Denmark and the Crusades, 1400-1650

Series:

This first full-length study of the role of crusading in late-medieval and early modern Denmark from about 1400 to 1650 offers new perspectives to international crusade studies. The first part of the book proves that crusading had a tremendous impact on political and religious life in Scandinavia all through the Middle Ages. Danish kings argued in the fifteenth century that they had their own northern crusade frontier, which stretched across Scandinavia from Russia in the east well into the North Atlantic and Greenland in the west. A series of expeditions in the North Atlantic were considered to be crusades aimed at re-conquering Greenland as a stepping stone towards India and the realm of Prester John, which was argued to be originally Danish, adding a much neglected corner to the expansion of Christendom in this period. The second part shows that the impact of crusading continued long after the Reformation ostensibly should have put an end to its viability within Protestant Denmark.
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Biographical Note

Janus Møller Jensen, Ph.D. (2005) in medieval history, University of Southern Denmark, is associate professor at the University of Southern Denmark. He has published in Danish, English and German on the history and historiography of the crusades.

Table of contents

List of Illustrations .. ix
List of Maps .. xi

Preface .. xvii

Introduction .. 1
Crusade Historiography in Denmark .. 2
The Golden Age .. 5
New Trends .. 9
International Crusade Historiography .. 13
Denmark in the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period .. 24

PART ONE: CRUSADES AT THE ENDS OF THE EARTH, 1400–1523

Chapter One: Kalmar Union and the Crusade, 1397–1523 .. 35
Denmark and the Crusade in the Fourteenth Century .. 35
Valdemar IV and the Crusade .. 39
Crusades and Herrings .. 46
Crusades in Scandinavia 1400–1448 .. 50
Papal Collectors .. 51
The Crusade and the Teutonic Knights .. 54
Crusades against the Hussites .. 56
Denmark and the Hussite Crusades .. 59
Christopher of Bavaria and the Crusade .. 68
Christian I and Crusades against the Turk 1448–1481 .. 70
The Norwegian Problem .. 70
Crusades against the Turks and Peace in the North .. 74
The Fall of Constantinople .. 77
The Northern Frontier .. 82
The Collection of Funds by Marinus de Fregeno .. 92
The Crusade of Pius II .. 96
From Ancona to the Fall of Negroponte 1464–1470 .. 97
Preaching the Crusades .. 104
Spreading the Word .. 111
Crusade Liturgy .. 113
Letters of Indulgence .. 121
Crusading Nuns .. 124
Crusade Literature .. 127
Crusades against the Russians .. 132
King Hans and the Crusade against the Turk .. 148
Christian II and the Crusade: Part I .. 154

Chapter Two: Greenland and the Crusades .. 159
The Forgotten Periphery .. 160
The Skrælings .. 163
The Heathens of the Far North .. 171
Crusade in the Atlantic .. 181
The Southern Front .. 183
The Northern Front .. 185
Danish Crusades to India .. 190
Danish Crusades in India .. 197
Conclusions: The Forgotten Crusades .. 203

PART TWO: CRUSADES AFTER THE REFORMATION

Chapter Three: Crusade and Reformation .. 209
Christian II and the Crusade: Part II .. 210
Exile, Protestantism, and the Crusade .. 210
The Last Danish Crusade? .. 219
Martin Luther and the War against the Turk .. 220
Luther and the Turkish Advance .. 222
Secular War and Martyrdom .. 229
Ob Kriegsleute auch in seligem Stande sein können? .. 236
The War against the Turks .. 241
The Right Intention .. 251
Apocalyptic Thoughts Concerning the Turk .. 253
Liturgical War against the Turks .. 256
Conclusions .. 262

Chapter Four: Protestant Crusades? .. 267
Christian III and War against the Turks .. 268
Paulus Helie and the Lutheran Turks .. 270
Denmark, Protestantism, and the Crusade .. 272
Spiritual Warfare against the Turks .. 275
Peder Palladius and the Turks .. 277
Protestantism and Religious War, 1559–1648 .. 283
Liturgical Warfare .. 289
The war against the Turks .. 294
The Turks in the North Atlantic .. 296
Pilgrims to the Holy Sepulchre .. 301
Crusade in Literature and Print .. 309
Prince Svend .. 316
The Order of the Armed Arm .. 317
The Knights of Saint John in Scandinavia .. 318
Orders of Chivalry in Denmark .. 321
The Order of the Elephant .. 321
The Legend and the Order of Dannebrog .. 327
Denmark in the Thirty Years’ War .. 331
The Lion of the North .. 333
Explanations for Defeat .. 335
Conclusion .. 339

Appendix A .. 349

Illustrations

Bibliography .. 353
Manuscript Sources .. 353
Abbreviations .. 353
Literature and Sources .. 355

Index .. 389

Readership

All those with a special interest in crusade studies, holy war, Scandinavian history, and the age of discovery in the medieval and early modern period.

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