Shayzar I

The Fortification of a Citadel

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This book presents the results obtained from the historical and archaeological investigations carried out in the framework of a project centred on the site of Shayzar, in Central Syria: Shayzar Project: study of the fortified settlement in Bilad al-Sham. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the archaeological evidence, and of the study of the written documentation available, the book examines the origins and the development of this fortification, especially in relation to the most crucial period as regard as the building of the citadel, i.e., the span of time that stretches from the 10th to the 13th centuries; it also discusses the development of building techniques in the context of military architecture.
Contributors are Nadia Montevecchi, Fabrizio Antonelli, Jean-Claude Bessac, Roberta Giunta, Hugh Kennedy, Lorenzo Lazzarini, Serena Martucci di Scarfizzi, Cinzia Tavernari and Niccolo' Zorzi. Illustrations: Enrico Reali; Photos Luca Tarducci.
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Biographical Note

Cristina Tonghini, Ph.D. (1995) in Islamic Archaeology, SOAS, London, teaches Islamic Archaeology at Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia. Her research in the field has focused on the Islamic Near East, especially on pottery production and fortified settlements.

Table of contents

Acknowledgements . . . ix
List of Figures . . . xiii

1 Shayzar: An Overview of its History and the Archaeological Investigation . . . 1
1.1 An Historical Overview (H. Kennedy) . . . 2
1.2 The Site and Previous Studies . . . 25
1.3 The Archaeological Investigation: Research Objectives 28
1.4 Strategic and Methodological Choices . . . 30
1.5 The Results: An Overview . . . 33
Appendix: The Working Group . . . 38
2 The Written Documentation: The Inscriptions . . . 41
2.1 Greek Inscriptions from the Citadel of Shayzar/Larissa and their Historical Context (N. Zorzi) . . . 41
2.2 The Arabic Inscriptions of the Citadel of Shayzar (R. Giunta) . . . 59
3 The Archaeological Analysis . . . 93
The Investigative Method: Stratigraphic Analysis of Structures (N. Montevecchi) . . . 94
3.1 The Northern Area (N. Montevecchi) . . . 103
3.2 The Eastern Front . . . 177
3.3 The Southern Area (C. Tavernari) . . . 222
3.4 The Western Front . . . 294
Appendix: Internal Surface Finishes in CF2 and CF3 (M. Gavazzi and S. Martucci di Scarfizzi) . . . 299
4 Building Materials and Constructional Characteristics . . . 311
4.1 The Stones of the Citadel (L. Lazzarini) . . . 312
4.2 Minero-Petrographic Characterisation of the Mortars and its Possible Application in the Definition of the Building Phases (F. Antonelli, L. Lazzarini, S. Cancelliere) . . . 315
4.3 Observations sur les Materiaux et les Techniques de Construction de la Forteresse de Shayzar (Syrie) (J.-C. Bessac) . . . 326
4.4 Masonry Typology (N. Montevecchi and C. Tonghini) 389
5 The Fortification of Shayzar: Constructional Stages and the Evolution of the Defences . . . 405
5.1 Constructional Stages in the Fortification of Shayzar: Towards an Absolute Sequence in the Regional Context . . . . 405
5.2 Sequencing the Various Defence Works . . . 455
6 Summary of Periods . . . 473
1. The Northern Area . . . 473
2. The Eastern Front . . . 479
3. The Southern Area . . . 483
4. The Western Front . . . 488
5. Table of Activities . . . 488

Bibliography . . . 503
Index . . . 519
Figures . . . following 540

Readership

Islamic history and archaeology (especially middle-Islamic period); fortified settlement and military architecture in the Near East; architecture of the Zangid, Ayyubid, and Mamluk period.

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