African Brain Circulation

Beyond the Drain-Gain Debate

Series:

Editor: Rubin Patterson
In this book, discussions on African brain circulation and transnational society provide new insights and point to fertile research and policy agendas. Today, a globally important dilemma concerns citizens who either depart from their homeland to enhance their life chances in a rich society - but possibly contribute to a brain drain for their homeland - or stay home and work - but possibly contribute to a brain waste since conditions at home will not allow them to contribute commensurately with their capability. Increasingly, scholars on the subject of global South-to-West emigrants argue that it is not just a possibility of a brain drain occurring when citizens emigrate or brain waste occurring when they stay home, but rather a brain gain when they emigrate strategically and contribute to development in the homeland.
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Biographical Note

Rubin Patterson has a master's degree in engineering from George Washington University and a doctorate in sociology from Howard University. Presently, he is a professor of sociology at the University of Toledo. His present research interests include brain circulation, transnational society, and technology and development in Africa.

Table of contents

Introduction
Rubia Patterson
Going Around the Drain-Gain Debate with Brain Circulation
References 13

1. PAN-AFRICAN BRAIN CIRCULATION
Cynthia Lucas Hewitt
Introduction 15
Pan-Africanism and World-Systems Theory 17
Pan-Africanism and Transnationalism 22
Brain Circulation 25
Testing Brain Circulation 27
African Diaspora Immigration and Brain Circulation 28
Discussion 33
Conclusion 38
References 38

2 .DIASPORA REMITTANCES AND THE FINANCING OF BASIC SOCIAL SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE IN FRANCOPHONE AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA
Fondo Sikod and Gérard Tchouassi
Introduction 41
Methodology 43
Discussions 44
Conclusion, Lessons Learned and Recommendations 54
References 55

3. GLOBALIZATION, MIGRATION, AND THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
John Akokpari
Introduction 59
Development 61
The Reality of Africa's Developmental Crisis 62
Globalization and Migration 64
Migration and Africa's Development 68
The Effects of Migration on Africa's Development
The Unending Debate 71
Managing Africa's Skill Emigration Prospects and
Problems 80
Conclusion 82
References 83

4. ON THE BRAIN DRAIN OF AFRICANS TO AMERICA: SOME METHODOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS
F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo, Bahrour K. Takyi and Jesse R. Mann
Background and Problem Statement 87
Measurement Issues and Implications 90
Conclusion 92
References 93

5. CYBERORGANIZING UNITED STATES CONSTITUENCIES FOR AFRICA
Jill M. Humphries
Introduction 95
The "Non-Democratic" Nature of U.S. Foreign Policy 97
Resources and Communication Networks 99
Methodology 104
The National Summit in Historical Context 107
Results 109
Discussion 120
References 123

6. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT: A CURRENT TRACE OF THE AFRICAN DIASPORA
Paulo Moreno-Zapata
Introduction 127
Globalization, Ethnicity, and the Environment: Finding Similarities, Building Global Communities 130
Ethno-Development and Territory 132
Biodiversity: The Case of African Colombians in the Pacific Coast 134
The African Colombian Institutional Strengthening and the Biodiversity Network 136
Conclusions 138
Acknowledgement 139
References 139

7. BUILDING THE NEW AFRICAN ECO-INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY: CIRCULATING BRAINS AND RECYCLING MATERIALS
Rubia Patterson
Introduction 143
A New Production Genus: From Destructo-Industrial to
Eco-Industrial 146
Pioneering an Ecological Economy 149
Brain Circulation: Digital Asia and Eco-Industrial Africa 154
Building an Ecological Economy: The Potential Case of Liberia 158
Conclusion 163
Acknowledgment 164
References 164

8. BRAIN DRAIN AND ITS IMPACT ON ETHIOPIA'S HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS: MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS AND THE MILITARY ACADEMIES BETWEEN 1970S AND 2000
Solomon A. Getahun
Introduction 168
Context of Migration: The Development of Higher
Education in Ethiopia 168
Context of Migration: Political Repression 170
Another "Push" Factor: Lack of Infrastructural
Development and Absence of Government Incentive for the Educated 173
The Possibility of Brain Gain 178
Conclusion 181
References 183

Index 185

Readership

All those interested in brain drain, brain circulation, transnational society, diaspora studies, globalization, international migration, the global South, and African development.

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