First Forts

Essays on the Archaeology of Proto-colonial Fortifications

Proto-colonial archaeology explores the physical origins of the world culture that evolved out of contacts made in the Age of Exploration, from Columbus to Cromwell. The early defended sites show how colonizing Europeans first responded to the challenges of new environments and new peoples, and how their choices led to conquest, adaption, or failure. Fortifications, once necessary to protect the colonies, are now essential clues to understand their history. The first comparative study of proto-colonial fortifications, First Forts is a collection of essays written by leading archaeologists in the field. Meeting the needs of archaeologists and historians around the globe, this book will also appeal to military enthusiasts, preservationists, and students of the Age of Exploration.
Contributors are David Orr, Kathleen Deagan, Steven Pendery, Eric Klingelhofer, Nicholas Luccketti, Edward Harris, Roger Leech, Paul Huey, Jay Haviser, Oscar Hefting, Christopher DeCorse, Ranjith Jayasena and Pieter Floore.

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Eric Klingelhofer, PhD (1985) in History, Johns Hopkins University, is Professor of History at Mercer University. Combining history and archaeology, he has conducted projects in England, Ireland, and the Americas, resulting in more than thirty articles and monographs.
List of Contributors . . vii
List of Illustrations . . . ix
Preface . . xiii

Introduction . . . 1
The Aurelian Wall in Rome: Renaissance Fortification in Theory and Practice . . 5
David G. Orr
Strategies of Adjustment: Spanish Defense of The Circum-Caribbean Colonies, 1493–1600 . . . 17
Kathleen Deagan
A Survey of French Fortifications in The New World, 1530–1650 . . 41
Steven R. Pendery
Tudor Overseas Fortifications: A Review and Typology . . 65
Eric Klingelhofer
Nansemond Fort and Virginia Palisade Fortifications . . . 85
Nicholas M. Luccketti
Bermuda’s First Forts, 1612–1622 . . 105
Edward Cecil Harris
‘Within Musquett Shott of Black Rock’ – Johnson’s Fort and The Early Defenses of Nevis, West Indies . . 129
Roger Leech
Dutch Colonial Forts in New Netherland . . 141
Paul R. Huey
The ‘Old Netherlands Style’ and Seventeenth-Century Dutch Fortifications of The Caribbean . . 169
Jay B. Haviser
High Versus Low: Portuguese and Dutch Fortification Traditions Meet in Colonial Brazil (1500–1654) . . . 191
Oscar F. Hefting
Early Colonial Trade Posts and Forts of West Africa . . 213
Christopher R. Decorse
Dutch Forts of Seventeenth Century Ceylon and Mauritius: An Historical Archaeological Perspective . . 239
Ranjith Jayasena and Pieter Floore

Bibliography . . . 265
Index . . 273
Addressing the needs of archaeologists and historians around the globe, this book also appeals to military enthusiasts, preservationists, and students of the Age of Exploration.