', O!'vija-press, 29 May 2002, at http://www.olvia.idknet.com/ol72-05-02.htm. 96 My - pridnestrovcy! Nas ne li'sit' istorii, imeni, rodnogo jazyka, nacional'noj kul'tury. PMR tomu garantija'. Benderskij istoriko-kraevedceskij muzej.

  • 97 Mathias Bernath,'Das mazedonische Problem in der Sicht der komparativen Nationalismusforschung', 29 Südost-Forschungen (1970), 244. For the decisive decade of Macedonian nation-building, see Stefan Troebst, 'Yugoslav Macedonia, 1943-1953: Building the Party, the State and the Nation, in Melissa K. Bokovoy et al. (eds.), State-Society Relations iu Yugoslavia,1945-1992 (New York, NY,1997), 243-66. 98 See Miroslav Hroch,'Real and Constructed: the Nature of the Nation', in John A. Hall (ed.), The State if/he Nation. Ernest Gellner and the Theory ofNationalism (Cambridge, 1998), 91-106. 99 Laitin, Identity..., 260. On the Ruritanians-Megalomanians metaphor, see Ernest Gellner, Nations and Natioualism (Ithaca, NY,1983), 58-62. 100 Laitin, Identity..., 330. 101 Ulrich Schneckener, 'Sezession als Konfliktiosung - Unabhangigkeit fur Montenegro und Kosovo?', 29 Leviathan (2001), 314-36. See also !d., Auswege aus dem Burgerkrieg. Modelle zur Regulierung ethno-national- istischer Konflikte in Europa (Frankfurt/M., 2002).

  • 102 ZUBR stands for Za Soiux Ukrainy, Belorussii i Rossii ('For a Union of the Ukraine, Belarus' and Russia). Yet the Russian word zubr, meaning literally wisent, i.e. a European bison, in a figurative sense also stands for an arch-reactionary 103 Taras Kuzio, `History, Memory and Nation Building in the Post-Soviet Colonial Space', 30 Nationalities Papers (2002), 257. For the zigzag course in the post-Soviet continuation of Soviet-style Moldovan nation- building by indigenization, see Charles King, `Moldovan Identity and the Politics of Pan-Romanianism', 53 Slavic Review (1994), 345-68; Vladimir Solonari. narrative, Identity, State: History Teaching in Moldova', 16 East European Politics and Society (2002),4L5-45; Sergei Musteata, "My - ruinyn3t��'Prepodavanie istorii v Respublike Moldova v poslednie desjat' let', 4(1) Ab Imperio (2003), 467-84; and Andrei Cusco, Viktor Taki, "Kto my?' Istoriograficeskij vybor: rumynskaja nacija ili moldavskaja gosudarstvennost", ibid., 485-95. 104 Andrej Mospanov, 'Pridnestrove: Trudnyj put' k Evropu', OI'v�a-Press, 25 December 2002, at http//www.olvia.idknet.com/oll09-12-02.htin. The fact that this report was published by the official TMR press agency indicates that the 'Za Evropu. Vzaimoporrimanie i sotrudnicestvo' NGO led by the journalist Anatolij Panin has considerable support from above. 105 'Moskovskie itogi: Vse-taki na dogovornoj osnove', OI'v�a-Press,19 December 2002, at http://www.olvia.idknet.com/ol84-12-02.htm.

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