The Development in International Law of Articles 23 and 24 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: The Labor Rights Articles

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The human rights enunciated in Articles 23 and 24 of the UDHR concern aspects of rights related to work. This part of international human rights law is often neglected in human rights textbooks and teaching, and indeed is often omitted from the work done by national human rights institutes and by NGOs concerned with human rights, as though it were a separate discipline that did not fall properly into the human rights field. This volume addresses this commonly held, but erroneous, misconception. There are aspects of labor-related rights in all the major human rights instruments and systems. While the International Labor Organization (ILO) is the primary body in this field, labor-related rights are also dealt with by the United Nations, the major regional organizations (such as the OAS and the EU), and the development banks (the World Bank and its regional counterparts). There are also provisions on labor rights in all the major international instruments, or they have been read to cover labor-related questions. This volume, which reviews the development and implementation of Articles 23 and 24 of the UDHR, will spend most attention on the ILO, which is the premiere organization in this field, both chronologically and substantively. However, since a thorough and complete picture of human rights cannot be drawn without considering labor-related rights as an aspect of the broader human rights canon, the rest of the international system will also be brought in.

This book is the fifth volume in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Series. The Series will consist of approximately 20 volumes, each dealing with a substantive right (or group of rights) set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Each volume is authored by an expert in human rights generally and in the particular subject addressed. Without losing sight of the political context in which the implementation of human rights must occur, each book provides a comprehensive, legally-oriented analysis of the rights concerned, including an examination of the legislative history of the text of each right as adopted in 1948, the right's subsequent articulation and interpretation by international bodies and in subsequent international instruments, and a survey of state practice in defining and enforcing the right.
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Table of contents

Excerpt of table of contents:
The text of Articles 23 and 24; Introduction; A note on the impact of international standards and supervision;
Chapter I: Institutional Development of International Labor Law - An Overview of Institutions and Instruments
A. The International Labor Organization
1. History of the ILO; 2. Structure of the ILO; 3. International labor standards and human rights; 4. The supervision of ILO standards;
B. The United Nations
1. The Covenants; 2. Other basic human rights treaties of the United Nations;
C. International financial institutions
1. Global IFIs; 2. Regional IFIs;
D. Regional Organizations
1. Europe; 2. The Americas; 3. Africa; 4. Arab countries; 5. Asia;
E. Trade agreements and labor standards
Chapter 2: Implementation of the Provisions of the Universal Declaration
Article 23
A. Everyone has the right to work …
1. International instruments; 2. Regional instruments; 3. International supervision;
B. Everyone has the right to... free choice of employment
1. Freedom from compulsion - slavery and forced labor; 2. The right to freedom of choice of work;
C. Everyone has the right to …. just and favourable conditions of work …
Safe and Healthy Working Conditions; The International Labor Organization; International supervision;
D. Everyone has the right to …. protection against unemployment
1. International Labor Organization; 2. United Nations; 3. Council of Europe; 4. International supervision;
E. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work
1. United Nations; 2. International Labor Organization; 3. Regional standards; 4. International supervision;
F. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration
1. United Nations; 2. International Labor Organization; 3. Regional standards; 4. International supervision;
G. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests
1. United Nations; 2. International Labor Organization; 3. Regional standards; 4.International supervision;
Article 24
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay
1. International Labor Organization; 2. European standards;
Chapter 3: Concluding remarks; Index.

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