1 Pierre Joxe, LEdit de Nantes: une histoire pour aujourd'hui (Paris, 1998), 10-1 (emphasis added). 2 Jean Pierre Chevenement, Allocution a 1'occasion de fordination episcopale de Mgr Joseph Dore, nouvel Archeveque de la ville", speech given by the Minister of the Interior in Strasbourg, 23 November 1997 (emphasis added); this formulation is inspired by the historian Maurice Agulhon, who stated: "If there is room for three then there is room for four at the Table of the Republic".
3 The trajectory of political negotiations and institutional designs of Islam councils that have taken shape during the period of incorporation (1989-2004) are reconstructed in this article using interview material from forty-eight interviews with bureaucrats, politicians and religious com- munity leaders conducted by the author in France from 2000 to 2003.
4 See, for example, Adrian Favell, Philosophies oflntegration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain (London, New York, 1998). 5 Alain Boyer, L'islam en France (Paris, 1998).
6 John Locker Letter Concerning Toleration (Cambridge, 1983 (1689]), 21-58. 7 Chevenement, "Allocution ...". Minister of the Interior Nicolas Sarkozy (2002-2004) echoed Chevenement's sentiments in a 15 September 2003 interview in Le Figaro, stating that "[w]e cannot ask Muslims in France to respect the values of the Republic if we do not invite them to 'the table of the republic: I am of the belief that a humiliated identity is a radicalized identity." 8 Favell, Philosophies oflntegration ...; and Patrick Ireland, 1he Policy Challenge OfEthnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland (Cambridge, 1996). 9 Felice Dassetto, La Construction de 11slam Europeen (Paris, 1996). The Ministries of Agriculture, Foreign Affairs and Education could all play the same roles they already play in these realms for Catholic, Protestant and Jewish faiths. 10 Peter Hall "Policy Paradigms, Social Learning and the State: The Case of Economic Policy making in Britain," 25 Comparative Politics (1993), 275-9.
11 Ibid. 12 Jean-Louis Debre, En mon for interieur (Paris, 1997). 13 Michele Tribalat, Faire Frances une grande enquete sur les immigres et leurs enfants (Paris, 1995). 14 The law did not apply to France's overseas departments and territories; the French colonial administration in Algeria used religion as an instrument of social control, selecting friendly imams and withholding support from unofficial prayer spaces, not unlike the Turkish system today. A decree issued in the departements of Algeria (two years after the 1905 law) put imams under state training and employment, viewing them as foot soldiers of the secularization proj- ect and overall mission civilisatrice. 15 Boyer, L'islam en France .... 16 Ann Swidler, "Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies," 51(2) American Sociological Review (1986), 273-86; Hall, "Policy Paradigms ...". 17 Hall, "Policy Paradigms ... ". 18 Ibid. 19 Tribalat, Faire France ....
20 Dominique Andolfatto et al., L'dtat de la France 2002 (Paris, 2001). 21 Gilbert Charles and Jean-Sebastien Stehli, "Ou en sont les beurs", L'Express, 8 November 2001. 22 Personal interview by the author with Jean-Pierre Chevenement, Paris, 25 November 2003. 23 Interview with Mouloud Aounit, president of the anti-racist association and a member of the French Communist Party, in Le Nouvel Observateur, 15 October 2003. 24 Olivier Roy, L Islam Globalise (Paris, Seuil, 2002), 117.
25 The unpublished study, "L'Islam a fecole," was conducted by Khadija Mohsen-Finan and Vin- cent Geisser for an Interior Ministry think tank, made among 210 Muslim (42%) and 390 non-Muslim (58%) students; see "L'islam a 1'ecole," in Le Monde, 11 May 2002. 26 Ibid. 27 Joel Fetzer, and J.C. Soper, "Accomodating the Religious Practices of Muslim Immigrants in England, France and Germany,°paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2001. 28 Erik Bleich, Race Politics in Britain and France: Ideas and Policymaking since the 1960s (Cambridge, 2003). 29 Rene Remond, Religion and Society in Modern Europe (London, 1999).
30 Ibid. 31 Carolyn M. Warner and Manfred W. Wenner,"Organizing Islam for Politics in Western Europe," 2003 PRPES Working Paper No. 17, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University; Ruud Koopmans et al., Contested Citizenship (Minnesota, forthcoming). 32 Aristide Zolberg and Litt Woon Long "Why Islam is Like Spanish: Cultural Incorporation in Europe and the United States", 27(1) Politics and Society (1999), 5-38, at 14. 33 Dassetto, La construction de I'islam europeen ..., 160.
34 Roy, L1slam Globalise....
35 Nicolas Beau, Paris, Capitale Arabe (Paris, Seuil, 1995). 36 Le Monde, 12 December 2002. 37 Anonymous author, "Algerie enquete sur le Centre Technique d'Evry," 398 Africa Intelligence (17 December 1998), 24. 38 Hakim El Ghissassi, "La mosquee de Paris restauree grace aux deniers de la France, de 1'Algerie et de 1'Arabie saoudite", La Medina, Decembre 2003. 39 Though several imams have been deported for preaching violence in their sermons, an IHESI study of Friday sermons 2001-02 concluded that "Jihad is not generally being preached in the mosques of France"; Xavier Ternisien, La France des Mosquies (Paris, 2002).
