Across the German Sea

Early Modern Scottish Connections with the Wider Elbe-Weser Region


In Across the German Sea: Early Modern Scottish Connections with the Wider Elbe-Weser Region Zickermann analyses the commercial, maritime and military relations between Scotland and the German cities (Hamburg, Bremen) and territories (Bremen and Verden, Holstein, Braunschweig-Lüneburg) located alongside the lower parts of the rivers Elbe and Weser. Based on a wealth of British, German and Scandinavian archival material, the study demonstrates the importance of the region for Scottish commodity exchange and network building across political borders, whilst contributing significantly to our understanding of the formation of Scottish communities abroad. It also shows that Scottish commercial, political, military and religious activities within the region – which featured a Danish-Norwegian and Swedish dimension - were intertwined and cannot be studied in isolation.
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Biographical Note

Kathrin Zickermann, Ph.D. (2010, University of St Andrews) is a lecturer at the Centre for History at the University of the Highlands and Islands. She specialises in early modern commercial, maritime and migration
history and has published articles in these fields, including ‘Britannia ist mein patria: Scotsmen and the British
Community in Hamburg’, in Grosjean and Murdoch (eds.), Scottish Communities Abroad in the Early Modern Period (Brill, 2005), 249-273.

Table of contents

List of Illustrations ... ix
Acknowledgements ... xi
Abbreviations ... xiii
Stylistic Conventions ... xv

Introduction ... 1

1. Understanding the Wider Elbe-Weser Region ... 15
The Lower Elbe Region ... 16
Controlling the Elbe ... 25
The Lower Weser Region ... 51
Conclusion ... 60

2. Commercial Links and Mercantile Networks c. 1590–1730 ... 77
Scottish Fish Exports: Whitefijish ... 83
Scottish Fish Exports: Herring ... 95
Scottish Exports: Salt ... 103
Scottish Exports: Coal ... 111
The Scottish Commercial Network in Bremen and Hamburg ... 114
Conclusion ... 126
Appendix ... 129

3. Political and Military Networks c. 1630–1707 ... 135
Stuart Diplomats and Scottish Offfijicers in Hamburg ... 135
Royalists, Stuart Supporters and Covenanters ... 146
Scottish Administration in the Wider Elbe-Weser Region ... 156
Scots in Brunswick-Luneburg ... 174
Conclusion ... 181

4. Building a Reformed Community? Exiles on the Elbe, 1630–1730 ... 185
John Durie and the Wider Elbe-Weser Region ... 189
William Waller and the Reformed Community at Luneburg ... 202
The Jacobite Presence ... 227
Conclusion ... 233

Conclusion ... 235
Bibliography ... 243
Index ... 261


Students and scholars interested in the history of Early Modern Scottish migration and communities, and anyone concerned with the wider Elbe-Weser region or the Thirty Years War.


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