The Twelve Years Truce of 9 April 1609 made a temporary end to the hostilities between Spain and the Northern Netherlands that had lasted for over four decades. The Truce signified a crucial step in the recognition of the Republic of the Northern Netherlands as a sovereign power. As the direct source of inspiration for the 1648 Peace of Munster the Truce is a crucial text in the formation of the early modern law of nations. As few other texts, it reflects the radical changes to the laws of war and peace from around 1600.
The Twelve Years Truce offers a collection of essays by leading specialists on the diplomatic and legal history of the Antwerp Truce of 1609. The first part covers the negotiation process leading up to the Truce. The second part collects essays on the consequences of the Truce on the state of war. In the third part, the consequences of the Truce for the sovereignty of the Northern and Southern Netherlands as well as it wider significance for the changing laws of war and peace of the age are scrutinised.
Randall Lesaffer (°Bruges, 1968) is professor of legal history at Tilburg Law School and professor of international and European legal history at the University of Leuven. He has widely published on the history of international law from 1500 to the present. He is also the author of
European Legal History. A cultural and political perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Contributors include leading specialists from the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Italy as well as Singapore on the diplomatic and legal history of the Low Countries of the 16th and 17th centuries: Peter Borschberg, Erik-Jan Broers, Paul Brood, Bram De Ridder, Alicia Esteban Estríngana, Carlo Focarelli, Beatrix C.M. Jacobs, Bernd Klesmann, Georges Martyn, Tim Piceu, Violet Soen, Werner Thomas, Olaf van Nimwegen, Johanna Waelkens and Alain Wijffels.
Note on Contributors ... vii
Introduction ... 1
Part 1 Truce and Peace
1 The Twelve Years Truce ... 7
2 Preparing the Ground ... 15
Alicia Esteban Estríngana
3 The Act of Cession, the 1598 and 1600 States General in Brussels and the Peace Negotiations during the Dutch Revolt ... 48
Bram de Ridder Violet Soen
4 The Anglo-Spanish Peace Treaty of 1604 ... 69
Part 2 Truce and War
5 Left ‘Holding the Bag’ ... 89
6 The Tactical Military Revolution and Dutch Army Operations during the Era of the Twelve Years Truce (1592–1618) ... 121
Olaf van Nimwegen
7 ‘Une oppression insupportable au peuple’ ... 152
Part 3 Truce and Law
8 The United Provinces ... 181
Beatrix C.M. Jacobs
9 How ‘Sovereign’ were the Southern Netherlands under the Archdukes? ... 196
10 The Early Doctrine of International Law as a Bridge from Antiquity to Modernity and Diplomatic Inviolability in 16th- and 17th-Century European Practice ... 210
11 From Antwerp to Munster (1609/1648) ... 233
Randall Lesaffer, Erik-Jan Broers and Johanna Waelkens
12 ‘La dernière ancre de leur finesse’ ... 256
13 The Treaty of London, the Twelve Years Truce and Religious Toleration in Spain and the Netherlands (1598–1621) ... 277
Historians of international law; Diplomatic historians; Students of Dutch, Belgian and Spanish history of the Early Modern Age.