Bridging the Analytical Continental Divide

A Companion to Contemporary Western Philosophy 

Editor: Tiziana Andina
This volume, edited by Tiziana Andina, tackles some of the most compelling questions addressed in contemporary philosophy. Covering areas so diverse as metaphysics, ethics, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, political philosophy, philosophy of art, epistemology and philosophy of mind, this book maps the past fifty years of philosophical reflection, Bridging the Analytical Continental Divide. Not only will the reader get to know philosophy’s most interesting and promising developments, but she will also be immersed in human thought in a broader sense, as the book explores both our ability to explore the world and ask questions and our capability to organize societies, create art and give humankind an ethical and a political dimension.

Contributors include: Tiziana Andina, Annalisa Amoretti, Luca Angelone, Alessandro Arbo, Carola Barbero, Andrea Borghini, Francesco Berto, Chiara Cappelletto, Stefano Caputo, Elena Casetta, Annalisa Coliva, Francesca De Vecchi, Maurizio Ferraris, Valeria Ottonelli, Andrea Pedeferri, Daniela Tagliafico, Italo Testa, Giuliano Torrengo, Vera Tripodi.
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Biographical Note

Tiziana Andina, Ph.D. (2003), is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Turin, Italy. She has published monographs and many articles in different topics of philosophy and philosophy of art, including: Arthur Danto: Philosopher of Pop (Cambridge Scholars Publishing 2011) and The Philosophy of Art: The Question of Definition. From Hegel to Post-Dantian Theories (Bloomsbury 2013).

Table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS



PREFACE
BY TIZIANA ANDINA


INTRODUCTION
BY MAURIZIO FERRARIS

0. The Death and Resurrection of Philosophy
1. Philosophy in Postmodern Times
2. The Old Synthesis—Relativism
3. The Analytics Land on the Continent
4. The New Synthesis—Realism



CHAPTER I
METAPHISYCS AND ONTOLOGY
BY TIZIANA ANDINA AND ANDREA BORGHINI

1.1. The Beginnings
1.1.0. At the Roots of Metaphysics
1.1.1. Common Sense, Science and Metaphysics
1.1.2. The Two Metaphysics—Describing and Prescribing
1.1.3. Existence
1.1.4. Identity
1.1.5. Individuals, Events and Properties
1.1.6. Types of Properties and Relations
1.1.7. Possibilities and Necessities

1.2. Things that Exist
1.2.1. On Catalogues and World Maps
1.3. Regional Ontologies
1.3.1. Social Ontology
1.3.2. The Bases of Social Actions—Alessia’s Walk
1.3.3. The “We” as Plural Subject and Its Beliefs
1.3.4. Institutions and Institutional Facts
1.3.5. Social Objects


CHAPTER TWO
EPISTEMOLOGY
BY MARIA CRISTINA AMORETTI AND ANNALISA COLIVA

2.1. The Traditional Definition of Knowledge
2.1.1. Knowledge as Justified True Belief
2.1.2. The Necessity of the Three Conditions
2.1.3. The Gettier Problem

2.2. Justification and Knowledge
2.2.1. Classical Theories of Justification and Internalism
2.2.2. Reliabilism and Externalism
2.2.3. The Problem of the Value of Knowledge and Virtue Epistemology

2.3. Scepticism and the External World
2.3.1. The Externalist Response of the First Type
2.3.2. The Externalist Response of the Second Type—Denying the Principle of Epistemic Closure
2.3.3. The Contextualist Response
2.3.4. Internalism and entitlement

2.4. Epistemic Relativism
2.4.1. Relativism about knowledge attributions
2.4.2. Relativism about justification


CHAPTER III
LANGUAGE
BY CAROLA BARBERO AND STEFANO CAPUTO

3.1. The Dominant Paradigm
3.1.1. Meaning and Truth-Conditions
3.1.1.1. Wittgenstein’s Tractatus
3.1.1.2. Tarski
3.1.2. Senses and Intensions
3.1.3. Formal Semantics
3.1.3.1. Model-Theoretic Semantics
3.1.3.2. Davidson: Truth and Meaning

3.2. Beyond the Dominant Paradigm
3.2.1. The Theory of Direct Reference
3.2.1.1. Kripke versus Descriptivism
3.2.1.2. Putman—Meanings Just Ain’t In The Head
3.2.1.3. Kaplan—The Character and Content of Indexical Expressions
3.2.1.4. The Limits of Direct Reference—Two-Dimensionalism
3.2.2. Cognitive Semantics
3.2.3. Goodbye Truth—Meaning, Use, Verification
3.2.3.1. Dummett—Truth and Assertibility
3.2.3.2. Conceptual-Role Semantics
3.2.4. The Contextual Paradigm
3.2.4.1. Semantics and Pragmatics in the Dominant Paradigm
3.2.4.2. Of Ordinary Language Philosophy. Wittgenstein, Austin, Grice
3.2.4.3. Contextualism
3.2.4.4. The Letteralist Front—Minimalists and Relativists
3.2.4.5. What’s at Stake



CHAPTER IV
LOGIC AND MATHEMATICS
BY ANDREA PEDEFERRI AND FRANCESCO BERTO

4.1. Philosophy of Logic and Logical Philosophy
4.1.1. The Overview After the Crisis of Foundations
4.1.2. One Logic, Many Logics
4.1.3. Logic and Other Disciplines

4.2. Theories of Truth
4.2.1. Truth as Adaequatio—Correspondence Theory
4.2.2. Truth as Coherence
4.2.3. Tarski’s Semantic Theory
4.2.4. Truth as Disquotation: Deflationism

