The Crimean Khanate and Poland-Lithuania

International Diplomacy on the European Periphery (15th-18th Century). A Study of Peace Treaties Followed by Annotated Documents.

Series:

This is an extensive study, supplemented by an edition of relevant sources, of the diplomatic contacts between Poland-Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate between the early 15th and the late 18th century. It contains a chronology of mutual relations, a formal analysis of various types of documents, and a glimpse into the working of the Crimean chancery, where Genghisid and Islamic forms mixed with those borrowed from Christian Europe.
The book provides a fascinating insight into the intercultural exchange between Catholic Poland (with Latin and then Polish as the main chancery language) and predominantly Orthodox Lithuania (with Ruthenian as the main chancery language) on the one hand, and the Muslim Crimean Khanate (with Khwarezmian Turkic and then Ottoman Turkish as the main chancery language) on the other. It depicts Eastern Europe as a zone of contact, where the relations between Slavs and Tatars were by no means always hostile.
Restricted Access

E-Book:

EUR €279.00USD $377.00

Biographical Note

Dariusz Kołodziejczyk, Ph.D. (1990) in History, University of Warsaw, is Professor of Early Modern History at the University of Warsaw and at the Polish Academy of Sciences. He has published extensively on the Ottoman Empire and its relations with Eastern Europe including Ottoman-Polish Diplomatic Relations (15th–18th Century): An Annotated Edition of ‘Ahdnames and Other Documents (Brill, 2000) and The Ottoman Survey Register of Podolia (ca. 1681) (Harvard University Press, 2004).

Review Quotes

'Well known for his reputed study on Ottoman-Polish relations in the early modern period, Dariusz Kolodziejczyk decided to fill this gap through his highly interesting study on relations between Poland-Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate. The edition of peace instruments exchanged between these states constitutes an important part of the presented volume....
..., the book offers valuable remarks on Crimean-Ottoman relations and thus contributes to the study of empires and their relations with peripheries. Last but not least, the volume is a treasure-trove of moving stories and information on the imaginary world of these early modern peoples. To illustrate this, the Crimean peace instruments from the end of the sixteenth century contain the following picturesque description of good neighbouring relations: 'if an orphan, a widow, or ragged beggars were to travel between the two countries wearing golden crowns on their heads, they would not experience any harm or damage from anybody' (pp. 773, 781-2).

Natalia Królikowska, in Acta Poloniae Historica 105


'....Dariusz Kołodziejczyk, der zu den weltweit bekanntesten Osmanisten gehört, versucht mit seiner hier anzuzeigenden Studie die Tataren in die europäische Erinnerung und die Geschichte der Frühen Neuzeit zu reintegrieren. Das einfache Bild eines Räuber-Beute-Verhältnisses differenziert er durch den Blick auf die diplomatischen Beziehungen zwischen dem Krimkhanat, Polen-Litauen, Moskau und darüber hinaus der Goldenen Horde. Das tut er anhand von zahlreichen polnischen, russischen, osmanischen sowie tatarischen Quellen.......

.... Als besonders wertvoll erweist sich die Edition der in zahlreichen Sprachen verfassten Quellen (Latein, Italienisch, Polnisch, Ruthenisch, Osmanisch und Tatarisch in verschiedenen Varianten). Mit Kommentaren versehen und mit Ausnahme der lateinischen und italienischen Urkunden ins Englische übersetzt stellt sie der Forschung ein Corpus exzellenter Materialien zur Verfügung, die vorher nur schwer erreichbar waren und kaum verwendet wurden.
Trotz aller Bedenken im Kleinen steht der Forschung mit der eher positivistisch verstandenen Edition von Kołodziejczyk ein kaum zu unterschätzendes Werk zur Verfügung. Zusammen mit seinem ersten englischsprachigen Buch aus dem Jahre 2000 bildet Kołodziejczyks Arbeit eine stabile Grundlage für zukünftige Forscher der Beziehungen zwischen dem Osmanischen Reich und seinen europäischen Nachbarn während der Frühen Neuzeit'.

Mariusz Kaczka, In: Sehepunkte, 13 (2013), Nr. 9


'In making these various sources written in Eastern European languages available to scholars internationally, Dariusz Kołodziejczyk has
achieved an enormous task with exemplary philological precision. His research findings aid us in better understanding the history of the Eastern
European region and in transcending stereotypes held of the Crimean Tatars. The book not only offers new information toward a better understanding of the operation of nomadic societies and the mechanism of their division of power, but also sheds light on the role of religious leaders in diplomatic relations and provides an overview of customs in Eastern diplomacy.