40 The Ministry of the Interior uses the lower figure of 880, cf. interview with Nicolas Sarkozy in Le Figaro, 30 April 2003. 41 Ternisien, La France des Mosquees ..., 55. 42 A programme called "teaching of cultures and languages of origin" (ELCO) was sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which granted stipends to foreign imams. 43 Joxe, L'edit de Nantes..., 338. 44 Jonah D. Levy, Tocqueville's Revenge: State, Society, and Economy in Contemporary France (Cam- bridge, 1999). 45 Ibid , 69.
46 Pierre Joxe, "L'Exemple protestant peut-il etre utile," 27(1) French Politics, Culture and Society (forthcoming, 2005). 47 Joxe would later become president of the Protestant Federation, following a trajectory not unlike that of Adolphe Cremieux, the 19th century Minister of the Interior who presided over the Alli- ance Israelite Universelle. 48 The account of the CORIF creation is reconstructed from the author's interviews in spring 2002 with Pierre Joxe and his advisor on Islam, Raoul Weexsteen. 49 Interview by the author with Raoul Weexsteen, June 2002; Tedjini later even served on the five- member Algerian executive governing board after the cancellation of Algerian national elections in 1991.
52 Glenn R. Simpson and John Carreyrou, "Saudi Rulers Were Told of Extremism Funding", Wall Street Journal,13 January 2004; Beau, Paris, Capitale Arabe ..., 241. 53 The five organizations were the Grande Mosquee de Paris, the Federation Nationale des Musulmans de France, the Union des Organisations Islamiques de France, the Tabligh, and the Association des Etudiants Islamigues de France. 54 This organization was created on 20 November 1993. 55 It is not yet clear why this alliance fell through, though it is possible that Moroccan diplomacy led an effort against their exclusion. 56 On 22 November 1995, the leaders Kali, Kebtane, Dahmane, Mebtoul, Kari all defected; cf. Boyer, L'islam en France ..., 218.
57 Debre, En mon, for intéreiur ..., 97. 58 Ibid., 98. 59 Ibid., 99. 60 The decree of 27 June 1996 by the Ministry of Agriculture ended the surveillance of Larbi Kechat; cf. Hakim El ghissassi, "Les secrets de Sarkozy dans la representativite de l'islam en France", 4 Islam (2003), 6-10. 61 Boyer, L'islam en France ..., 318.
62 Chevenement, "Allocution ...". ". 63 The three advisors with Didier Motchane, Alain Billon and Stephane Godard. The other three religions (Protestant, Jewish, Catholic) were covered by a single advisor. 64 The total number of members was eventually twenty, as opposed to the CORIF's fifteen mem- bers.
65 The original expression was "affirm their attachment," not "confirm." 66 Interview with Alain Billon, 2 La Medina (2000), 9-12. 67 "L'Accord-cadre sur 1'organisation future du culte musulman en France", Ministere de l'int6rieur (Paris, 2001).
68 Xavier Ternisien, "Press6s par les attentats, les musulmans se préparent à 61ire leurs repr6sen- tants", Le Monde,13 October 2001. 69 Ibid.
70 992 of 1,200 mosques joined, with low abstention rates (between 1 and 12 %) in the first round of votes in April 2003.
64 members: 23 appointed, 41 indirectly elected Indirectly elected members of Administrative Council (electoral college of 4,042) elected by mosque delegates; proportional method of election Results of elections on 6 and l3 April 2003: - FMNF: 16 - UOIF: 13 - GMP: 6 - CCMTF: 2 - Independents: 4
71 Alain Billon, "Les Choix Ideologiques de la Consultation," 27(1) French Politics, Culture and Society (2005, forthcoming). 72 Interview with Nicolas Sarkozy, Le Figaro,18 September 2003. 73 John Keeler, 7be Politics of Neocorporatism in France: Farmers, the State, and Agricultural Policy- Making in the Fifth Republic (New York, 1987); Frank Wilson, Interest Group Politics in France (Ithaca, 1987); Levy, Tocqueville's Revenge ....
74 Boyer, L'islam en France .... 75 Phyllis Cohen Albert, The Modernization of French Jewry: Consistory and Community in the Nine- teereth Century (Waltham, 1977). 76 Levy, Toqueville's Revenge ...,10. 77 Peter Hall and John Keeler, "Interest Representation and the Politics of Protest" in Develop- ments in French Politics (2) (London: Palgrave, 2001). 78 Levy,Tocqueville's Revenge. 79 Stanley Hoffmann, In Search of France (New York, 1963), 62.
80 Jacques Berque,11 Reste un Avenir (Paris, 1993), 203. 81 Philippe Schmitter and Gerhard Lehmbruch (eds.), Trends Toward Corporatist Intermediation (London,1979). 82 Bruno Jobert and Pierre Muller, L Etat en action (Paris, 1987).
83 J.T. Winkler, "Law, State and Society: the Industry Act of 1975 in Context" 2(2) BritishJour- nal ofLaw and Society (1979),103-28, at 111. 84 Confidential interview by the author with an advisor to the French Minister of the Interior, November 2003. 85 Tariq Modood, "Multiculturalism, Secularism and the State," 1(3) Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy (1998),100-LS, at 114.