A Spirited Exchange

The Wine and Brandy Trade between France and the Dutch Republic in its Atlantic Framework, 1600-1650

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This study bridges economic and social history, and forces a reassessment of four early modern historiographies: Dutch, French, Jewish, and Atlantic. The trade along the North Sea and Atlantic coasts of Europe has been given relatively little attention in comparison with trans-oceanic and Baltic commerce. Wine and brandy were among the key commodities shipped from south-western to northern Europe, so new evidence on the alcohol trade enables us to properly recognize the impact of this sector on the economies of France, the Dutch Republic, and the Atlantic world. Transnational in scope, this book underscores the importance of the interconnecting personal networks of Dutch, Sephardic Jewish, and New Christian merchants along the shores of Europe.
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Biographical Note

Henriette de Bruyn Kops, professional name: Henriette Rahusen, Ph.D. (2005) in History, Georgetown University, is Research Associate in the Department of History and Lecturer in the School of Continuing Studies at Georgetown University. Her article, "Not such an 'unpromising beginning': the first Dutch trade embassy to China, 1655-1657", appeared in Modern Asian Studies 36, no. 3 (2002). The author's doctoral thesis won the Glassman Dissertation Award in the Humanities at Georgetown University, 2006.

Review Quotes

'....a valuable and interesting study of a type of commerce, short-run coastal trade, that historians have tended to neglect. ....an important step in the task of placing intra-European trade into the larger framework of Atlantic commerce'
Gayle K. Brunelle. The American Historical Review, 113:895–896, June 2008

"...an ambitious study of the commercial world of the eastern Atlantic. The book’s scope quickly spills out beyond the relatively simple issue of wine and brandy and grows to include much of the Dutch merchant enterprise along the whole Atlantic coast, from Spain to the Baltic. Professor de Bruyn Kops makes a convincing case that the Dutch had created a vast and intricate network tying together the trade of the whole seaboard and she has probably found as much evidence for it as anyone will."
Thomas Brennan, H-France Review Vol. 9 (October 2009), No. 132, 557-559.

"plus qu’a retablir une hierarchie entre les trois grandes branches du commerce maritime hollandais, de Bruyn Kops vise donc a demontrer leur essentielle complementarite comme leur profonde interdependance. Elle y parvient brillamment, et ouvre du meme coup la voie a une relecture en profondeur des travaux d’historiens aussi eminents que Jan de Vries, Ad Van der Woude et Jonathan Israel"
Mathieu Grenet, European Review of History—Revue europe´enne d’histoire, Vol. 16, No. 4, August 2009, 597–608

“a spirited exchange about history and historical methods. Henriette de Bruyn Kops's work connects conversations across several significant historiographical divides…. a work that shifts between the macro- and micro-levels of conceptualization and perspective and one that constitutes a refreshing attempt to marry the two research traditions in a way that would be palatable to both sides.”
Laura E. Cruz. Review of Kops, Henriette de Bruyn, _A Spirited Exchange: The Wine and Brandy Trade between France and the Dutch Republic in Its Atlantic Framework, 1600-1650_. H-Atlantic, H-Net Reviews. September, 2010. URL: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=30928

Table of contents

List of illustrations and maps
List of tables and graphs
Preface

INTRODUCTION
1. The coastal trade in French wines and brandy
2. Case studies: Nantes and Rotterdam
3. Periodization and historiography
4. Structure of the book

CHAPTER ONE
THE DUTCH COMMUNITY IN NANTES
1. Numbers and settlement trends
2. Anti-Dutch polemics and violence
3. Living conditions and issues of integration

CHAPTER TWO
ROTTERDAM'S WINE TRADERS AND THEIR BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
1. Importers, wholesalers, and distillers
2. Economic power and political power
3. Partnerships
4. Overlapping commodity markets and diversification
5. Immigrants from the Spanish Netherlands
6. Family life, education, and professional training

CHAPTER THREE
NANTES AND THE OTHER FRENCH SUPPLY ZONES
1. Sources and their limitations
2. The sixteenth century
3. The development of the brandy trade
4. Adulterating the wines
5 The production process
6. The alcohol exports from Nantes and Dutch shipping
7. The alcohol exports from other French ports by the Dutch
8. French alcohol and the Baltic market


CHAPTER FOUR
THE DUTCH WHOLESALE MARKET AND CONSUMPTION
1. Consumption patterns and the Pryscouranten
2. Quantifying the alcohol imports from Nantes
3. The domestic wholesale market for wines and brandy
4. Consumption patterns and impost issues


CHAPTER FIVE
THE SEPHARDIC NETWORK AND THE DUTCH
1. Sephardic settlement in the Republic in an Atlantic perspective
2. The Sephardim of Rotterdam
3. The Sephardim of Nantes and their interactions with the Dutch community
4. Overlapping networks and the silver trade
5. The Espinozas of Nantes and the Dutch Spinozas
6. Evading the Spanish embargoes via Hamburg, Nantes, and Bayonne

CHAPTER SIX
THE COASTAL TRADE AND THE DUTCH-ATLANTIC ECONOMY
1. The three legs of the Dutch maritime economy
2. Quantifying the imports from France
3. The relative value of the French trade within the Dutch economy
4. The alcohol trade and the 'Convoy & Licenses' data
5. Trading across the Oceans and along the coasts
6. The 'Rubik’s Cube' model of international trade

APPENDICES
I. Measures
II. Exchange rate livres tournois – guilders, 1595 - 1672
III. Dutch maritime imports, 1634
IV. Verifiable presence of Dutchmen listed in the1645 Moyens d'Intervention
V. Clustered sailings from Nantes to the Dutch Republic in 1631

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Archival sources and abbreviations
2. Printed primary sources
3. Secondary sources

INDEX

Readership

Economic historians and scholars working on early modern European, French, Dutch, and Atlantic history, globalization, merchant networks, and Jewish studies; as well as wine & brandy professionals and aficionados.

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