Mária Ivanics, Dept. of Altaic Studies, University of Szeged, Hungary, in Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung, Volume 67 (1), 119 – 127 (2014)

Table of contents

CONTENTS
Acknowledgments ........................................................................... xi
Introduction ..................................................................................... xiii
A note on place-names, proper names, and foreign terms ..... xxxi

PART ONE
A CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY
1. On the quest of Genghisid legacy: Shaping Eastern Europe (1240–1523) .................................................................. 3
2. On the East European chessboard. The Crimean Khanate and Poland-Lithuania in the years 1523–1671...... 64
3. In the shade of Istanbul and Moscow (1671–1783) ............ 186

PART TWO
A STUDY IN THE CRIMEAN AND POLISH-LITHUANIAN DIPLOMATICS AND DIPLOMACY
1. The language and preservation of documents ...................... 223
2. The Crimean instruments of peace and their typology ...... 266
3. The diplomatic sections and a physical description of the Crimean instruments.............. 313
4. The Polish and Lithuanian instruments of peace addressed to the khans ......................... 425
5. The procedure of peacemaking ............................................... 444
6. The political issues typically present in the instruments of peace exchanged between Poland-Lithuania and the
Crimea ........................ 496
Conclusion .......................................................................................... 514
Instruments exchanged between the Crimean Khanate and oland-Lithuania................................... 516
Chronology of the reigns of Crimean khans, Polish kings, and Lithuanian grand dukes (1386–1795) .... 519
Principles of publication ................................................................... 521

