The development of China’s economy has long been an enigma to Western historians. Did it consist of centuries of stagnation followed by a period of collapse or was it a process of steady development, reaching a high point by the eighteenth century? What is certain is that China’s economic growth never developed into a full industrial revolution and China was overtaken by the West, but the reasons for this are highly contested both within and outside China. Topics of the Key Papers here include land use and land ownership, handicraft industries and early industrialization, trade and commerce, transport and communication and taxation and finance. It begins with papers on the earliest development of the economy in the Qin and Han dynasties, but concentrates on the periods of greatest interest and most significant development, namely the commercial revolution of the Song dynasty, the industrial and commercial expansion of the mid-Ming and the impact of Western and Japanese trade and investment in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Michael Dillon has a BA in Chinese Studies and a PhD in Chinese history from Leeds University. He formerly taught Chinese and Chinese history at the University of Durham. His books include
China: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary,
China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects and
Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Far Northwest. He is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society and the Royal Asiatic Society.
Table of contents
Editor’s Acknowledgements; Introduction; SECTION 1: China’s Economy: Overview and Perspective; 1 Numbers and Units in Chinese Economic History; 2 The Economic Basis of Unity and Division in Chinese History; 3 China’s Economic Development in Historical Perspective; SECTION 2: Historical Economies; 4 Demographic, Political, and Social Transformations of China, 750–1550; 5 Famine’s Foes in Ch’ing China; 6 Economic Conditions in China: A Brief Survey, January to June 1932; 7 Economic Disintegration in China; 8 Economic Dualism: the Case of China 1840–1937; SECTION 3: Agriculture and the Rural Economy; 9 The Burdens of the Chinese Peasantry; 10 Kueichou: An Internal Chinese Colony; 11 Mountain Economy in Szechuan; 12 The Good Earth of China’s Model Province; 13 Notes on China’s Unused Uplands; 14 Rural Bankruptcy in China; 15 Merchant Capital and Usury Capital in Rural China; 16. Rural Cooperatives in China; SECTION 4: Industry and Industrialization; 17 Government as an Obstacle to Industrialization: The Case of Nineteenth-Century China; 18 Handicraft and Manufactured Cotton Textiles in China, 1871–1910; 19 The Crisis in the Chinese Cotton Industry; 20 The Chinese Cotton Industry underWartime Inflation; 21 Jingdezhen as a Ming Industrial Center; 22 The Hopei Pottery Industry and the Problem of Modernization; 23 Industrial Development of Mainland China 1912–1949; 24 Rural Reconstruction in China; 25 The Role of Rural Industries in Under-Developed Areas; SECTION 5: Taxation and Finance; 26 The Rise of Land Tax and the Fall of Dynasties in Chinese History; 27. An Analysis of the Land Tax Burden in China, 1650–1865; 28 Buddhist Monasteries and Four Money-Raising Institutions in Chinese History; 29 China’s Postwar Finances; 30 Financial Problems in China’sWar and Postwar Economy; 31 The Financial Stability of the Nanking Government; 32 Hsin Chuang: A Study of ChineseVillage Finance; SECTION 6: Trade and Transport; 33 The Salt Merchants ofYang-chou: A Study of Commercial Capitalism in Eighteenth-century China; 34 TheWool Trade of North China; 35 Notes on the Early Ch’ing Copper Trade with Japan; 36 The Merchant Network in 16th Century China; 37 Transport and Marketing in the Development of the Jingdezhen Porcelain Industry during the Ming and Qing Dynasties; SECTION 7: Japan in China and the Manchurian Question; 38 Japan’s Economic Relations with China; 39. Japanese Penetration in Southernmost China; 40 The Sino-Japanese Currency War; 41 Men, Money and Land; 42 North China in a Japanese Economic Bloc; 43 Economic Co-operation of Japan and China in Manchuria and Mongolia: Its Motives and Basic Significance; 44 Manchuria as Japan’s Economic Life-line; 45 FourYears of Manchoukuo; 46 Manchukuo’s New Economic Policy; 47 Manchuria: An Industrial Survey; 48 History of the Chinese Eastern Railway: A ChineseVersion; Index