Gaius meets Cicero

Law and Rhetoric in the School Controversies

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Gaius Meets Cicero. Law and Rhetoric in the School Controversies sheds new light on a much debated issue in the field of Roman law, i.e. the so-called 'school controversies' between the Sabinians and the Proculians. Tessa Leesen rejects the general assumption in modern literature that the two schools each adhered to a fundamentally different theoretical conception of law. She argues that the 'school controversies' as described in Gaius' Institutiones arose in legal practice when the heads of the two schools were consulted by two conflicting parties and each gave opposing advice. In order to make their opinions persuasive, the jurists were in need of adequate arguments. For this purpose, they made use of rhetoric and of the argumentative theory of topoi as described in Cicero's Topica.
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Biographical Note

Tessa G. Leesen, Ph.D. (2009) in Roman Law, Tilbug University, is study advisor at the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium. On the subject of the school controversies, she has also published 'Produced and Bottled in Rome - Who Owned the Wine? The Controversy about Specificatio' in Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité (2006).

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION
1. The Sabinians and the Proculians
2. The Controversies between the Sabinians and the Proculians: Status Quaestionis
2.1 The Philosophical Explanation
2.2 The Social Explanation: Conservative versus Progressive
2.3 The Methodological Explanation
2.4 The Political Explanation
2.5 The Sceptical View
2.6 Status Quaestionis: Conclusion
3. The First Key: Jurisprudence and Legal Practice. The Connection between the Controversies and the Ius Respondendi
4. The Second Key: Jurisprudence and Rhetoric. The Connection between the Controversies and the Topica
4.1 Topica
4.2 Topica: The Sources
4.3 The School Controversies and the Topica

Chapter One MALE PUBERTY
1. Gai., 1.196: Text and Controversy
2. Ulp., Ep., 11.28: The Third Opinion of Priscus
3. The Controversy in Gai., 1.196: Modern Theories
4. The Locus a Similitudine and the Locus a Differentia in Gai., 1.196
4.1 The Proculian View
4.2 The Sabinian View
5. The Decision on the Controversy

Chapter Two RES MANCIPI
1. Gai., 2.15: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 2.15: Modern Theories
3. The Locus ex Notatione and the Locus a Genere in Gai., 2.15
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View

Chapter Three SPECIFICATIO
1. Gai., 2.79: Text and Controversy
2. The Media Sententia
3. The Controversy in Gai., 2.79: Modern Theories
4. The Locus ex Causis and the Locus ex Adiunctis in Gai., 2.79
4.1 The Proculian View
4.2 The Sabinian View
4.3 The Media Sententia and the Ius Respondendi

Chapter Four FILIUS PRAETERITUS
1. Gai., 2.123: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 2.123: Modern Theories
3. The Locus a Tempore in Gai., 2.123
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View
4. The Controversy Decided

Chapter Five LEGATUM PER VINDICATIONEM (1)
1. Gai., 2.195: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 2.195: Modern Theories
3. The Locus ex Causis in Gai., 2.195
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View
4. The Afterlife of the Controversy

Chapter Six LEGATUM PER VINDICATIONEM (2)
1. Gai., 2.200: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 2.200: Modern Theories
3. The Locus a Similitudine in Gai., 2.200
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View
4. A Controversy Fading Away

Chapter Seven LEGATUM PER PRAECEPTIONEM
1. Gai., 2.216-222: Text and Controversy
1.1 The Beneficiary
1.2 The Object
1.3 The Legal Remedy
1.4 Summary
2. The Controversy Decided
3. The Controversy in Gai., 2.216-222: Modern Theories
4. The Locus ex Notatione and the Locus a Similitudine in Gai., 2.216-222
4.1 The Sabinian View
4.2 The Proculian View
5. A Controversy within the Sabinian School regarding the SC Neronianum

Chapter Eight DATIO TUTORIS
1. Gai., 2.231: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 2.231: Modern Theories
3. Ratiocinatio in Gai., 2.231
3.1 The Sabinian View
3.2 The Proculian View
4. The Decision on the Controversy

Chapter Nine REGULA CATONIANA
1. Gai., 2.244: Text and Controversy
2. The Regula Catoniana
3. The Argumentation
4. The Controversy in Gai., 2.244: Modern Theories
5. Ratiocinatio in Gai., 2.244
5.1 The Proculian View
5.2 The Sabinian View
6. The End of the Controversy