DOCUMENTS
Document 1 (22 September 1461–14 September 1463) The donation yarlıq sent by Khan Hadji Giray to Grand Duke Casimir .............................. 529
Document 2 (17 September 1467) The instrument of peace (şartname) sent by Khan Nur Devlet to King Casimir .......... 534
Document 3 (27 July 1472) The confirmation of peace sent by King Casimir to Khan Mengli Giray ............... 536
Document 4 (1472–17 May 1474) The donation yarlıq sent by Khan Mengli Giray to Grand Duke Casimir ........ 539
Document 5 (April 1480) The oath by Hadji Baba (Azbaba), the Crimean envoy sent to King Casimir........... 545
Document 6 (13–20 October 1480) The şartname (prysjažnyj lyst) sent by Khan Mengli Giray to King Casimir..... 548
Document 7 (22 December 1506–7 January 1507) The oath by Tevkel (Tjuvikel’) Ulan, the Crimean envoy sent to
King Sigismund ............................................................................. 551
Document 8 (2 July 1507) The donation yarlıq sent by Khan Mengli Giray to King Sigismund ............... 555
Document 9 (14 July 1507) The şartname (prysjažnyj lyst) sent by Khan Mengli Giray to King Sigismund ....... 566
Document 10 (5 September 1513) The instrument of agreement (dokončen’e) issued by Sigismund as the grand
duke of Lithuania and sent to Khan Mengli Giray ................. 580
Document 11 (7 September 1513) The instrument of agreement (patentes literae) issued by Sigismund as the king of Poland and sent to Khan Mengli Giray ............................... 589
Document 12 (ca. December 1513) The donation yarlıq cum şartname (dokon’čan’e) sent by Khan Mengli Giray to King Sigismund ............................................................................. 594
Document 13 (ca. December 1513) The oath by Khan Mengli Giray ...................... 603
Document 14 (ca. June 1514) The donation yarlıq cum şartname (dokončenie) sent by Khan Mengli Giray to
King Sigismund ............................................................................. 605
Document 15 (29 October 1514) The şartname (dokončalnyj lyst) regarding Poland sent by Khan Mengli Giray to
King Sigismund ............................................................................. 612
Document 16 (29 November 1514) The şartname (lectra patente) regarding Poland sent by Khan Mengli Giray to
King Sigismund [Facs. I] .............................................................. 619
Document 17 (14 March 1516) The instrument of agreement (dokončane) issued by Sigismund as the grand duke of Lithuania and sent to Khan Mehmed Giray ............................ 624
Document 18 (May–June 1517) A copy of the donation yarlıq cum şartname (lyst dokončannyj) sent by Khan Mehmed Giray to King Sigismund, corroborated and sworn by Prince Bahadır Giray ..................... 633
Document 19 (21 October 1520) The donation yarlıq cum şartname (dokončane) sent by Khan Mehmed Giray to
King Sigismund ............................................................................. 642
Document 20 (21 October 1520) The şartname sent by Khan Mehmed Giray to King Sigismund [Facs. II] ....652
Document 21 (February–March 1522) The oath by Evliya (Ovlijar), the Crimean envoy sent to King Sigismund ........... 663
Document 22 (1527) The oath-yarlıq (jarlyk prysjažnyj) sent by Khan Sa‘adet Giray to King Sigismund ...... 665
Document 23 (1527) The oath-letter (lyst prysjažnyj) sent by the qalga, Islam Giray, to King Sigismund ........ 677
Document 24 (October–November 1532) The donation yarlıq cum şartname issued by Mehmed Giray and corroborated by his son, Bahadır Giray, sent anew by Islam Giray ............. 681
Document 25 (January 1535) The oath by Devey, the Crimean envoy, taken in Vilnius ..................... 689
Document 26 (10 April 1535) The letter of agreement (lyst dokončalnyj) sent by King Sigismund to Khan
Sahib Giray ..................................................................................... 692
Document 27 (April 1535) The formula of a donation yarlıq cum şartname to be issued by Khan Sahib Giray, prepared by the Lithuanian chancery ......................................................... 702
Document 28 (December 1539) The donation yarlıq cum şartname sent by Khan Sahib Giray to King Sigismund ........ 712
Document 29 (the beginning of 1541) The preliminary peace conditions sworn in Cracow by Ali Hadji (Alihača), the Crimean envoy ............................................................................... 722
Document 30 (the first half of 1541) The oath by Ali Hadji (Alihača), the Crimean envoy, sworn in Vilnius ...... 729
Document 31 (September 1542) The donation yarlıq cum şartname sent by Khan Sahib Giray to King Sigismund ........ 732
Document 32 (May 1552) The donation yarlıq cum şartname (dokončan’e alias lyst prysjažnyj) sent by Khan Devlet Giray to King Sigismund Augustus ....................................................... 740
Document 33 (1560) The donation yarlıq cum şartname sent by Khan Devlet Giray to King Sigismund Augustus .............. 753
Document 34 (14 February–14 March 1592) The ‘ahdname sent by Khan Ghazi II Giray to King Sigismund III and his subjects [Facs. III] ......................................................................... 769
Document 35 (14 February–14 March 1592) The [oath-]yarlıq sent by Khan Ghazi II Giray to King Sigismund III
[Facs. IV] ........................................................................................ 777
Document 36 (21 April 1598) The letter of agreement (list przemierny) sent by King Sigismund III toKhan Ghazi II Giray ..................................................................... 788
Document 37 (ca. August 1599) The ‘ahdname (list przemirny) sent by Khan Ghazi II Giray to King Sigismund III ............... 794
Document 38 (October 1599) The instrument of Djan Temir Agha, the Crimean envoy, containing his pledge on
behalf of Khan Ghazi II Giray to keep peace with King Sigismund III ...................................................... 805
