Ottoman and Dutch Merchants in the Eighteenth Century

Competition and Cooperation in Ankara, Izmir, and Amsterdam

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This study analyses the dynamics between the non-Muslim merchant elites of Ankara and Izmir (mostly Greeks and Armenians) and their European competitors in the eighteenth century. In particular, it investigates two major developments: the Dutch attempts to penetrate the mohair trade in Ankara and the local resistance they faced, and the Ottoman non-Muslim merchant’s infiltration of the Dutch Levant trade and the Dutch reaction to this form of Ottoman 'expansion'.
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Biographical Note

İsmail H. Kadı, Ph.D. (2008), Leiden University, is Assistant Professor of Ottoman History at Istanbul Medeniyet University. He has published on Ottoman-Dutch relations as well as on the Ottoman Empire's relations with Southeast Asian Countries.

Table of contents

CONTENTS
Acknowledgments ........................................................................................... vii
Abbreviations .................................................................................................... ix
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 1

PART ONE
COUNTERING DUTCH COMMERCIAL EXPANSION IN NORTHWESTERN ANATOLIA
1. The Town of Ankara and its Mohair Industry ................................... 29
2. The Heyday and Interruption of the Dutch Mohair Trade ........... 65
3. European Recovery and Ottoman Opposition .................................. 98
Preliminary Conclusions ................................................................................ 132

PART TWO
OTTOMAN COUNTER-EXPANSION
4. The Organization of the Dutch Levant Trade in the Eighteenth Century ....... 145
5. The Ottoman Penetration of Dutch Trading Networks ................. 170
6. Ottoman Merchants in Amsterdam ..................................................... 198

PART THREE
ACCOMMODATING THE “UNUSUAL”: ADJUSTMENTS IN DUTCH AND OTTOMAN POLICIES
7. The Transformation of Dutch Trade Policies in the Levant: From Free Trade to “Faint” Protectionism ....... 237
8. Ottoman Polity: From Decision Making to Policy Making ........... 274
Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 311
Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 325
Index .................................................................................................................... 333

Readership

All those interested in economic history; Ottoman relations with Europe; Greek and Armenian diasporas; world history.