Perception and the Internal Senses

Peter of John Olivi on the Cognitive Functions of the Sensitive Soul

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In Perception and the Internal Senses Juhana Toivanen advances a detailed philosophical reconstruction of Peter of John Olivi’s (ca. 1248-98) conception of the cognitive psychology of the sensitive (i.e. animal) soul. Like most medieval philosophers, Olivi thought that higher animals and human beings have many psychological capacities in common. The book analyses these capacities by concentrating on Olivi’s conception of the metaphysics of the soul, his theory of perception, and his views about the post-sensory cognitive power which medieval philosophers called the internal senses. Being the first monograph in English that concentrates on Olivi’s philosophical psychology, Perception and the Internal Senses enables us to understand better medieval ideas concerning animal psychology and the human/animal boundary.
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Biographical Note

Juhana Toivanen, DSocSc (2009), is a researcher at the University of Jyväskylä and a fellow at the Swedish Collegium of Advanced Studies. He has published several articles on Peter Olivi’s psychology and is currently working on medieval conceptions of human sociability.

Table of contents

Preface ... xi
Abbreviations ... xiii
Introduction ... 1

PART ONE: METAPHYSICS OF THE SOUL
Introduction to Part One ... 21

I Spiritual Nature of the Soul ... 25
1. Universal Hylomorphism ... 25
2. Spirituality and Simplicity ... 30
3. Human Soul as a Spiritual Entity ... 38

II Soul’s Relation to the Body ... 43
1. Body as a Substantial Part of a Human Being ... 45
2. Plurality of Substantial Forms ... 48
3. Soul as the Form of the Body ... 62
4. Connection between the Soul and the Body ... 70

III The Animal Soul ... 77
1. Simplicity of the Animal Soul ... 77
2. Essence of the Animal Soul ... 82

IV Perceptual Powers of the Soul ... 91
1. Powers as Constitutive Parts of the Soul ... 91
2. The External Senses ... 97
3. The Common Sense ... 106

PART TWO: THEORY OF PERCEPTION
Introduction to Part Two ... 115

V Criticism of Earlier Theories of Perception ... 119
1. Passive Theories of Perception ... 120
2. Augustine’s Active Theory ... 135

VI Active Nature of Perception ... 141
1. Activity of the Powers of the Soul ... 141
2. Objects as Terminative Causes ... 145
3. Intentional Directedness ... 151

VII Attention and the Common Sense ... 163
1. Necessity of Paying Attention ... 164
2. Cognitive Centre of the Soul ... 170
3. Degrees of Attention ... 179

VIII Bodily Changes and Perception ... 193
1. Perception as a Psychological Process ... 195
2. Bodily Changes and colligantia potentiarum ... 203
3. Functional Dualism in Perception ... 209

PART THREE: INTERNAL SENSES
Introduction to Part Three ... 225

IX Historical Background ... 231

X Unity of the Internal Senses ... 247
1. Criteria for Distinguishing the Internal Senses ... 247
2. Interconnectedness and Experiential Unity ... 258

XI The Common Sense ... 267
1. Combining and Comparing the Proper Sensibles ... 269
2. Perception of the Common Sensibles ... 272
3. Second-Order Perception ... 275
4. Bodily Self-Awareness and Reflexivity ... 281

XII Imagination ... 293
1. Imagination and Its Objects ... 293
2. Imagination as a Function of the Common Sense ... 296
3. Dreaming ... 300
4. Compositive Imagination ... 303

XIII Memory ... 309
1. Retention of Memory Species ... 310
2. Remembering Past Objects ... 314
3. Recognising Familiar Objects ... 317
4. Difference between Memory and Imagination ... 319

XIV Estimation ... 327
1. Estimative Dispositions of the Common Sense ... 328
2. Estimative Perception ... 332

XV Cogitative Power ... 341

Conclusion ... 345

Bibliography ... 353
Index ... 367

Readership

Specialists in medieval philosophy, those interested in the history of philosophical psychology and the human/animal boundary, and anyone concerned with Peter Olivi’s thought.

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