Intellectual Traditions at the Medieval University (2 vol. set)

The Use of Philosophical Psychology in Trinitarian Theology among the Franciscans and Dominicans, 1250-1350

Series:

This book traces the rise and decline of two rival intellectual traditions in later-medieval trinitarian theology, one of them predominantly Franciscan, the other predominantly Dominican. Disagreeing about the way to understand the identification in John’s Gospel of the second person of the Trinity, the Son, with the Word, the two traditions clashed over the issues of concepts and concept formation, the category of relation, counterfactual logic, and the use of authority. Considering more than seventy theologians from the period, the book presents an overview of the debate, while also including detailed studies of the trinitarian views of such thinkers as Thomas Aquinas, Henry of Ghent, John Duns Scotus, Peter Auriol, William Ockham, Walter Chatton, and Gregory of Rimini.

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Biographical Note

Russell L. Friedman, Ph.D. (1997), University of Iowa, is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Leuven, Belgium. His publications focus on later medieval philosophy and theology, and include Medieval Trinitarian Thought from Aquinas to Ockham (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Review Quotes

“Russell Friedman’s work is an outstanding presentation of the development of medieval Trinitarian theology between 1250 and 1350. At over a thousand pages in length, it is perhaps the most significant study of any topic of medieval philosophy or theology to have been written in the past fifty years. The fact that much of the research is grounded in Friedman’s own critical or semi-critical/working editions of medieval manuscripts makes the contribution that much more significant. In short, one can finally state that Friedman’s magisterial work has replaced Michael Schmaus’s as the authoritative study of late thirteenth- and early fourteenth- century Trinitarian theology …. a magisterial work and will certainly establish itself as the authoritative account of medieval Trinitarian theology”. John T. Slotemaker (Fairfield University) in Religious Studies Review (39, 1) 2013, p. 43

“an outstanding and comprehensive work on theological and philosophical discourses on the Trinity in the period 1250–1350 …..a work of the highest scholarly standards on an area of historical theology that remains largely ignored in today’s scholarly debates. This work will undoubtedly remain the primary point of reference for many years to come” Rik Van Nieuwenhove, Mary Immaculate College in Speculum (89,1) 2014, pp 197-199 - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0038713413003837 (About DOI), Published online: december 2013

Table of contents

VOLUME ONE
List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Conventions ... .xi
Preface ... xiii

Introduction.Two Trinitarian Theories, and One Contested Model ... .1
1.The Relation Account ... ..12
2.The Emanation Account ... ..16
3.The Psychological Model ... ..28

PART I: EMERGING TRINITARIAN TRADITIONS, CA.1250–1280
Introduction to Part I ... 47

I.The Makings of a Trinitarian Controversy: Aquinas and Bonaventure on Relations, Emanations, and Personal Distinction... 49
1.Aquinas and the ratio of Relation ... ..51
2.Bonaventure and “Modes” of Diversity ... 64
3.Bonaventure and Aquinas on the Emanations ... .72
4.Conclusion ... .88

II.Emerging Trinitarian Traditions I: Franciscans, ca.1255–1280 ... ..91
1.Gerard of Abbeville... ..94
2.Walter of Bruges ... ..101
3.William of Baglione and Eustace of Arras ... 108
4.John Pecham ... ..119
5.Paris after Pecham: William de la Mare and Matthew of Aquasparta ... .139
6.Oxford Theology: Nicholas of Ockham and Roger Marston ... 149

III.Emerging Trinitarian Traditions II: Dominicans and Others, ca.1255–1280 ... .171
1.From the Early to the Later Aquinas: Selected Developments ... .172
2.Bombolognus of Bologna and Roman of Rome... .188
3.Expanding Trinitarian Traditions: Giles of Rome and Others 202

PART II: THE STRONG USE OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL AND ITS OPPONENTS, CA.1280–1320
Introduction to Part II ... ..219

IV.Henry of Ghent ... .223
1.Henry of Ghent on the Divine Relations ... .227
2.Henry of Ghent and Franciscan Trinitarian Theology ... 236
3.Henry of Ghent on the Word: Concepts as Declarative Knowledge ... .257

V.Late Thirteenth-Century Trinitarian Theology ... ..281
1.Some “Dominican” Views: Giles of Rome, Godfrey of Fontaines, Bernard of Auvergne ... .282
2.Cautious Franciscans: Richard of Mediavilla, Alexander of Alessandria ... .301
3.The Franciscan Tradition in the Late Thirteenth Century: Peter of Trabes and William of Ware ... ..315
4.Towards Scotus: Five Arguments on the Holy Spirit’s Distinction from the Son ... ..322
5.Conclusion: The Development of the Trinitarian Traditions ..337

VI.John Duns Scotus ... ..341
1.Absolute Persons and the Use of Authority ... .341
Excursus: A Very Brief History of Absolute Persons ... .348–356
2.Scotus’ Critique of Henry of Ghent’s Trinitarian Thought ... ..376
3.Scotus on the Word: Concepts as Mental Acts ... .395
4.Conclusion ... .415