Chapter Ten IN IURE CESSIO HEREDITATIS
1. Gai., 3.85-87: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 3.87: Modern Theories
3. The Locus a Similitudine and the Locus a Differentia in Gai., 3.87
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View

Chapter Eleven CONDICIO IMPOSSIBILIS
1. Gai., 3.98: Text and Controversy
2. Later Texts in the Digest and Institutiones of Justinian
3. The Controversy in Gai., 3.98: Modern Theories
4. The Locus ex Similitudine and the Locus ex Differentia in Gai., 3.98
4.1 The Proculian View
4.2 The Sabinian View

Chapter Twelve STIPULATIO FOR A THIRD PERSON
1. Gai., 3.103: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 3.103: Modern Theories
3. Ambiguitas in Gai., 3.103
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View
4. The Controversy Decided

Chapter Thirteen LITERAL CONTRACT
1. Gai., 3.133: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 3.133: Modern Theories
3. The Locus a Similitudine, the Locus ex Genere, and the Locus a Differentia in Gai., 3.133
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View

Chapter Fourteen EMPTIO VENDITIO (1)
1. Gai., 3.140: Text and Controversy
2. The Locus a Tempore in Gai., 3.140
2.1 The View of Ofilius and Proculus
2.2 The View of Labeo and Cassius
3. The Difference of Opinion Decided

Chapter Fifteen EMPTIO VENDITIO (2)
1. Gai., 3.141: Text and controversy
2. Texts in the Digest: Paul
3. The Controversy in Gai., 3.141: Modern Theories
4. The Locus a Specie, Auctoritas, and the Locus a Differentia in Gai., 3.141
4.1 The Sabinian View
4.2 The Proculian View
5. The Controversy Decided

Chapter Sixteen MANDATUM
1. Gai., 3.161: Text and Interpretation
2. The Proculian View and Justinian
3. The Controversy in Gai., 3.161: Modern Theories
4. Comparatio in Gai., 3.161
4.1 The Sabinian View
4.2 The Proculian View

Chapter Seventeen SERVUS COMMUNIS
1. Gai., 3.167a: Text and Controversy
2. Texts in the Digest
3. The Controversy in Gai., 3.167a: Modern Theories
4. Ratiocinatio in Gai., 3.167a
4.1 The Proculian View
4.2 The Sabinian View
5. The Controversy Decided

Chapter Eighteen DATIO IN SOLUTUM
1. Gai., 3.168: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 3.168: Modern Theories
3. The Controversy in Gai., 3.168: Karlowa and Kretschmar
4. The Locus a Similitudine and the Locus a Differentia in Gai., 3.168
4.1 The Sabinian View
4.2 The Proculian View
5. The Controversy Decided

Chapter Nineteen NOVATIO
1. Gai., 3.177-178: Text and Controversy
2. The Legal Problem: Modern Theories
3. The Legal Problem: My Interpretation
4. The Controversy in Gai., 3.177-178: Modern Theories
5. Ambiguitas in Gai., 3.177-178
5.1 The Sabinian View
5.2 The Proculian View

Chapter Twenty ACTIO NOXALIS
1. Gai., 4.78: Text and Controversy
2. Texts in the Digest
3. The Controversy in Gai., 4.78: Modern Theories
4. The Locus a Similitudine, the Locus ex Contrario, and the Locus a Differentia in Gai., 4.78
4.1 The Sabinian View
4.2 The Proculian View
5. The Controversy Decided

Chapter Twenty One NOXAE DEDITIO
1. Gai., 4.79: Text and Controversy
2. The Controversy in Gai., 4.79: Modern Theories
3. Ratiocinatio in Gai., 4.79
3.1 The Proculian View
3.2 The Sabinian View

CONCLUSION
1. The Methodological and Substantive Shortcomings of Modern Literature
1.1 Methodological Shortcomings
1.2 Substantive Shortcomings
2. The Two Keys to Solving the Riddle of the School Controversies: Topica and Legal Practice
2.1 Rhetoric and Topoi
2.2 Legal practice and the Ius Respondendi
3. The Riddle of the Controversies Solved

APPENDIX 1
APPENDIX 2
1. Biographical Sketch of the Leaders of the Sabinian School
2. Biographical Sketch of the Leaders of the Proculian School
APPENDIX 3
BIBLIOGRAPHY
SOURCE INDEX

Readership

All those interested in Roman law, legal history, Ancient history, rhetoric, topica, and private law, as well as classical philologists.

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