Encyclopaedia Iranica

Editor: Elton L. Daniel
The Encyclopædia Iranica is dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent. It also includes scholarly articles related to the reciprocal influences between Persia and its neighbors, extending from pre-history to the present. The disciplines represented include: anthropology, archaeology, geography, art history, ethnology, sociology, economics, history of religion, philosophy, mysticism, history of science and medicine, Islamic history, botany, zoology, folklore, development of agriculture and industry, political science, international relations, and diplomatic history.
Editor-in-Chief
Elton L. Daniel

Editorial Staff
Mohsen Ashtiany, Associate Editor
Marisa McCrone, Managing Editor
Mahnaz Moazami, Associate Editor
The Encyclopædia Iranica is of interest to a broad general readership, scholars, specialists, and students in Iranian studies and related fields.