4.3. Model Theories
4.3.1. From Tarski to Robinson
4.3.2. Semantic Theories and Mathematics
4.3.3. Applications
4.4. Possible Worlds and Modal Logic
4.4.1. Modalities and the Intuition of Possible Worlds
4.4.2. Propositional Modal Logic and Accessibility
4.4.3. Quantified Modal Logic—Constant Domains
4.4.4. Quantified Modal Logic—Variable Domains

4.5. Conditionals
4.5.1. The Material Conditional
4.5.2. The Strict Conditional
4.5.3. Counterfactuals and Possible Worlds

4.6. Intuitionism
4.6.1. Brouwer and the Constructions of the Mind
4.6.1. Excluded Middle and Intuitionistic Systems
4.6.2. The Intuitionistic Threat and the Defenses of Finitism

4.7. Paraconsistent and Relevant Logics
4.7.1. Ex contradictione quodlibet
4.7.2. Gaps and Gluts—Many-Valued Paraconsistent Logics
4.7.3. Relevance Logic, Relevant Conditional
4.7.4. Impossible Worlds and Beyond


CHAPTER V
MIND
BY LUCA ANGELONE AND DANIELA TAGLIAFICO

5.1. The Problem of Consciousness
5.1.1. Anti-Physicalism
5.1.2. Nagel’s Argument
5.1.3. Mary and the Consciousness Argument
5.1.4. Objections to the Knowledge Argument
5.1.5. Chalmers and the Conceivability Argument
5.1.6. Objections to the Conceivability Argument

5.2. The Extended Mind
5.2.1. The Original Formulation
5.2.2. Criticisms of the Idea of Extended Mind
5.2.3. Active Externalism and Passive Externalism

5.3. The Sensorimotor Paradigm
5.3.1. Experimental Evidence
5.3.2. The Enactive Approach to Perception
5.3.3. Direct Perception


CHAPTER VI
SCIENCE
BY ELENA CASETTA AND GIULIANO TORRENGO

6.1 Philosophy of General Science
6.1.1 The starting point
6.1.2. Science as a human and Historical Activity
6.1.3. The Problem of Demarcation
6.1.4. Induction and Justification
6.1.5. Explanation, Causality, and Laws of Nature

6.2. The Philosophy of Special Sciences
6.2.1. Realisms and Anti-realisms
6.2.2. A Case from the Philosophy of Physics
6.2.3 A Case from the Philosophy of Biology


CHAPTER VII
ETHICS
BY FRANCESCA DE VECCHI, FILIPPO MAGNI AND VERA TRIPODI

7.1 The Discussion on the Foundations of Ethics
7.1.1. The Areas of Ethics
7.1.2. The New Phase of Metaethics
7.1.3. Meaning and Ontology
7.1.4. Realist Cognitivism
7.1.5. Antirealist Cognitivism
7.1.6. Non-Cognitivism

7.2. Acting in the Social World
7.2.1. Desire-Independent Reasons for Acting
7.2.2. Solitary versus Heterotropic Acting
7.2.3. Social Acts versus Collective Actions
7.2.4. The Normative Efficacy of the Social World—Social Acts and Collective Intentions
7.2.5. Fulfillment and Actions in the Social World
7.3 Sex and gender, the individual beyond the limits of classification
7.3.1. Children and Intersexuality—Dignity and Patients’ Right to Self-Determination
7.3.2. Parenthood, Adoption and Sexual Orientation. What Does It Mean to be a Mother or a Father and Who has the Right to be One?
7.3.3. Family and Reproductive Choices


CHAPTER VIII
POLITICS
BY VALERIA OTTONELLI AND ITALO TESTA

8.1. Power and democratic legitimacy
8.1.1. Democracy between reality and ideals
8.1.2. Consensus and dissent in the public sphere
8.1.3. Dissent, pluralism and counterpower
8.2. Recognition and oppression
8.2.1. Multiculturalism After the Politics of Identity
8.2.2. Social Ontology, Contempt and Struggles for Recognition
8.2.3. Symbolic Conflicts, Redistribution and Ideological Power

8.3. Body politics
8.3.1. Politics of the Body and of Care
8.3.2. Human Nature and Capacity
8.3.3. Life and Power
8.3.4. Environmental Politics

8.4. Distributive Justice
8.4.1. The Revival of Economic Justice and the Crisis of the Welfare State
8.4.2. The Object of Distribution
8.4.3. Desert and Responsibility
8.4.4. Justice between Generations

8.5. Human Rights, Global Justice, Immigration
8.5.1. Human Rights
8.5.2. Global Justice
8.5.3 Immigration


CHAPTER IX
AESTHETICS
BY ALESSANDRO ARBO AND CHIARA CAPPELLETTO

9.1. Art, Perception, Beauty

9.2. Neuroaesthetics
9.2.1. An Aesthetics of Reaction
9.2.2 Reception as Re-creation

9.3 Difficulties of Aesthetic Judgment
9.3.1. Experience and Judgment
9.3.2. Concepts and Aesthetic properties, Between Relativism and Realism

9.4. Image and reality: An Ancient Competition
9.4.1. Image to See, Image to Touch
9.4.2. Visual Image or Artistic Image?

9.5. Work/Works


BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX OF NAMES
AUTHORS

Readership

The work is accessible to both graduate students and scholars working in the areas of contemporary philosophy, metaphysics, ontology, epistemology, philosophy of language, logic, ethics, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, political philosophy.

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