Equal in Law, Unequal in Fact

Racial and Ethnic Discrimination and the Legal Response Thereto in Europe


An intriguing paradox characterises international and European action against discrimination. On the one hand, equality and the right to non-discrimination are key human rights and protected by an impressive line of legal documents. On the other hand, empirical studies show that discrimination is still rampant today. This book maps the gap between the rights and the reality, and examines the causes, consequences and extent of discrimination in Europe today as well as the international and European legal response to it. On the basis of this analysis, the study explains why anti-discrimination law fails to deliver, and what can be done about it. The result is of interest to scholars, students, civil society, politicians and anyone interested in equality and making it a reality.
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EUR €137.00USD $182.00

Biographical Note

Timo Makkonen, Doctor of Laws (2010), University of Helsinki. He has fifteen years of practical experience from working with equality issues in the public, private and non-profit sectors, and has published extensively on equality, non-discrimination and minority rights.

Table of contents

Excerpt of table of contents:
1 Introduction;
2 Diversity: Empirical and theoretical perspectives;
3 Discrimination and equality: Theoretical perspectives;
4 Discrimination: Empirical perspectives;
5 Anti-discrimination law: Preliminary issues;
6 International human rights law;
7 European Union law;
8 Assessment;
9 Rethinking the response;
10 Collection of equality data;
11 Positive action;
12 Positive duties;
13 Enforcement;
Table of cases; Bibliography.


Scholars, students, libraries, politicians and anyone interested in any of the following genres: equality law, ethnic discrimination, race studies or socio-legal studies.


Collection Information