Scots in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 16th to 18th Centuries

The Formation and Disappearance of an Ethnic Group

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In the period between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries a considerable number of Scots migrated to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Some sojourned there for some time, while others stayed permanently and exercised commercial business and crafts. The migration stopped in the eighteenth century, and the Scots who remained in Poland seem to have lost their ethnic identity. This book offers an examination and assessment of this migration: numbers of migrants; patterns of settlement; laws regulating Scottish presence in Poland-Lithuania; their commercial, academic, religious and military activities; their social advancement into the Polish nobility; their assimilation and then the eventual disappearance as a distinct ethnic group in Poland-Lithuania.
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Biographical Note

Peter Paul Bajer, Ph.D. (2009) in History, is an Adjunct Research Assistant at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, and is currently teaching at Geelong Grammar School. His main areas of academic interest are: Scottish migration to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth XVIth to XVIIIth centuries; history of other ethnic/migrant groups (especially processes of naturalisation and ennoblement of foreigners) in Early Modern Poland; and accounts of contemporary British travellers to Central Europe. His publications include: "Scotsmen and the Polish nobility from the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Century" (2008), "Scots in the Kraków Reformed Parish in the seventeenth century" (2011) and "‘Noli Me Condemnare’ – Migrant memories set in stone: the seventeen and the eighteenth century Scottish memorials in Poland." (Dec 2011).

Table of contents

List of Figures, Maps and Tables ... xi
Acknowledgements ... xv
Abbreviations ... xix
Conventions and Glossary ... xxiii

Introduction A New Perspective on Scottish Migration to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries ... 1

1 Scottish Migration to Poland-Lithuania from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries: The State of Present Scholarship and the Sources ... 11
Manuscripts and Published Primary Sources ... 26
Database of Scots in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1795 ... 37

2 Motives for Scottish Migration: The Socio-Political Situation in Scotland and in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ... 41
Population Surplus, Living Standards and Poverty in Scotland: Grounds for Migration ... 42
Religious Conflicts, War, Pestilence and Primogeniture ... 47
Population and the Economy of the Commonwealth from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries ... 54
Polish-Lithuanian Society ... 64
The Commonwealth’s Army from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries ... 68
Religious Freedom in Poland-Lithuania from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries ... 69

3 The Influx: The Scale of Migration of Scots to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ... 77
The Possible Scale of the Migration as Reflected in Accounts of Contemporaries ... 87
The Scale of the Migration as Reflected in State and Municipal Documents ... 98
The Chronology of Migration ... 103
An Attempt to Assess the Scale of the Migration Based on Parish Records ... 109

4 The Migrants and their Motives: The Social Make-Up of the Scottish Migration and Spheres of Commercial Activity ... 117
The Geographical Origins of the Migrants ... 118
Motives for Migration ... 128
The Commerce and Trade-Oriented Migrants ... 134
Women Migrants ... 140
Mercenaries ... 149
Academics and Scholars ... 154
Clergymen ... 161
Diplomats and Agents ... 166

5 The Life of Scottish Migrants in Poland-Lithuania ... 173
Spheres of Commercial Activity ... 178
Purveyors to the Court: Scotsmen in Privileged Positions ... 183
The Scottish Quest for Ius Civile (Citizenship) ... 186
The Financial Status of Scottish Traders in the Middle of the Seventeenth Century ... 189
The Organisation of the Scots in Poland-Lithuania ... 210

6 The Kirk: Scots in the Reformed Parishes—Defining Identity ... 221
The Reformed Church in Poland-Lithuania ... 223
Religious Toleration in Practice: Scottish Dissendentes, Confessional Prejudice and Religious Tensions ... 227
Scottish Communities in Large Protestant Cities: Parishes in Gdańsk, Elbląg, Toruń and Konigsberg ... 235
Scottish Protestants in the Catholic Cities; The Role of Rural Reformed Parishes ... 254
Scottish Faith Communities under the Patronage of the Nobility ... 275
The Scottish Impact on the Reformed Church in Poland-Lithuania ... 290

7 Successful Integration: Scotsmen and the Polish Nobility ... 303
The Scottish Quest for Indygenat (Naturalisation as a Nobleman) and Nobilitacja (Ennoblement) ... 313
Religious and Professional Life of the Scoto-Polish Nobility ... 325
Usurpations of Noble Status ... 327
Scottish Noble Families in the Commonwealth: Kinship and Blood Relations ... 331
Military Service and the Nobility ... 336
Scoto-Polish Nobility at the End of the Eighteenth Century ... 339

Conclusion Scottish Migration to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries Redefined ... 341

Appendices
I List of Scottish and English Contributors to the 1651 Polish Subsidy ... 353
II Scottish Names Appearing in the Baptismal and Marriage Records of St Peter and St Paul Church, Gdańsk 1640–1649 ... 391
III Scottish Names Appearing in the Baptismal and Marriage Records of St Elizabeth Church, Gdańsk 1640–1649 ... 405
IV Scottish Names Appearing in the Baptismal and Marriage Records of the Reformed Church in Konigsberg 1640–1649 ... 420
V Reiestr Auditorow albo Słuchaczow Zboru Wielkanockiego y Lucianowskiego ... 427
VI Scottish Names Appearing in the Baptismal and Marriage Records of the Reformed Church in Wielkanoc/ Lucianowice 1640–1649 ... 429
VII Scottish Names Appearing in the Baptismal and Marriage Records of the Reformed Church in Wilno 1640–1649 ... 435
VIII Scottish Names Appearing in the Baptismal and Marriage Records of the Reformed Church in Kiejdany 1640–1649 . 438
IX Reiestr Auditorow Zboru Kieydańskiego (1697) ... 443
X Citizens of Kiejdany 1658–1735 ... 451
XI Scots Admitted to Civic Rights in Lwow 1557–1754 ... 454
XII British Diplomats in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1580–1700) ... 458
XIII British Officers and Troops under British Command in Poland-Lithuania (1570s–1790s) ... 462
XIV Polish Nobility of British Origin 16th–18th Centuries ... 491
XV Families of Polish Nobility of British Origin 16th–18th Centuries ... 504

Bibliography ... 509
Index of Places ... 559
Index of Persons ... 567

Readership

All those interested in the long-standing diplomatic, military, economic and confessional connections, as well as migratory movements between Scotland and the Northern, and East Central Europe, and in particular between Scotland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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