VII.Dominicans in the Early Fourteenth Century ... 417
1.Hervaeus Natalis against Franciscan Trinitarian Theology ... .423
2.Durand of St.Pourçain and the Radical Attenuation of the Psychological Model ... 448
3.The Liber propugnatorius ... ..477

VIII.From Scotus to Auriol: A Survey of Franciscan Views ... .485
1.Absolute Persons ... .486
2.Filioque ... ..501
A.Brief Overview ... ..501
B.A Franciscan/Dominican Debate: Robert Cowton and Thomas of Sutton ... ..507
C.Henry of Harclay ... 520

IX.Peter Auriol ... ..529
1.Indistinction of Essence and Property, perseitas tertii modi, and Unelicited Emanations ... ..532
2.The Emanations, Auriol’s Marginalization Strategy, and His Interpretation of the Categories ... .550
3.Personal Distinction, The Divine Productions, and the Psychological Model ... 563
4.Auriol on the Word: Concepts as esse apparens ... 579
5.Conclusion ... .594

VOLUME TWO

PART III: THE SEARCH FOR SIMPLICITY, CA.1320–1350
Introduction to Part III ... .597

X.William Ockham ... ..601
1.Ockham, Nominalism, and Fideism ... 604
2.The Personal Properties and the Formal Distinction ... .608
3.Ockham, the Franciscan Trinitarian Tradition, and the Psychological Model ... 628
4.Sola __de: Putting Ockham’s “Fideism” in Perspective ... 652

XI.The Oxford Trinitarian Debate, 1315–1350 ... .663
1.Walter Chatton ... 664
A.Walter Chatton’s Method in Trinitarian Theology ... ..665
Excursus: A Very Brief History of Praepositinianism ... .678
B.Chatton and the Distinction between the Persons ... ..683
C.Chatton and the Psychological Model ... ..703
2.Adam Wodeham ... .715
3.Robert Holcot and William Crathorn ... .733
4.Traditional Treatments and Waning Interest ... ..743
Annex: Oxford Theologians ca.1330–1350 and Trinitarian Theology ... 748

XII.Paris, from Auriol to Rimini ... 753
1.An Overview ... ..754
A.The Trinitarian Traditions ... ..755
B.Independent: John Baconthorpe, OCarm ... ..768
C.Independent: Gerard Odo, OFM ... ..777
D.Independent: Nicholas Bonet, OFM... ..785
2.Francis of Marchia ... ..792
A.Super-rationes and Eminent Containment in Marchia’s Trinitarian Theory ... .793
B.Francis of Marchia and the Psychological Model ... 803
3.Michael of Massa ... .809
A.Michael of Massa and the Psychological Model ... ..811
B.Massa on Absolute Properties and Persons ... 822
4.William of Rubio, Praepositinianism, and the Psychological Model ... 831
5.Gregory of Rimini ... 845
A.Rimini’s Praepositinianism ... .847
B.Rimini and the Psychological Model ... .860
6.The Search for Simplicity in Retrospect ... ..867

Conclusion.The Diversity of Later-Medieval Trinitarian Theology ... ..873

Appendix.Eustace of Arras’ Question on the Distinction of the Holy Spirit from the Son: Critical Edition from the Known Manuscripts ... .899

Bibliography ... 931

Index of Manuscripts ... 975
Index of Names ... 979
Index of Subjects and Terms ... ..992
VOLUME ONE
List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Conventions ... .xi
Preface ... xiii

Introduction.Two Trinitarian Theories, and One Contested Model ... .1
1.The Relation Account ... ..12
2.The Emanation Account ... ..16
3.The Psychological Model ... ..28

PART I: EMERGING TRINITARIAN TRADITIONS, CA.1250–1280
Introduction to Part I ... 47

I.The Makings of a Trinitarian Controversy: Aquinas and Bonaventure on Relations, Emanations, and Personal Distinction... 49
1.Aquinas and the ratio of Relation ... ..51
2.Bonaventure and “Modes” of Diversity ... 64
3.Bonaventure and Aquinas on the Emanations ... .72
4.Conclusion ... .88

II.Emerging Trinitarian Traditions I: Franciscans, ca.1255–1280 ... ..91
1.Gerard of Abbeville... ..94
2.Walter of Bruges ... ..101
3.William of Baglione and Eustace of Arras ... 108
4.John Pecham ... ..119
5.Paris after Pecham: William de la Mare and Matthew of Aquasparta ... .139
6.Oxford Theology: Nicholas of Ockham and Roger Marston ... 149

III.Emerging Trinitarian Traditions II: Dominicans and Others, ca.1255–1280 ... .171
1.From the Early to the Later Aquinas: Selected Developments ... .172
2.Bombolognus of Bologna and Roman of Rome... .188
3.Expanding Trinitarian Traditions: Giles of Rome and Others 202

