The Glossa Ordinaria

The Making of a Medieval Bible Commentary

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The Glossa Ordinaria on the Bible was the ubiquitous text of the Middle Ages. Compiled in twelfth-century France, this multi-volume work, containing the entire text of Scripture surrounded by a commentary drawn from patristic and medieval authors, is still extant in thousands of manuscripts, testifying to the centrality of the work for generations of medieval scholars. Although the Glossa has been the subject of modern study, it is surrounded by myth. This book, based on manuscript evidence, is the first to draw together the history of this monumental work, its authorship, content, layout, production and use. Raising new questions, and pointing the way to further research, it opens up the Glossa to all students of medieval religion and intellectual history.
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Biographical Note

Lesley Smith (DPhil., Oxon.) is Fellow of Harris Manchester College, Oxford University. An intellectual historian, she is the author of Masters of the Sacred Page (Notre Dame, 2001) and co-editor of Nicholas of Lyra: the Senses of Scripture (Brill, 2000).

Table of contents

Acknowledgements ... ix
Abbreviations ... xi
List of Figures and Diagrams ... xiii

Introduction ... 1

Chapter One Authorship ... 17

Chapter Two Contents ... 39
I. The Biblical Text ... 39
II. The Sources ... 41
III. Attributions and Referencing ... 56
IV. Developments ... 73
i. How Standardised Was the Gloss Text? ... 73
ii. Gilbert de la Porrée and Peter Lombard ... 76
V. The Agenda of the Marginal and Interlinear Glosses ... 79

Chapter Three Layout ... 91

Chapter Four Production and Ownership ... 141
I. The First Stage: to c. 1140 ... 141
II. The Second Stage, c. 1140–c. 1200: Paris ... 145
III. The Second Stage, c. 1140–c. 1200: Beyond Paris ... 153
IV. The Thirteenth Century and Beyond ... 181
V. Printing ... 187
VI. Summary ... 191

Chapter Five Use ... 193
I. Gilbert de la Porrée (d. 1154) ... 195
II. Zachary of Besançon (d. post-1157) ... 199
III. Peter Lombard (d. 1160) ... 200
i. The Psalms ... 200
ii. Pauline Epistles ... 202
IV. Robert of Bridlington (d. soon after 1160) ... 204
V. Robert of Melun (d. 1167) ... 205
VI. Andrew of St Victor (d. 1175) ... 208
VII. Peter Comestor (d. 1178/9) ... 209
VIII. Peter the Chanter (d. 1197) ... 212
IX. Anonymous late-twelfth-century glosses ... 214
X. Stephen Langton (d. 1228) ... 215
XI. William of Auxerre (d. 1231) ... 218
XII. Hugh of St Cher (d. 1263) ... 220
XIII. Bonaventure (d. 1274); Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274) ... 223
XIV. Nicholas of Lyra (d. 1349) ... 225

Epilogue ... 229

Bibliography ... 241
Index of Manuscripts ... 257
Index of Biblical Books ... 261
General Index ... 263

Readership

All those interested in medieval intellectual history, the twelfth century, biblical exegesis, medieval theology, patristic influence, the history of universities, the history of the book, book design and manuscript studies.

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