Tibetica antiqua represents the seminal work on Tibetan religious history by one of the foremost Tibetologists of the twentieth century. Herein, Stein discusses the cultural and religious interactions among Tibet, India, and China which resulted in what we now consider "Tibetan Buddhism" from the point of view of our earliest sources, the Dunhuang manuscripts. Stein first discusses the basic tool of religious language, and the extent to which translations from Chinese, often apocryphal, scriptures competed with translations from Sanskrit. Stein also analyzes evidence for the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, as well as what a pre-Buddhist religion may have looked like, as distinct from modern Bon. Here, these groundbreaking articles are for the first time in the English language. They have been substantially updated, and supplemented with additional material from Stein's lectures at the Collège de France.
Rolf A. Stein (1911-1999) is widely considered to be one of the preeminent Tibetologists of the twentieth century. He published extensively in the fields of Tibetan, East- and Southeast Asian religion and society. He held professorships at the École des Hautes Études (comparative religion) and the Collège de France.
Arthur P. McKeown is finishing his Ph.D. in Tibetan Studies at Harvard University with a dissertation on the Tibetan and Chinese travels of the fifteenth century Indian abbot of Vajrāsana, Śāriputra. He has recently completed, with Leonard van der Kuijp, "Bcom ldan Rag gri (1227-1305) on Indian Buddhist Logic and Epistemology: His Commentary on Dignāga's Pramāṇasamuccaya" (Austrian Academy of Social Sciences).
All those interested in Tibetan religious history, Buddhism, and Bon, as well as to those interested in Tibetan intellectual, cultural, and linguistic interactions with India and China.