PART II: THE STRONG USE OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL AND ITS OPPONENTS, CA.1280–1320
Introduction to Part II ... ..219

IV.Henry of Ghent ... .223
1.Henry of Ghent on the Divine Relations ... .227
2.Henry of Ghent and Franciscan Trinitarian Theology ... 236
3.Henry of Ghent on the Word: Concepts as Declarative Knowledge ... .257

V.Late Thirteenth-Century Trinitarian Theology ... ..281
1.Some “Dominican” Views: Giles of Rome, Godfrey of Fontaines, Bernard of Auvergne ... .282
2.Cautious Franciscans: Richard of Mediavilla, Alexander of Alessandria ... .301
3.The Franciscan Tradition in the Late Thirteenth Century: Peter of Trabes and William of Ware ... ..315
4.Towards Scotus: Five Arguments on the Holy Spirit’s Distinction from the Son ... ..322
5.Conclusion: The Development of the Trinitarian Traditions ..337

VI.John Duns Scotus ... ..341
1.Absolute Persons and the Use of Authority ... .341
Excursus: A Very Brief History of Absolute Persons ... .348–356
2.Scotus’ Critique of Henry of Ghent’s Trinitarian Thought ... ..376
3.Scotus on the Word: Concepts as Mental Acts ... .395
4.Conclusion ... .415

VII.Dominicans in the Early Fourteenth Century ... 417
1.Hervaeus Natalis against Franciscan Trinitarian Theology ... .423
2.Durand of St.Pourçain and the Radical Attenuation of the Psychological Model ... 448
3.The Liber propugnatorius ... ..477

VIII.From Scotus to Auriol: A Survey of Franciscan Views ... .485
1.Absolute Persons ... .486
2.Filioque ... ..501
A.Brief Overview ... ..501
B.A Franciscan/Dominican Debate: Robert Cowton and Thomas of Sutton ... ..507
C.Henry of Harclay ... 520

IX.Peter Auriol ... ..529
1.Indistinction of Essence and Property, perseitas tertii modi, and Unelicited Emanations ... ..532
2.The Emanations, Auriol’s Marginalization Strategy, and His Interpretation of the Categories ... .550
3.Personal Distinction, The Divine Productions, and the Psychological Model ... 563
4.Auriol on the Word: Concepts as esse apparens ... 579
5.Conclusion ... .594

VOLUME TWO

PART III: THE SEARCH FOR SIMPLICITY, CA.1320–1350
Introduction to Part III ... .597

X.William Ockham ... ..601
1.Ockham, Nominalism, and Fideism ... 604
2.The Personal Properties and the Formal Distinction ... .608
3.Ockham, the Franciscan Trinitarian Tradition, and the Psychological Model ... 628
4.Sola __de: Putting Ockham’s “Fideism” in Perspective ... 652

XI.The Oxford Trinitarian Debate, 1315–1350 ... .663
1.Walter Chatton ... 664
A.Walter Chatton’s Method in Trinitarian Theology ... ..665
Excursus: A Very Brief History of Praepositinianism ... .678
B.Chatton and the Distinction between the Persons ... ..683
C.Chatton and the Psychological Model ... ..703
2.Adam Wodeham ... .715
3.Robert Holcot and William Crathorn ... .733
4.Traditional Treatments and Waning Interest ... ..743
Annex: Oxford Theologians ca.1330–1350 and Trinitarian Theology ... 748

XII.Paris, from Auriol to Rimini ... 753
1.An Overview ... ..754
A.The Trinitarian Traditions ... ..755
B.Independent: John Baconthorpe, OCarm ... ..768
C.Independent: Gerard Odo, OFM ... ..777
D.Independent: Nicholas Bonet, OFM... ..785
2.Francis of Marchia ... ..792
A.Super-rationes and Eminent Containment in Marchia’s Trinitarian Theory ... .793
B.Francis of Marchia and the Psychological Model ... 803
3.Michael of Massa ... .809
A.Michael of Massa and the Psychological Model ... ..811
B.Massa on Absolute Properties and Persons ... 822
4.William of Rubio, Praepositinianism, and the Psychological Model ... 831
5.Gregory of Rimini ... 845
A.Rimini’s Praepositinianism ... .847
B.Rimini and the Psychological Model ... .860
6.The Search for Simplicity in Retrospect ... ..867

Conclusion.The Diversity of Later-Medieval Trinitarian Theology ... ..873

Appendix.Eustace of Arras’ Question on the Distinction of the Holy Spirit from the Son: Critical Edition from the Known Manuscripts ... .899

Bibliography ... 931

Index of Manuscripts ... 975
Index of Names ... 979
Index of Subjects and Terms ... ..992

Readership

Those interested in the history of philosophy and theology at the medieval university, the history of Christian doctrine (especially the Trinity), intellectual history.

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