Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea

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While the Arctic Ocean has long been covered with ice, recent changes in climate have caused the ice to melt, spurring both conservation challenges to the region's environment and biodiversity, as well as new opportunities for navigation and natural resource development.

Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea offers policy and legal guidance in response to these new challenges. Synthesizing the presentations of leading experts at "Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea" meeting held in May, 2009 in Seward, Alaska, the topics explored in this volume include the political context and scientific background, marine transport, environment and biodiversity, in addition to offshore petroleum and the status of Spitsbergen. A list of selected Internet resources provides links for additional websites, as well as PowerPoint files from presentations given at the meeting.

Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea is based on the 33rd Annual Conference of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy, a primary sponsor, along with the Law of the Sea Institute of Iceland as well as with the U.S. Arctic Commission, the University of Alaska (Fairbanks) and the Law of the Sea Institute, Law School (Boalt Hall), University of California, Berkeley.
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Table of contents

The Alaskan Context
Welcoming Remarks, Mead Treadwell
Conference Emphasizes Cooperation, Notes Gaps in Arctic Management, Tkac

Panel I: Overview of Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea
Introductory Remarks, Satya N. Nandan
The UNCLOS Negotiations on Ice-Covered Areas, John Norton Moore
Cooperation or Conflict in the Arctic, Rob Huebert
National Maritime Claims in the Arctic, Brian J. Van Pay

Panel II: Scientific Background
Introductory Remarks, Barbara Moore
Sea Floor Mapping and Exploration in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Environment, Larry Mayer
Changes in the Arctic Environment, Stephen A. Macko
A Network of Marine Protected Areas in the Arctic: Promises and Challenges, Suzanne Lalonde
Comments and Q & A for Panels I & II

Panel III: Arctic Marine Transport
Introductory Remarks, RADM Arthur E. Brooks
The Arctic Council’s Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment, Lawson W. Brigham
International Arctic Shipping: Towards Strategic Scaling-Up of Marine Environment Protection, Aldo Chircop
Arctic Marine Transport: Navigation Issues, Capt. J. Ashley Roach (ret.)

Panel IV: Northwest Passage, Northern Sea Route and Trans-polar Route
Introductory Remarks, Rüdiger Wolfrum
The Northwest Passage: International Law, Politics and Cooperation, Ted L. McDorman
Arctic Strategy and Military Security, CDR James Kraska
Northern Sea Route: Legal Issues and Current Transportation Practice, Alexander S. Skaridov
Comments and Q & A for Panels III & IV

Panel V: New Challenges: Arctic Marine Environment & Biodiversity
Introductory Remarks, David D. Caron
Ensuring the Protection of Arctic Marine Biodiversity in the Face of Climate Change, Jennifer Jeffers
Has International Law Failed the Polar Bear? Nigel Bankes
New Roles for the US Coast Guard [PowerPoint only], CDR James D. McMahon
The Need for Ecosystem-Based Management of the Arctic, H. Jordan Diamond

Panel VI: Arctic Living Resources
Introductory Remarks, David VanderZwaag
Considering Future Arctic Fisheries, David A. Balton
Issues in Arctic Fisheries Governance: A Canadian Perspective, Lorraine (Lori) Ridgeway
A Perspective from an Alaskan Native, Earl Kingik
Comments and Q & A for Panels V & VI

Panel VII: Continental Shelf Limits and Jurisdiction
Introductory Remarks, Tomas H. Heidar
US Continental Shelf Policy, Margaret F. Hayes
Danish Interests in the Arctic, Thomas Winkler
Russian Policy on the Arctic Continental Shelf, Alexander S. Skaridov
Complications in Delimiting the Outer Continental Shelf, Ron Macnab

Panel VIII: Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources
Introductory Remarks, Paul L. Kelly
Russia’s Polar Oil and Gas Potential, Anatoly Zolotukhin
Private Oil and Gas Development in the Arctic Ocean [Abstract & PowerPoint only], Peter Slaiby
US Geological Survey Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal [Abstract & PowerPoint only], Brenda S. Pierce
Comments and Q & A for Panels VII & VIII

Panel IX: Spitsbergen (Svalbard)
Introductory Remarks, Myron H. Nordquist
The Disputed Maritime Zones Around Svalbard, Robin Churchill and Geir Ulfstein

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