Document 39 (20 March 1601) The letter of agreement (list przemirny) sent by King Sigismund III to Khan Ghazi II Giray ................................................................................ 807
Document 40 (30 August–28 September 1601) The ‘ahdname (list przemirny) sent by Khan Ghazi II Giray to King
Sigismund III ................................................................................. 814
Document 41 (the fall of 1604) The ‘ahdname (przymierze) sent by Khan Ghazi II Giray to King Sigismund III
............... 820
Document 42 (May 1605) The letter of agreement (list przemirny) sent by King Sigismund III to Khan Ghazi II Giray ................................................................................ 828
Document 43 (24 July 1607) The ‘ahdname (foedera et pacis litteres) sent by Khan Ghazi II Giray to King Sigismund III ................................................................................. 835
Document 44 (20–30 December 1609) The‘ahdname (pakta) sent by Khan Selamet Giray to King Sigismund III ................ 840
Document 45 (February 1611) The ‘ahdname (list przymierny) sent by Khan Djanibek Giray to King Sigismund III ............. 850
Document 46 (October 1619) The formula of an ‘ahdname (list przymierny) to be issued by Khan Djanibek Giray,
prepared by the Polish chancery ................................................ 854
Document 47 (April 1622) The formula of an ‘ahdname (list przymierny) to be issued by Khan Djanibek Giray,
prepared by the Polish chancery ................................................ 865
Document 48 (24 October–2 November 1624) The ‘ahdname (list przymierny) sent by Khan Mehmed III Giray to King Sigismund III ................................................................................. 876
Document 49 (26 September–5 October 1632) The ‘ahdname sent by Khan Djanibek Giray to the Polish king [Facs. V] ... 885
Document 50 (2–11 November 1634) The ‘ahdname sent by Khan Djanibek Giray to King Vladislaus IV [Facs. VI] ......... 895
Document 51 (29 June 1635) The ‘ahdname (list przymierny) sent by Khan Inayet Giray to King Vladislaus IV ....... 905
Document 52 (15–23 July 1637) The ‘ahdname (list przymierny) sent by Khan Bahadır Giray to King Vladislaus IV ................ 912
Document 53 (July 1637) The ‘ahdname (list przymierny) sent by Qalga Islam Giray to King Vladislaus IV .... 919
Document 54 (November 1637) The letter of agreement (list przymierny) sent by King Vladislaus IV to Qalga Islam Giray ................................................................................................ 923
Document 55 (21 July–18 August 1640) The ‘ahdname sent by Khan Bahadır Giray to King Vladislaus IV [Facs. VII] ......... 926
Document 56 (10–18 August 1640) The ‘ahdname sent by Nureddin Qırım Giray to King Vladislaus IV [Facs. VIII] ... 935
Document 57 (19–28 August 1640) The ‘ahdname sent by Qalga İslam Giray to King Vladislaus IV [Facs. IX] ............... 942
Document 58 (February 1646) The ‘ahdname sent by Khan Islam III Giray to King Vladislaus IV [Facs. X] ...................... 948
Document 59 (19 August 1649) The Polish instrument of the Treaty of Zborów (Zboriv), issued by King John Casimir .... 954
Document 60 (10 August–7 September 1649) The Crimean instrument of the Treaty of Zborów (Zboriv), issued by
Khan Islam III Giray [Facs. XI] ................................................ 959
Document 61 (18 July 1654) The Polish instrument of peace and alliance, corroborated and sworn in Warsaw by
King John Casimir, the representatives of the Senate and Diet, and the Crimean envoy, Süleyman Agha ...................... 964
Document 62 (20 July 1654) The oath by King John Casimir, taken in Warsaw in the presence of the Crimean envoy, Süleyman Agha ............................................................................ 972
Document 63 (20 July 1654) The oath by the senators and high officials of the Commonwealth, taken in Warsaw in the presence of the Crimean envoy, Süleyman Agha ........... 973
Document 64 (11 November–10 December 1654) The ‘ahdname sent by Khan Mehmed IV Giray to King
John Casimir [Facs. XII] ............................................................ 974
Document 65 (3 September 1666) The oath by Dedesh Agha, the Crimean envoy, taken in Warsaw ........ 982
Document 66 (16 October 1667) The Crimean instrument of the Treaty of Podhajce (Pidhajci) [Facs. XIII] ....... 984
Document 67 (16 October 1667) The oath by the Crimean plenipotentiaries sworn at Pidhajci (Podhajce)
[Facs. XIV] .................................................................................... 991
Document 68 (16 October 1667) The oath by the Polish commissioners sworn at Pidhajci (Podhajce) [Facs. XV] .... 993
Document 69 (15 April 1668) The instrument, confirming the Treaty of Podhajce (Pidhajci), issued by Khan Adil Giray and invoking his oath taken in Baghchasaray in the presence of two Polish residents ......................... 995
Document 70 (23 October 1672) Guarantee issued by the khan along with the Ottoman sultan’s ‘ahdname
[Facs. XVI] ................................................................................... 999
Document 71 (6 December 1742) The instrument of peace (yarlıq) sent by Khan Selamet II Giray to King Augustus III [Facs. XVII] .................................................................................. 1001

Abbreviations ................................................................................... 1009
Selected Bibliography ...................................................................... 1013
Index .................................................................................................. 1035
Facsimiles
Maps
Map 1 Poland, Lithuania, and the Crimean Khanate around 1503
Map 2 Poland-Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate around 1648

Readership

All those interested in the history of international and intercultural relations, the history of Eastern Europe, Eurasia, and the Middle East, the history of the Ottoman Empire and post-Genghisid states.

Information

Collection Information