Privacy in the 21st Century


In Privacy in the 21st Century Alexandra Rengel offers an assessment of the international right to privacy within both a historical and modern context. The book explores the underpinnings of privacy in religion, philosophy, and the law. The author explores the evolution of the legal concept of the right to privacy and offers a comparative law analysis of the global protections of privacy offered by individual states, international agreements, and recognized international legal norms.
The author peers into the future of privacy, the technologies which affect the right to privacy, and the ways in which privacy may be protected in the future within the domestic and international law contexts. The author offers her insightful views on possible solutions to counteract encroachments on the right to privacy.
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EUR €134.00USD $190.00

Biographical Note

Alexandra Rengel J.S.D. (2013), Saint Thomas University School of Law (Miami). She is a professor at Schiller University (Madrid) and practicing attorney at Mercado & Rengel. Her expertise is in international law, she also lectures and writes about legal issues.

Review Quote

"...a work such as Rengel’s is a timely, necessary and valuable contribution...It is particularly important as an up-to-date survey of privacy developments from the legal perspective."
-Nicholas Clapham, University of Surrey

Table of contents

Foreword; Acknowledgements; Introduction;
Chapter 1 Fundamental Rights
I. The Philosophical Origins of Human Rights Law; A. Natural Law; B. Positive Law; II. The Development of Human Rights Law from Natural and Positive Law Principles;
Chapter 2 What Is Privacy?
I. Defi ning Privacy, Its Origins and Its Importance; II. The Concept of Privacy; III. The Right to Privacy: An Overview;
Chapter 3 Threats to Privacy in Modern Times
I. New Technologies Aff ecting Privacy; A. Identity Cards; B. Biometrics; C. Communications and Surveillance; 1. Video Surveillance and CCTV; 2. Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones); 3. Internet Surveillance; 4. Workplace Surveillance; 5. International Surveillance; 6. Global Positioning System (GPS); 7. Radio Frequency Identifi cation (RFID); D. Social Networks;
Chapter 4 The General Right to Privacy as a Norm of International Law
I. Treaties as a Source of International Law; A. Treaties and the General Right to Privacy; II. Customary International Law as a Source of International Law; A. Customary International Law and the General Right to Privacy;
Chapter 5 Salient Issues: The Right to Privacy in Specifi c Contexts
I. Search and Seizure; A. International Law and Jurisprudence; B. State Practice; II. Intimate Conduct; A. International Law and Jurisprudence; B. State Practice; III. Data Protection; A. International Law and Jurisprudence; B. State Practice;
Chapter 6 Privacy in the Age of Terrorism
I. The Exchange of Privacy for Security; II. The Backlash: Civil Liberties Reconsidered and a Reclaiming of the Right to Privacy;
Chapter 7 Appraisal and Recommendations
I. Balancing The Right To Privacy Against Other Societal Interests; II. The Effect of Globalization on Technology; III. Technology, Knowledge, and Privacy by Design; IV. The Future of Privacy;
Conclusion; Appendix Privacy Protections in the Constitutions of Countries; Index.


Those who are interested in international law and human rights, legal practitioners, law professors, students, and anyone interested in learning about human rights and the right to privacy and its importance to the law and to society.


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