Nuclear breakout or nuclear weapon free zones, which do we encourage? In the past, legal studies focused on regulating military rather than peaceful uses of the atom. This volume assesses the legal regime pertaining to the peaceful transfer of nuclear technology, which includes the NPT, IAEA Statute, and the work of the nuclear supplier groups. It offers a new perspective to the interaction between international law and politics in the Middle East, a region that continues to be a hotspot for attempts at nuclear proliferation. Israel, in a state of war with most of its neighbours, turned into a nuclear power decades ago, consequently, it drove Iraq to develop a military nuclear programme. This has affected the rights of Iran as a non-nuclear weapon state to develop its peaceful nuclear capabilities. This book supports the establishment of a Middle East Zone Free of Nuclear Weapons as the only way to cease the arms race and ensure a long-lasting peace in the region.