Big Swords, Jesuits, and Bondelswarts, John S. Lowry demonstrates that anti-imperialist resistance movements overseas significantly shaped the course of Wilhelmine domestic politics between 1897 and 1906. In 1898 and 1900, for example, the consequences of Chinese, Cuban, and Samoan resistance permitted Berlin to steer two large naval laws through the Reichstag by enabling the government to garner critical votes from the Catholic Center Party through pro-Catholic gestures overseas, rather than via repeal of the Anti-Jesuit Law at home. By contrast, after 1903 costly uprisings throughout German-occupied Africa generated acute fiscal concerns among Center Party delegates, and African civilian protests against colonial misrule aroused missionary and Centrist ire. Lowry emphasizes that the ensuing Reichstag dissolution of 1906 arose much more directly from African factors than previous scholarship has recognized.
John S. Lowry, Ph.D. (Yale University, 1999), is Associate Professor of Modern German and European History at Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. His research interests include German imperialism, political Catholicism, and church-state relations.
Acknowledgments ... ix
List of Abbreviations ... xi
List of Maps ... xiii
Introduction ... 1
Part ... 1 The Center, the Kulturkampf, and the Colonies
1 A Profile of the German Center Party, 1897–1906 ... 17
2 Anticlericalism and the Scars of the Kulturkampf, 1864–1904 ... 37
3 The German Colonies: Topography, Resistance, and the Catholic Missions ... 55
4 Prologue: The Catholic Center and German Colonial Politics, 1884–1897 ... 97
Part 2 Chinese, Cuban, and Samoan Resistance: The Loom, 1897–1903
5 Big Swords and Battleships, 1897–1898 109
6 Cubans, Samoans, Red Fists, and the New Naval Law, 1898–1900 128
7 Jesuit Collision to Yihetuan Diversion, 1900–1901 175
8 China, Kamerun, and the New Tariff Law, 1901–1903 203
Part 3 African Resistance: The Wedge, 1903–1906 9 Thunderclouds from Africa, 1903–1905 ... 215
10 The Colonial Tempest, 1905–1906 ... 268
11 The Breach, Mid to Late 1906 ... 304
Conclusion ... 336
Sources ... 341
Index ... 369
All scholars, graduate students, and advanced undergraduate students interested in imperialism, Wilhelmine Germany, political Catholicism, or anticlericalism as well as those concerned with Sino-German or Afro-German interactions circa 1900.